Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Occupational Health Nursing: The practice of nursing in the work environment.Occupational Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Occupational Health Physicians: Physicians employed in a company or corporate setting that is generally not in the health care industry.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Labor Unions: Organizations comprising wage and salary workers in health-related fields for the purpose of improving their status and conditions. The concept includes labor union activities toward providing health services to members.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Workers' Compensation: Insurance coverage providing compensation and medical benefits to individuals because of work-connected injuries or disease.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Sick Leave: An absence from work permitted because of illness or the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Safety Management: The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Great BritainAbsenteeism: Chronic absence from work or other duty.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.FinlandOral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Management Audit: Management review designed to evaluate efficiency and to identify areas in need of management improvement within the institution in order to ensure effectiveness in meeting organizational goals.Rehabilitation, Vocational: Training of the mentally or physically disabled in work skills so they may be returned to regular employment utilizing these skills.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Work Capacity Evaluation: Assessment of physiological capacities in relation to job requirements. It is usually done by measuring certain physiological (e.g., circulatory and respiratory) variables during a gradually increasing workload until specific limitations occur with respect to those variables.Construction Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of building.Dermatitis, Occupational: A recurrent contact dermatitis caused by substances found in the work place.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Risk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Environmental Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with environmental factors that may impinge upon human disease, and development of methods for the detection, prevention, and control of environmentally related disease.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Manufactured Materials: Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.Social Determinants of Health: The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics (http://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/).Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.MiningOrganizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.JapanHealth Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Accident Prevention: Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Facility Design and Construction: Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.): An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration: An office in the Department of Labor responsible for developing and establishing occupational safety and health standards.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Nursing Staff: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in an organized facility, institution, or agency.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Job Application: Process of applying for employment. It includes written application for employment or personal appearance.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Threshold Limit Values: Standards for limiting worker exposure to airborne contaminants. They are the maximum concentration in air at which it is believed that a particular substance will not produce adverse health effects with repeated daily exposure. It can be a time-weighted average (TLV-TWA), a short-term value (TLV-STEL), or an instantaneous value (TLV-Ceiling). They are expressed either as parts per million (ppm) or milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3).Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Noise, Occupational: Noise present in occupational, industrial, and factory situations.Employer Health Costs: That portion of total HEALTH CARE COSTS borne by an individual's or group's employing organization.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Burnout, Professional: An excessive stress reaction to one's occupational or professional environment. It is manifested by feelings of emotional and physical exhaustion coupled with a sense of frustration and failure.Delphi Technique: An iterative questionnaire designed to measure consensus among individual responses. In the classic Delphi approach, there is no interaction between responder and interviewer.Databases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Gas PoisoningNaval Medicine: The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Needlestick Injuries: Penetrating stab wounds caused by needles. They are of special concern to health care workers since such injuries put them at risk for developing infectious disease.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Retirement: The state of being retired from one's position or occupation.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Textile Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.EnglandPrivacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Engineering: The practical application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles. (Stedman, 25th ed)Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Personnel Management: Planning, organizing, and administering all activities related to personnel.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Social Security: Government sponsored social insurance programs.Home Health Aides: Persons who assist ill, elderly, or disabled persons in the home, carrying out personal care and housekeeping tasks. (From Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms. 2d ed, p202)Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Law Enforcement: Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Efficiency: Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Nurse's Role: The expected function of a member of the nursing profession.Psychology, Industrial: The branch of applied psychology concerned with the application of psychologic principles and methods to industrial problems including selection and training of workers, working conditions, etc.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Personnel, Hospital: The individuals employed by the hospital.Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from health professional or health care worker to patients. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Hand DermatosesProtective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Work Schedule Tolerance: Physiological or psychological effects of periods of work which may be fixed or flexible such as flexitime, work shifts, and rotating shifts.Professional Review Organizations: Organizations representing designated geographic areas which have contracts under the PRO program to review the medical necessity, appropriateness, quality, and cost-effectiveness of care received by Medicare beneficiaries. Peer Review Improvement Act, PL 97-248, 1982.Police: Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing law and order among the citizenry.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Animal Technicians: Assistants to a veterinarian, biological or biomedical researcher, or other scientist who are engaged in the care and management of animals, and who are trained in basic principles of animal life processes and routine laboratory and animal health care procedures. (Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Work: Productive or purposeful activities.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Capitalism: A political and economic system characterized by individual rights, by private or corporate ownership of capital goods, and by prices, production, and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly by competition in a free market. (From Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Animals, LaboratoryEnvironmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Planning Techniques: Procedures, strategies, and theories of planning.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Job Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Medical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.

