Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Paternal Exposure: Exposure of the male parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring.WeldingPaintBenzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Asbestos: Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Needlestick Injuries: Penetrating stab wounds caused by needles. They are of special concern to health care workers since such injuries put them at risk for developing infectious disease.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Electromagnetic Fields: Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.Threshold Limit Values: Standards for limiting worker exposure to airborne contaminants. They are the maximum concentration in air at which it is believed that a particular substance will not produce adverse health effects with repeated daily exposure. It can be a time-weighted average (TLV-TWA), a short-term value (TLV-STEL), or an instantaneous value (TLV-Ceiling). They are expressed either as parts per million (ppm) or milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3).Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from patients to health professionals or health care workers. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Occupational Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.Styrene: A colorless, toxic liquid with a strong aromatic odor. It is used to make rubbers, polymers and copolymers, and polystyrene plastics.Manufactured Materials: Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.PrintingCase-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Styrenes: Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Blood-Borne Pathogens: Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.Carbon Disulfide: A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Construction Materials: Supplies used in building.Textile Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)MiningCoke: A residue of coal, left after dry (destructive) distillation, used as a fuel.Gas Scavengers: Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.Rubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.Toluene: A widely used industrial solvent.Mineral Fibers: Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)Healthy Worker Effect: Phenomenon of workers' usually exhibiting overall death rates lower than those of the general population due to the fact that the severely ill and disabled are ordinarily excluded from employment.Beauty CultureSmoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration: An office in the Department of Labor responsible for developing and establishing occupational safety and health standards.National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.): An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.Respiratory Protective Devices: Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.Plastics: Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tetrachloroethylene: A chlorinated hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent and cooling liquid in electrical transformers. It is a potential carcinogen.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Dermatitis, Occupational: A recurrent contact dermatitis caused by substances found in the work place.Trichloroethylene: A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.Fumigation: The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Chromium: A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Dental Staff: Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Gloves, Protective: Coverings for the hands, usually with separations for the fingers, made of various materials, for protection against infections, toxic substances, extremes of hot and cold, radiations, water immersion, etc. The gloves may be worn by patients, care givers, housewives, laboratory and industrial workers, police, etc.Pyrenes: A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.Respiratory Tract DiseasesVentilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Ethylene Oxide: A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Irritants: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.Asthma, Occupational: Asthma attacks caused, triggered, or exacerbated by OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE.Sorbic Acid: Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Inorganic Chemicals: A broad class of substances encompassing all those that do not include carbon and its derivatives as their principal elements. However, carbides, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, and carbon disulfide are included in this class.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Noise, Occupational: Noise present in occupational, industrial, and factory situations.Pneumoconiosis: A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Radiation Monitoring: The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Asbestosis: A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers which elicit potent inflammatory responses in the parenchyma of the lung. The disease is characterized by interstitial fibrosis of the lung, varying from scattered sites to extensive scarring of the alveolar interstitium.Protective Clothing: Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.Silicosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of dust containing crystalline form of SILICON DIOXIDE, usually in the form of quartz. Amorphous silica is relatively nontoxic.Tanning: A process of preserving animal hides by chemical treatment (using vegetable tannins, metallic sulfates, and sulfurized phenol compounds, or syntans) to make them immune to bacterial attack, and subsequent treatments with fats and greases to make them pliable. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Barbering: The occupation concerned with the cutting and dressing of the hair of customers and, of men, the shaving and trimming of the beard and mustache. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Personnel, Hospital: The individuals employed by the hospital.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Engineering: The practical application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Hexanes: Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.Laboratory Infection: Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.Industrial Oils: Oils which are used in industrial or commercial applications.HydrocarbonsVinyl Chloride: A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.Quartz: Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Radiation, Nonionizing: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or sonic radiation (SOUND WAVES) which does not produce IONS in matter through which it passes. The wavelengths of non-ionizing electromagentic radiation are generally longer than those of far ultraviolet radiation and range through the longest RADIO WAVES.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Respiratory Tract NeoplasmsIsocyanates: Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.Mandelic Acids: Analogs or derivatives of mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid).Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Methylenebis(chloroaniline): Aromatic diamine used in the plastics industry as curing agent for epoxy resins and urethane rubbers. It causes bladder, liver, lung, and other neoplasms.Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Coal MiningTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mesothelioma: A tumor derived from mesothelial tissue (peritoneum, pleura, pericardium). It appears as broad sheets of cells, with some regions containing spindle-shaped, sarcoma-like cells and other regions showing adenomatous patterns. Pleural mesotheliomas have been linked to exposure to asbestos. (Dorland, 27th ed)SwedenLung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Infection Control, Dental: Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Creosote: A greasy substance with a smoky odor and burned taste created by high temperature treatment of BEECH and other WOOD; COAL TAR; or resin of the CREOSOTE BUSH. It contains CRESOLS and POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS which are CARCINOGENS. It has been widely used as wood preservative and in PESTICIDES and had former use medicinally in DISINFECTANTS; LAXATIVES; and DERMATOLOGIC AGENTS.Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Dental Technicians: Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.Mercury: A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.Incineration: High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.Talc: Finely powdered native hydrous magnesium silicate. It is used as a dusting powder, either alone or with starch or boric acid, for medicinal and toilet preparations. It is also an excipient and filler for pills, tablets, and for dusting tablet molds. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Post-Exposure Prophylaxis: The prevention of infection or disease following exposure to a pathogen.Electroplating: Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.Hobbies: Leisure activities engaged in for pleasure.Radon Daughters: Short-lived radioactive decay products of radon that include 216-Po, 214-Pb, 214-Bi, and 214-Po. They have an effective half-life of about 30 minutes and are solids that can deposit on the bronchial airways during inhalation and exhalation. This results in exposure of the respiratory airways to alpha radiation and can lead to diseases of the respiratory system, including lung cancer. (From Casarett and Doull's Toxicology, 4th ed, p740)Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.LaunderingXylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Coal Tar: A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).Hair Preparations: Hair grooming, cleansing and modifying products meant for topical application to hair, usually human. They include sprays, bleaches, dyes, conditioners, rinses, shampoos, nutrient lotions, etc.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Steel: A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.Phthalic Anhydrides: Phthalic acid anhydrides. Can be substituted on any carbon atom. Used extensively in industry and as a reagent in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Electricity: The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Micronucleus Tests: Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.Asbestos, Amphibole: A class of asbestos that includes silicates of magnesium, iron, calcium, and sodium. The fibers are generally brittle and cannot be spun, but are more resistant to chemicals and heat than ASBESTOS, SERPENTINE. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Patch Tests: Skin tests in which the sensitizer is applied to a patch of cotton cloth or gauze held in place for approximately 48-72 hours. It is used for the elicitation of a contact hypersensitivity reaction.Hypospadias: A birth defect due to malformation of the URETHRA in which the urethral opening is below its normal location. In the male, the malformed urethra generally opens on the ventral surface of the PENIS or on the PERINEUM. In the female, the malformed urethral opening is in the VAGINA.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Methylene Chloride: A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.PolandTrichloroethanes: Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.Mercury PoisoningInsecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Aircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Asbestos, Serpentine: A type of asbestos that occurs in nature as the dihydrate of magnesium silicate. It exists in two forms: antigorite, a plated variety, and chrysotile, a fibrous variety. The latter makes up 95% of all asbestos products. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p.893)Medical Laboratory Personnel: Health care professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES in research or health care facilities.ItalyRisk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced: Hearing loss due to exposure to explosive loud noise or chronic exposure to sound level greater than 85 dB. The hearing loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Confounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Flour: Ground up seed of WHEAT.Police: Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing law and order among the citizenry.Tetraethyl Lead: A highly toxic compound used as a gasoline additive. It causes acute toxic psychosis or chronic poisoning if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.Operating Rooms: Facilities equipped for performing surgery.Hippurates: Salts and esters of hippuric acid.ParisNorwayBeryllium: Beryllium. An element with the atomic symbol Be, atomic number 4, and atomic weight 9.01218. Short exposure to this element can lead to a type of poisoning known as BERYLLIOSIS.Uranium: Uranium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol U, atomic number 92, and atomic weight 238.03. U-235 is used as the fissionable fuel in nuclear weapons and as fuel in nuclear power reactors.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Construction Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of building.Chemistry, Agricultural: The science of the chemical composition and reactions of chemicals involved in the production, protection and use of crops and livestock. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Automobiles: A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Radon: A naturally radioactive element with atomic symbol Rn, atomic number 86, and atomic weight 222. It is a member of the noble gas family found in soil, and is released during the decay of radium.FinlandLead PoisoningBenzidines: Very toxic industrial chemicals. They are absorbed through the skin, causing lethal blood, bladder, liver, and kidney damage and are potent, broad-spectrum carcinogens in most species.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Pleural Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the thin serous membrane that envelopes the lungs and lines the thoracic cavity. Pleural neoplasms are exceedingly rare and are usually not diagnosed until they are advanced because in the early stages they produce no symptoms.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Cotton Fiber: A TEXTILE fiber obtained from the pappus (outside the SEEDS) of cotton plant (GOSSYPIUM). Inhalation of cotton fiber dust over a prolonged period can result in BYSSINOSIS.