*  Occupational health research round-up: September 2017

This month's look at occupational health research includes studies on noise at work and how outdoor breaks can relieve stress ... By Sarah Silcox on 31 Aug 2017 in Disability, Health surveillance, Mental health and stress, Occupational Health, Research ... Health & Safety. Learning & Development. Occupational Health. Organisational Development. Payroll. Recruitment & Resourcing. ... About Personnel Today Occupational Health & Wellbeing Contact us Features list 2017 Personnel Today Awards RAD Awards Whatmedia ...
personneltoday.com/hr/occupational-health-research-round-september-2017/

*  EOH554: Seminar Enivronmental and Occupation al Health Problems | Oviatt Library

Occupational Health at http://library.calstate.edu/northridge/databases/subject/environmental-occupational-health ... EOH554: Seminar Enivronmental and Occupation al Health Problems. Professor Anthony F. Machado. This guide has been archived and ... from Toxicological Sciences to Epidemiology to Safety and Occupational Health Journals. They will be doing a literature search ... to familiarize students with the broad array of professional and technical literature in Environmental and Occupational Health ...
library.csun.edu/guides/EOH554

*  Staff appraisal of management will curb stress | Personnel Today

Health & Safety. Learning & Development. Occupational Health. Organisational Development. Payroll. Recruitment & Resourcing. ... About Personnel Today Occupational Health & Wellbeing Contact us Features list 2017 Personnel Today Awards RAD Awards Whatmedia ... Emma Donaldson-Feilder, of occupational psychologist Affinity Health at Work, which is developing workplace tools in this area ... Research funded by the Health & Safety Executive, the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development and Investors in People ...
personneltoday.com/hr/staff-appraisal-of-management-will-curb-stress/

*  Health & Wellbeing At Work - Occupation Health Magazine - Raw Energy

Health & Wellbeing At Work - Occupation Health Magazine. Occupational Health Magazine interviewed me for an article on ... Health & Wellbeing At Work - Occupation Health Magazine. Home/Health & Wellbeing At Work - Occupation Health Magazine ... The full article is here: Health & Wellbeing At Work - A Three Step Approach ...
https://getrawenergy.co/health-wellbeing-work-occupation-health-magazine/

*  CDC - NIOSH Program Portfolio : Occupational Health Disparities : Partners

The mission of the occupational health disparities program is to: Improve surveillance of vulnerable populations; Identify ... National Children's Center for Rural and Agricultural Health and Safety (NCCRAHS) ... Dry-cleaning unions, especially UNITE Safety and Health Department. efrumin@uniteunion.org ...
https://cdc.gov/niosh/programs/ohd/partners.html

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20040623 - Occupational health nursing: recent changes in current issues.

... focused on the practice of nursing in industrial and business settings as well as in community-based occupational health ... These changes have shaped occuational health nursing, which has historically ... or reconceptualized the occupational health service (OHS) to include a team of professionals with nursing, occupational ... In addition, hospitals have now developed speciality resources in occupational health, and many companies contract for serivces ...
https://cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20040623.html

*  Global Occupational Health - Tee L. Guidotti - Oxford University Press

... complete introduction to a vital-but often neglected-area in the field of health sciences. Work-related illnesses and injuries ... are critical concerns for every country and at every stage of economic development and an important determinant of health and ... You are here: Home Page , Medicine & Health , Public Health & Epidemiology , Public Health , Global Occupational Health ... Medicine & Health , Public Health & Epidemiology , Public Health Medicine & Health , Public Health & Epidemiology , ...
https://global.oup.com/academic/product/global-occupational-health-9780195380002?cc=au&lang=en&tab=reviews

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00131986 - The Profile of Occupational Health Nursing.

Occupational health and occupational health nursing are defined. The intent of OSHA and its implications for occupational ... Methods are described to: determine health hazards in the work environment; eliminate or control hazards identified; provide ... The fundamentals of occupational health nursing practices are reviewed. ... The fundamentals of occupational health nursing practices are reviewed. Occupational health and occupational health nursing are ...
https://cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/00131986.html

*  Reducing the risk of falls on stairs - Slips and trips in health and social care - HSE

Provides occupational health and safety advice and guidance on slips and trips for managers and employees working in the health ... RIDDOR in health and social care *Coding health and social care RIDDOR reports ...
hse.gov.uk/healthservices/slips/reducing-risks-stairs.htm

*  DMOZ - Health: Occupational Health and Safety: OHS Management Systems

A source portal for background, schedule, and resources for the emerging ISO 45001 Occupational Health And Safety Management ... Describes a process covering the implementation and management of a custom built occupational health and safety management ... "Health ... OHS Management Systems" search on: AOL - Ask - Bing - DuckDuckGo - Gigablast - Google - ixquick - Yahoo - Yandex - ...
dmoztools.net/Health/Occupational_Health_and_Safety/OHS_Management_Systems/

*  CDC - NIOSH Program Portfolio : Occupational Health Disparities : Program Description

The mission of the occupational health disparities program is to: Improve surveillance of vulnerable populations; Identify ... Occupational Health Disparities Conference. September 14-15-2011 Chicago, Illinois. Call for Abstracts ... of vulnerable and hard to reach populations allow occupational health researchers and practitioners to better identify health ... with individuals of higher SES having better overall health than those of lower SES. The most striking health discrepancies ...
https://cdc.gov/niosh/programs/ohd/

*  Safe business opportunities from developing countries -- A+A Trade Fair - 17- 20 October 2017 - Messe Düsseldorf

Security and Health at work, 27-30 October 2015, Düsseldorf, Germany ... WorkPlace Design / Corporate Health Plaza Trend Forum Safety & Security Occupational fire protection and emergy management ... Further on-line features of Messe Düsseldorf GmbH in this field of competence Medicine and Health: *MEDICA ... for safety, security and health at work. A + A 2011 will take place from 18 - 21 October at Messe Düsseldorf in Germany. ...
https://aplusa-online.com/cgi-bin/md_aplusa/lib/pub/tt.cgi/Safe_business_opportunities_from_developing_countries.html?oid=10765&lang=2&ticket=g_u_e_s_t

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00171282 - Epidemiologic principles and methods for occupational health studies.

Epidemiologic principles and study methods necessary in occupational health studies to make valid assessments of possible ... associations between occupational exposure and disease risk were discussed. Three basic epidemiologic study strategies, the ... Epidemiology; Occupational-medicine; Health-surveys; Disease-incidence; Mortality-rates; Occupational-diseases; Case-studies; ... Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) ...
https://cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/00171282.html

*  Continuum Announces Divestiture of Occupational Health Business

Continuum's Health Promotion division features Health Calls, a telephonic- based health counseling program which addresses the ... Continuum's Health Promotion division features Health Calls, a telephonic- based health counseling program which addresses the ... "We are pleased that each of our occupational health businesses will be merged into larger entities," noted Peter Hotz, ... "We are pleased that each of our occupational health businesses will be merged into larger entities," noted Peter Hotz, ...
prnewswire.com/news-releases/continuum-announces-divestiture-of-occupational-health-business-70870627.html

*  Occupational Health News Roundup - The Pump Handle

Occupational Health News Roundup. Labor unions are becoming de facto immigrant rights groups; Trump pick to head MSHA is a… ... Occupational Hazards: The Charlotte Observer's six-part series on health and safety problems in poultry plants got the ... PCI Health Training Center on CHIP provides health insurance to nearly 9 million kids. Its funding expires on Sept. 30. ... CHIP provides health insurance to nearly 9 million kids. Its funding expires on Sept. 30.. Earlier this week, members of the ...
scienceblogs.com/thepumphandle/2008/02/20/occupational-health-news-roundup-53/