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20024810 - Occupational exposure during cement tile cutting with portable saws.

... conducted a health hazard evaluation during cutting of cement tiles at a home construction site to assess worker exposures to ... Occupational-exposure; Cement-industry; Tile-workers; Construction-industry; Construction-workers; Noise-exposure; Respirable- ... Total dust exposures ranged from 0.71 mg/m3 to13.01 mg/m3 and respirable dust exposures ranged from 0.23 mg/m3 to 2.31 mg/m3. ... Thirteen of the 16 (81%) workers silica exposures exceeded the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit, and 75% exceeded the ACGIH ...

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20044302 - Safe handling of hazardous chemotherapy drugs in limited-resource settings.

However, beyond the patient safety concerns arising from the necessary therapeutic use of these drugs, the occupational risks ... These exposure control methods are applied in a specified order of preference, as listed above. This hierarchy reflects the ... for the occupational health community. Over the last 20 years, an international consortium of content experts in occupational ... However, beyond the patient safety concerns arising from the necessary therapeutic use of these drugs, the occupational risks ...

*  Worker Exposure News on Environmental XPRT

Get the latest worker exposure news on Environmental XPRT, the world's largest environmental industry marketplace and ... mesothelioma and asbestosis resulting from occupational exposures and that one in three deaths from occupational cancer is ... worker exposure News. Related terms for "worker exposure ": chemical worker exposure news , hazardous chemical worker exposure ... Worker exposure and the hazards of abrasive blasting materials Late last year, the Occupational Safety and Health ...

*  Effect of occupational exposures on male fertility: literature review.

... occupational exposures to potential chemical and physical reproductive toxic agents and psyc.. ... Effect of occupational exposures on male fertility: literature review.. Author(s): Sheiner EK, Sheiner E, Hammel RD, Potashnik ... Abstract The present review was aimed to determine the influence of working conditions, occupational exposures to potential ... Health Behavior, Occupational & Environmental Medicine, Sleep Psychology. PPT Version , PDF Version. *Rajajeyakumar M. Current ...

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00181820 - National occupational exposure survey. Volume I. Survey manual.

... and as a guide to others engaged in large scale data gathering activities collecting information on potential exposure agents. ... Instructions provided to the National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) surveyors were compiled, to serve as a reference tool ... NIOSH-Author; Worker-health; Occupational-exposure; Occupational-hazards; Industrial-exposures; Industrial-hygiene; Workplace- ... Instructions provided to the National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) surveyors were compiled, to serve as a reference tool ...

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20023377 - Development of a chlorinated solvent exposure data base for use in case-control...

For case-control studies where detailed exposure information has been collected by job for specific exposure agents, ... quantitative subject-specific exposure estimates can be developed using a variety of information sources. NIOSH and NCI are bot ... Case-control studies rely on the use of questionnaire data such as job titles and task descriptions to rank or assign exposure ... This is the first comprehensive occupational exposure levels and exposure determinants data base for these agents. These data ...

*  Occupational Exposure Questions & Answers - Drugs.com

Ask questions and get answers from people sharing their experience with Occupational Exposure. ... Home › Q & A › Support Groups › Occupational Exposure › Questions. Join the 'Occupational Exposure' group to help and get ... Occupational Exposure - My daughter works as a CT tech. A very ill HIV positive man coughed/spit in?. Posted 27 Jul 2013 by ... We found 2 questions associated with the 'Occupational Exposure' topic.. Atripla - My name is Leticia,i was diagnosed of HIV/ ...

*  Occupational Exposure News & Updates - Drugs.com

Home › Q & A › Support Groups › Occupational Exposure › News. Join the 'Occupational Exposure' group to help and get support ...

*  Occupational exposure to Cadmium | Occupational Safety and Health Administration

OSHA amends standards in 1910 and 1915 to include reference to employee exposure to Cadmium. The Authority section of 1910, ...

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00071470 - Occupational exposure to organophosphorus compounds.

The dermal route of exposure and penetration through clothing is more important than inhalation of residues. Studies in an ...

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00240907 - Diesel exhaust aerosol: review of occupational exposure.

Occupational exposure to diesel exhaust aerosols in mining and other industries was reviewed. The review described current ... used techniques for measuring diesel exhaust aerosols and discussed the results of studies evaluating industrial exposures to ... Across all workplaces, the occupational exposures to DPM were generally much higher that outdoor ambient exposures. ... Occupational exposure to diesel exhaust aerosols in mining and other industries was reviewed. The review described current ...