*  Occupational Health News Roundup - The Pump Handle

PCI Health Training Center on CHIP provides health insurance to nearly 9 million kids. Its funding expires on Sept. 30. ... Doctors, public health workers, patient advocates - even insurers - oppose latest ACA repeal. Senate Republicans are again ... New York Times: Army leaders fear for the mental health of soldiers undergoing repeated tours in Iraq under plans that call for ... Liz on A Labor Day tradition: Sixth annual yearbook on worker health and safety released today ...
scienceblogs.com/thepumphandle/2008/04/09/occupational-health-news-roundup-60/

*  680 Occupational Health Nurse Jobs - Apply Now | CareerBuilder

Search CareerBuilder for Occupational Health Nurse Jobs and browse our platform. Apply now for jobs that are hiring near you. ... Friday The Occupational Health Nurse has responsibility for oversight of UPS occupational health programs and other health- ... Nurse Practitioner / ARNP Occupational Health Per Diem/PRN Nurse Practitioner / ARNP Occupational Health Per Diem/PRN ... Occupational Health Nurse - Middle River, MD (WCCM Certification Preferred) Occupational Health Nurse - Middle River, MD (WCCM ...
https://careerbuilder.com/jobs-occupational-health-nurse

*  Occupational Health Nursing - Page 7 | allnurses

Occupational Health Nurses (OHN)s are registered nurses who independently observe and assess the worker's health status with ... Occupational Health Nursing - page 7 Occupational Health Nurses (OHN)s are registered nurses who independently observe and ... Use Occupational Health Nurses to network with each other and discussing OH Nursing issues. ... Is there anyone who can explain to me how occupational health workers works in Us? ...
allnurses.com/occupational-health-nursing/page7.html

*  Canada Occupational Health and Safety Regulations

... (SOR/86-304). Full Document: *HTMLFull Document: Canada Occupational Health ... XMLFull Document: Canada Occupational Health and Safety Regulations [766 KB] , *PDFFull Document: Canada Occupational Health ... Occupational Safety Code for Diving Operations. , published in English in April 1992 and in French in February 1994, as amended ...
laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/regulations/SOR-86-304/page-50.html

*  Occupational Health | St. David's HealthCare

Occupational Health Brochure Occupational Health Services. St. David's Occupational Health Services (OHS) provides ... Health Library. Learn more about health conditions and treatments. Browse the links in this Health Library to obtain ... David's Occupational Health Services (OHS) has served the needs of employees and injured workers in Central Texas since 1994. ... David's Occupational Health Services offers employers a comprehensive physical exam program including:. *Drug and alcohol ...
https://stdavids.com/service/occupational-health

*  UAB - Occupational Health & Safety - Chemical Safety

205-934- ...
uab.edu/ohs/programs/chemical-safety/193-programs

*  AAOHN : Occupational Health Nurses Week

Occupational Health Nurses Week. Occupational Health Nurses Week will be April 9-15, 2018. ... The American Association of Occupational Health Nurses, Inc. is the primary association for the largest group of health care ... occupational and environmental health nurses improve the health of employees and contribute to a healthy bottom line for ... Annually, Occupational Health Nurses Week is selected by AAOHN for dates in April. The week also commemorates the inception of ...
aaohn.org/p/cm/ld/fid=1026

*  The Importance of Vitamin C - Ascorbic Acid | Dr Frances Pitsilis

Health Practitioners. *Testimonials. *Regenerative Medicine Institute *About Regenerative Medicine. *Medical Botulinum Toxin ...
drfrances.co.nz/importance-of-vitamin-c.html

*  Help for Childhood Apraxia of Speech

health. - Healthy Kids. Help for Childhood Apraxia of Speech Updated: June 18, 2012 - 3:33 PM EDT * ... As additional support, an occupational therapist worked with Billy. His family met with a Speech and Language pathologist ... Men pay a price in poorer health when wives earn more, Rutgers study finds ...
philly.com/philly/blogs/healthy_kids/Help-for-Childhood-Apraxia-of-Speech.html

*  Submissions on Stem Cell Line Research Ongoing | Scoop News

The Ministry of Health is considering a number of submissions on it's discussion document - Guidelines on Using Cells from ... Occupational Therapy Week 19/10/17 , Occupational Therapy New Zealand * Wellington to host international schizophrenia expert ... Press Release: Ministry of Health Media Release Submissions on Stem Cell Line Research Ongoing 18 May, 2006 The Ministry of ... The Ministry will report to the Minister of Health on the consultation and guidelines in June. If the guidelines are approved, ...
scoop.co.nz/stories/GE0605/S00125.htm

WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Basic Occupational Health Services: The Basic Occupational Health Services are an application of the primary health care principles in the sector of occupational health. Primary health care definition can be found in the World Health Organization Alma Ata declaration from the year 1978 as the “essential health care based on practical scientifically sound and socially accepted methods, (…) it is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work (…)”.Occupational Medicine (journal): Occupational Medicine is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering occupational medicine, including occupational health psychology and organizational psychology that is published eight times per year by Oxford University Press. It covers "work-related injury and illness, accident and illness prevention, health promotion, occupational disease, health education, the establishment and implementation of health and safety standards, monitoring of the work environment, and the management of recognized hazards".American Association of Public Health Physicians: The American Association of Public Health Physicians (AAPHP), is a professional association of public health physicians. Its motto is "the voice of Public Health Physicians / Guardians of the Public's Health".Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Federated Rubber and Allied Workers' Union of Australia: The Federated Rubber and Allied Workers' Union of Australia was an Australian trade union which existed between 1909 and 1988. The union represented workers employed in manufacturing rubber, plastic, cable, adhesive and abrasive products in Australia.Occupational fatality: An occupational fatality is a death that occurs while a person is at work or performing work related tasks. Occupational fatalities are also commonly called “occupational deaths” or “work-related deaths/fatalities” and can occur in any industry or occupation.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Pocket petGlobal Health Delivery ProjectLifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Occupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Office of Workers' Compensation Programs: The Office of Workers' Compensation Programs administers four major disability compensation programs which provide wage replacement benefits, medical treatment, vocational rehabilitation and other benefits to certain workers or their dependents who experience work-related injury or occupational disease.http://www.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.Human factors and ergonomics: Human factors and ergonomics (HF&E), also known as comfort design, functional design, and user-friendly systems,Ergonomics in Thesaurus.com is the practice of designing products, systems or processes to take proper account of the interaction between them and the people who use them.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Halfdan T. MahlerSick leave: Sick leave (or paid sick days or sick pay) is time off from work that workers can use to stay home to address their health and safety needs without losing pay. Paid sick leave is a statutory requirement in many nations around the world.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Hamid GhodseHighly hazardous chemical: A highly hazardous chemical is a substance classified by the American Occupational Safety and Health Administration as material that is both toxic and reactive and whose potential for human injury is high if released. Highly hazardous chemicals may cause cancer, birth defects, induce genetic damage, cause miscarriage, injury and death from relatively small exposures.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Australia–Finland relations: Australia–Finland relations are foreign relations between the Australia and Finland. Diplomatic relations were established on 31 May 1949.Andrew Dickson WhiteClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Florida Division of Vocational Rehabilitation: Florida Division of Vocational Rehabilitation is a federal-state program in the U.S.Whitehall Study: The original Whitehall Study investigated social determinants of health, specifically the cardiovascular disease prevalence and mortality rates among British male civil servants between the ages of 20 and 64. The initial prospective cohort study, the Whitehall I Study, examined over 18,000 male civil servants, and was conducted over a period of ten years, beginning in 1967.Vessel safety survey: Vessel safety surveys are important during the life of a vessel for better safety and security. These controls are directed by the classification societies and are very different (safety equipment, security, hoist, dock survey).Suction excavator: A suction excavator or vacuum excavator is a construction vehicle that removes materials from a hole on land, or removes heavy debris on land.The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: (first Board of Directors meeting)Netherlands national rollball team: Vishwaraj JadejaRisk governance: Risk governance refers to the institutions, rules conventions, processes and mechanisms by which decisions about risks are taken and implemented. It can be both normative and positive, because it analyses and formulates risk management strategies to avoid and/or reduce the human and economic costs caused by disasters.United States Army Research Institute of Environmental MedicineNational Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Resource leak: In computer science, a resource leak is a particular type of resource consumption by a computer program where the program does not release resources it has acquired. This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.The Flash ChroniclesInvisibility in fiction: Invisibility in fiction is a common plot device, found in both the science fiction and fantasy genres. In fantasy, invisibility is often invoked and dismissed at will, with a magic spell, a potion or a ring.Social determinants of health in poverty: The social determinants of health in poverty describe the factors that affect impoverished populations’ health and health inequality. Inequalities in health stem from the conditions of people's lives, including living conditions, work environment, age, and other social factors, and how these affect people's ability to respond to illness.Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.International Network of Prison Ministries: The International Network of Prison Ministries (INPM) is a Dallas, Texas based crime prevention and rehabilitation trans-national organization. INPM functions through a website that serves as a clearinghouse for information about various Christian prison ministries.Stillwater Mining Company: Stillwater Mining Company () is a palladium and platinum mining company with headquarters located at Billings, Montana, United States. It is the only palladium and platinum producer in the USA.Friendship (NGO): Friendship is a French - Bangladeshi non-governmental organization that works with poor and marginalized communities in Bangladesh in remote chars and riverbanks in the North, poorer areas in Northeast, cyclone-prone areas in the South and most recently the hard-to-reach indigenous communities in the coastal belt of the country. It was established in Bangladesh in 2002 to provide basic services to the highly suffering inaccessible areas from climate changes impact.Niigata UniversityComprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.Eden Prairie Library: The Eden Prairie Library is located in Eden Prairie, Minnesota and is one of 41 libraries of the Hennepin County Library system. The 40,000 square foot building houses a collection of 150,000 items, an automated materials handling system (AMH) for check in and rough sortation of materials, 82 public computers, two meeting rooms, a reading lounge with fireplace, a teen area, a children's area with a Family Reading Lounge, and several installations of artwork.Radiation dose reconstruction: Radiation dose reconstruction refers to the process of estimating radiation doses that were received by individuals or populations in the past as a result of particular exposure situations of concern.A Review of the Dose Reconstruction Program of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Companies Office

(1/2403) Socioeconomic inequalities in health in the working population: the contribution of working conditions.

BACKGROUND: The aim was to study the impact of different categories of working conditions on the association between occupational class and self-reported health in the working population. METHODS: Data were collected through a postal survey conducted in 1991 among inhabitants of 18 municipalities in the southeastern Netherlands. Data concerned 4521 working men and 2411 working women and included current occupational class (seven classes), working conditions (physical working conditions, job control, job demands, social support at work), perceived general health (very good or good versus less than good) and demographic confounders. Data were analysed with logistic regression techniques. RESULTS: For both men and women we observed a higher odds ratio for a less than good perceived general health in the lower occupational classes (adjusted for confounders). The odds of a less than good perceived general health was larger among people reporting more hazardous physical working conditions, lower job control, lower social support at work and among those in the highest category of job demands. Results were similar for men and women. Men and women in the lower occupational classes reported more hazardous physical working conditions and lower job control as compared to those in higher occupational classes. High job demands were more often reported in the higher occupational classes, while social support at work was not clearly related to occupational class. When physical working conditions and job control were added simultaneously to a model with occupational class and confounders, the odds ratios for occupational classes were reduced substantially. For men, the per cent change in the odds ratios for the occupational classes ranged between 35% and 83%, and for women between 35% and 46%. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial part of the association between occupational class and a less than good perceived general health in the working population could be attributed to a differential distribution of hazardous physical working conditions and a low job control across occupational classes. This suggests that interventions aimed at improving these working conditions might result in a reduction of socioeconomic inequalities in health in the working population.  (+info)

(2/2403) Socioeconomic inequalities and disability pension in middle-aged men.

BACKGROUND: The issue of inequalities in health has generated much discussion and socioeconomic status is considered an important variable in studies of health. It is frequently used in epidemiological studies, either as a possible risk factor or a confounder and the aim of this study was to analyse the relation between socioeconomic status and risk of disability pension. METHODS: Five complete birth year cohorts of middle-aged male residents in Malmo were invited to a health survey and 5782 with complete data constituted the cohort in this prospective study. Each subject was followed for approximately 11 years and nationwide Swedish data registers were used for surveillance. RESULTS: Among the 715 men (12%), granted disability pension during follow-up, three groups were distinguished. The cumulative incidence of disability pension among blue collar workers was 17% and among lower and higher level white collar workers, 11% and 6% respectively. With simultaneous adjustment for biological risk factors and job conditions, the relative risk for being granted a disability pension (using higher level white collar workers as reference) was 2.5 among blue collar workers and 1.6 among lower level white collar workers. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic status, as defined by occupation, is a risk factor for being granted disability pension even after adjusting for work conditions and other risk factors for disease.  (+info)

(3/2403) Health at work in the general practice.