*  Prophylaxis after occupational exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)]. - PubMed - NCBI

Prophylaxis after occupational exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)].. [Article in Polish] ... 4. None of followed health care workers was HIV-seropositive after occupational exposure to HIV. ... Type of exposure to HIV and applying of safety precautions were evaluated in each case. In 10 cases the offer of postexposure ... prophylaxis with zidovudine was accepted (6 nurses, 1 student of nursing college, 3 surgeons). Exposure to HIV was described as ...

*  Occupational Exposure to Beryllium: Delay of Effective Date | Occupational Safety and Health Administration

OSHA-H005C-2006-0870] RIN 1218-AB76 Occupational Exposure to Beryllium: Delay of Effective Date AGENCY: Occupational Safety and ... In addition, since the Occupational Exposure to Beryllium rule would not have taken effect until March 10, 2017, as a practical ... OSHA is therefore delaying the effective date for the rule entitled 'Occupational Exposure to Beryllium' to March 21, 2017. The ... The effective date of the regulation entitled Occupational Exposure to Beryllium published in the Federal Register on January 9 ...

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00134976 - Occupational Exposure To Perchloroethylene In The Dry Cleaning Industry.

Industrial hygiene surveys of occupational exposure to perchloroethylene (127184) (PCE) at dry cleaning establishments (SIC- ... Industrial hygiene surveys of occupational exposure to perchloroethylene (127184) (PCE) at dry cleaning establishments (SIC- ... NIOSH-Author; Toxic-vapors; Industrial-chemicals; Employee-exposure; Exposure-levels; Air-quality-measurement; Control-methods ... Thirty five of the facilities had exposures below the NIOSH recommended TWA standard of 50ppm. The geometric means of the PCE ...

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00141839 - Industrial Hygiene Surveys Of Occupational Exposure To Mineral Wool.

Exposure to noise and heat were evaluated at some of the sites. Total particulate fiber concentrations at the mineral wool ... Recommendations include conducting detailed analyses of fiber exposures of blowing wool installers and noise exposures of ... Noise-exposure; Industrial-environment; Breathing-zone; Heat-exposure; Contract-210-76-0120; ... Exposure to noise and heat were evaluated at some of the sites. Total particulate fiber concentrations at the mineral wool ...

*  OSHA Amends Existing Standards for Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica - Lexology

This news alert discusses the Occupational Safety and Health Administration ... OSHA Amends Existing Standards for Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica Blog The Environmental, Land Use and ... Permissible Exposure Limit. For the first time in decades, OSHA lowered the exposure limit to silica dust, setting it at 50 ... Summary: This news alert discusses the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) final rule for worker exposure to ...

*  Silicosis: Number of cases by duration of occupational exposure to silica-California, 2000-2002

... ... Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) * Page maintained by: Respiratory Health Division ... Provisional Sentinel Event Notification Systems for Occupational Risks surveillance data as of December 2006, reported by R ... National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Respiratory Health Division, Morgantown, WV. Available at: ,https://wwwn ...

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20033719 - Occupational exposure to pesticides and risk of adult brain tumors.

The authors examined incident glioma and meningioma risk associated with occupational exposure to insecticides and herbicides ... Occupational histories were collected during personal interviews. Exposure to pesticides was estimated by use of a ... The authors examined incident glioma and meningioma risk associated with occupational exposure to insecticides and herbicides ... There was no association between glioma and exposure to insecticides or herbicides, in men or women. Women who reported ever ...

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20000292 - Criteria for a recommended standard: occupational exposure to metalworking fluids.

This criteria document reviews available information about the adverse health effects associated with occupational exposure to ... This criteria document reviews available information about the adverse health effects associated with occupational exposure to ... This recommended exposure limit (REL) is based on evaluation of health effects data, sampling and analytical feasibility, and ... To prevent or greatly reduce the risk of adverse health effects in exposed workers, NIOSH recommends that exposures to MWF ...

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00072184 - Criteria for a recommended standard... occupational exposure to benzoyl peroxide.

The major concerns in occupational exposure to benzoyl-peroxide are the hazards arising from its inflammability and explosive ... The major concerns in occupational exposure to benzoyl-peroxide are the hazards arising from its inflammability and explosive ... Sections deal with the biologic effects of exposure, environmental data, work practices, development of standards, and research ... National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No. 77-166, 1977 Jun; :1-117 ...

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00053008 - Criteria for a recommended standard... occupational exposure to hydrogen fluoride.

Biological effects of exposure are described, and methods are given for sampling, analysis, and engineering control. ... Biological effects of exposure are described, and methods are given for sampling, analysis, and engineering control. ... National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No. 76-143, 1976 Mar; :1-190 ...