BACKGROUND: Poor mental health and high stress levels have been reported in staff working in general practice. Little is known about how practices are tackling these and other issues of health at work in the absence of an established occupational healthcare service. AIM: To establish the extent of knowledge and good practice of health at work policies for staff working in general practice. METHOD: Practice managers in 450 randomly selected general practices in England were interviewed by telephone, and the general practitioner (GP) with lead responsibility for workplace health in the same practice was surveyed by postal questionnaire. We surveyed the existence and implementation of practice policies, causes and effects of stress on practice staff, and agreement between practice managers and GPs on these issues. RESULTS: Seventy-one per cent of GPs and 76% of practice managers responded, with at least one reply from 408 (91%) practices and responses from both the practice manager and GPs from 252 (56%) practices. Seventy-nine per cent of practices had a policy on monitoring risks and hazards. The proportion of practices with other workplace health policies ranged from 21% (policy to minimize stress) to 91% (policy on staff smoking). There was a tendency for practices to have policies but not to implement them. The three causes of stress for practice staff most commonly cites by both GP and practice manager responders were 'patient demands', 'too much work', and 'patient abuse/aggression'. Sixty-five per cent of GPs felt that stress had caused mistakes in their practices. Although there was general agreement between the two groups, there was a considerable lack of agreement between responders working in the same practices. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed substantial neglect of workplace health issues with many practices falling foul of health and safety legislation. This report should help general practices identify issues to tackle to improve their workplace health, and the Health at Work in the NHS project to focus on areas where their targeted help will be most worthwhile.  (+info)

(4/2403) Design and trial of a new questionnaire for occupational health surveys in companies.

In this article we present an example of our method for instrument development. This method is called the Development Cycle. It consists of four main stages: (1) defining the requirements for an instrument; (2) research, design and pilot testing; (3) implementation and (4) evaluation. An application of the Development Cycle was realized within a project for the development of a basic questionnaire about work and health, to be used at periodic health surveys. This questionnaire had to identify work and work-related health problems in employees with divergent occupations and working conditions. The design of the instrument and the results of its trial in 517 employees is presented. The evaluation of the test results and the modification of the questionnaire are discussed. From 1995, the questionnaire has been implemented in the Dutch OHS services quite successfully.  (+info)

(5/2403) Alteration of circadian time structure of blood pressure caused by night shift schedule.

The effects of night shift schedules on circadian time structure of blood pressure were studied in seven healthy young subjects by continuous monitoring of blood pressure every 30 min for 72 h. In the control experiment, subjects were instructed to sleep at regular times with the light off at 00.00 h and the light on at 07.00 h. In the shift experiment, they were instructed to go to bed at 06.00 h and wake up at 11.00 h. The circadian rhythm of blood pressure rapidly phase delayed by 3.5 h in the second night shift day as a group phenomenon. Individual differences in changes in power spectral patterns of blood pressure were found in the night shift schedule. Ultradian rhythmicity of blood pressure was more pronounced in three subjects, whereas the circadian rhythmicity was maintained in four subjects. These findings held when the adaptation to shift work was taken into account.  (+info)

(6/2403) The self-reported well-being of employees facing organizational change: effects of an intervention.

The objective of this study was to investigate the self-reported well-being of employees facing organizational change, and the effect of an intervention. It was a controlled intervention study. Subjects were allocated to study and control groups, and brief individual counselling was offered to the subjects in the study groups. Questionnaire measures were administered before and after counselling (a 3-month interval), and non-counselled subjects also completed questionnaires at the same times. The setting was 15 estate offices in an urban local authority Housing Department. Subjects comprised the total workforce of the Housing Management division: 193 employees, male and female, aged 22-62 years, facing compulsory competitive tendering between 1994-97. Main outcome measures were baseline and comparative measures of psychological morbidity, including the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI). Questionnaire response rates were 72% and 47% on first and second occasions respectively. The uptake of counselling was 37%. In comparison with (1) the UK norms for the OSI and (2) the norms for a similar occupational group, this group of workers were under more work-related pressure and their self-reported health was markedly poorer. They were not however at a disadvantage in terms of coping strategies. Those accepting the offer of counselling were subject to greater levels of work stress, had poorer self-reported health and markedly lower levels of job satisfaction than those who did not. Questionnaire scores were not significantly different before and after counselling, giving no evidence of treatment effects on symptomatology. However, almost all subjects rated counselling as having been extremely helpful. This study suggests that adverse effects on staff facing organizational change may be ameliorated by improved management practice.  (+info)

(7/2403) Failing firefighters: a survey of causes of death and ill-health retirement in serving firefighters in Strathclyde, Scotland from 1985-94.

During the decade beginning 1 January 1985, 887 full-time firefighters, all male, left the service of Strathclyde Fire Brigade (SFB). There were 17 deaths--compared to 64.4 expected in the Scottish male population aged 15-54 years--giving a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 26, and 488 ill-health retirements (IHR). None of the deaths was attributable to service, the major causes being: myocardial infarction--five, (expected = 17.3; SMR = 29); cancers--three (colon, kidney and lung) (expected = 13.6; SMR = 22); road traffic accidents--two (expected = 4.17; SMR = 48) and suicide--two (expected = 4.9; SMR = 41). Amalgamating the deaths and IHRs showed that the six most common reasons for IHR were musculoskeletal (n = 202, 40%), ocular (n = 61, 12.1%), 'others' (n = 58, 11.5%), injuries (n = 50, 9.9%), heart disease (n = 48, 9.5%) and mental disorders (n = 45, 8.9%). Over 300 IHRs (over 60%) occurred after 20 or more years service. When the IHRs were subdivided into two quinquennia, there were 203 and 302 in each period. Mean length of service during each quinquennium was 19.4 vs. 21.3 years (p = 0.003) and median length was 21 years in both periods; interquartile range was 12-26 years in the first and 17-27 years in the second period (p = 0.002), but when further broken down into diagnostic categories, the differences were not statistically significant, with the exception of means of IHRs attributed to mental disorders (14.5 vs. 19 years, p = 0.03).  (+info)

(8/2403) The feasibility of conducting occupational epidemiology in the UK.

A postal survey was carried out of 1,000 UK companies to collect information about employee biographical and work history records. The overall response rate was 46%. All companies collected surname, forenames, address, date of birth and National Insurance number--information needed for cross-sectional studies. Other biographical details such as maiden name and National Health Service number were collected less often, which could increase the cost and difficulty of tracing ex-employees. Seventy per cent reported destroying their records within 10 years of an employee leaving, rising to 82% for companies with fewer than 100 employees. The destruction of employee records creates problems for historical cohort studies and case-control studies, and may hamper ex-employees trying to claim benefit for occupational-related illness. If the scope of future occupational epidemiology is to be improved, guidelines for the collection and retention of the data required must be developed and industry encouraged to participate.  (+info)



medicine


  • The department is staffed by a full time John Hopkins University Occupational Medicine Resident who can provide personalized assistance on occupational health concerns. (iaff.org)
  • Through IAFF convention action in 1986, the occupational medicine residency program was established. (iaff.org)
  • The following educational projects have been completed or updated by IAFF Occupational Medicine Residents. (iaff.org)
  • Recent position papers of the American College of Physicians and the Institute of Medicine have emphasized the role of primary care physicians in occupational medicine. (jaoa.org)
  • Although opportunities for physicians to become certified in occupational medicine have expanded, shortages in the specialty are likely to persist throughout the 1990s. (jaoa.org)
  • To help acquaint osteopathic physicians with some of the challenges facing the specialty of occupational medicine, this article addresses the extent of occupational illnesses, health-related policies in the workplace, the delivery of occupational medical services, and graduate medical education. (jaoa.org)