*  Search of: Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies | 'Occupational Exposure' - List Results - ClinicalTrials.gov

Occupational Exposure' (34 studies) Suggestion: Drop the Status Filter (Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies) ... Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies , 'Occupational Exposure') found only a few studies. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?recr=Open&cond="Occupational Exposure"&show_flds=Y

*  Cocos nucifera | SpringerLink

Effect of in utero exposure of Toddy (coconut palm wine) on liver function and lipid metabolism in rat fetuses. Plant Foods Hum ... Occupational allergic contact dermatitis due to coconut diethanolamide (cocamide DEA). Contact Dermatitis 1993; 29(5): 262-265. ... Dentist's occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by coconut diethanolamide, N-ethyl-4-toluene sulfonamide, and 4- ...

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20043021 - Winter season, frequent hand washing, and irritant patch test reactions to...

Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Demographic-characteristics; Environmental-factors; Gloves; Genetic-factors; Sanitation; ... The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your ...

*  CDPH Home

Environmental and Occupational Disease Control. *. Office of Problem Gambling. . **. Center for Environmental ... Exposure Assessment Section. *Site Assessment Section. *Contact EHIB *Environmental Health & Environmental Justice ... Division of Environmental and Occupational Disease Control *Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Branch *Healthcare Provider ...

Occupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.Mineral dust: Mineral dust is a term used to indicate atmospheric aerosols originated from the suspension of minerals constituting the soil, being composed of various oxides and carbonates. Human activities lead to 30% of the dust load in the atmosphere.Advanced Chemical Industries (ACI): ৳ 238 Million http://www.aci-bd.Bresle methodMetallurgy: Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. Metallurgy is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to the production of metals, and the engineering of metal components for usage in products for consumers and manufacturers.Pocket petGas metal arc weldingEnvironmental impact of paint: The environmental impact of paint is diverse. Traditional painting materials and processes can have harmful effects on the environment, including those from the use of lead and other additives.Dewar benzenePesticides in the United States: Pesticides in the United States are used predominantly by the agricultural sector,Kellogg RL, Nehring R, Grube A, Goss DW, and Plotkin S (February 2000), Environmental indicators of pesticide leaching and runoff from farm fields. United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service.Chronic solvent-induced encephalopathy: Chronic solvent induced encephalopathy (CSE) is a condition induced by long-term exposure to organic solvents, typically in the workplace, that lead to a wide variety of persisting sensorimotor polyneuropathies and neurobehavioral deficits even after solvent exposure has been removed. This syndrome can also be referred to as "psycho-organic syndrome", "organic solvent syndrome", "chronic painter's syndrome", "occupational solvent encephalopathy", "solvent intoxication", "toxic solvent syndrome", "painters disease", "psycho-organic syndrome", "chronic toxic encephalopathy", and "neurasthenic syndrome".Asbestos: Asbestos (pronounced or ) is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals, which all have in common their eponymous asbestiform habit: long (roughly 1:20 aspect ratio), thin fibrous crystals, with each visible fiber composed of millions of microscopic "fibrils" that can be released by abrasion and other processes. They are commonly known by their colors, as blue asbestos, brown asbestos, white asbestos, and green asbestos.Highly hazardous chemical: A highly hazardous chemical is a substance classified by the American Occupational Safety and Health Administration as material that is both toxic and reactive and whose potential for human injury is high if released. Highly hazardous chemicals may cause cancer, birth defects, induce genetic damage, cause miscarriage, injury and death from relatively small exposures.Wood fibre: Wood fibers are usually cellulosic elements that are extracted from trees and used to make materials including paper.Sharps containerBenzo(k)fluorantheneElectromagnetic environment: In telecommunication, the term electromagnetic environment (EME) has the following meanings:Mopani Copper MineOccupational Medicine (journal): Occupational Medicine is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering occupational medicine, including occupational health psychology and organizational psychology that is published eight times per year by Oxford University Press. It covers "work-related injury and illness, accident and illness prevention, health promotion, occupational disease, health education, the establishment and implementation of health and safety standards, monitoring of the work environment, and the management of recognized hazards".Styrene Information and Research CenterInvisibility in fiction: Invisibility in fiction is a common plot device, found in both the science fiction and fantasy genres. In fantasy, invisibility is often invoked and dismissed at will, with a magic spell, a potion or a ring.Inkjet solar cell: Inkjet solar cells are solar cells manufactured by low-cost, low-tech methods that use an inkjet printer to lay down the semiconductor material and the electrodes onto a solar cell substrate.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.StyreneMorbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report is a weekly epidemiological digest for the United States published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It is the main vehicle for publishing public health information and recommendations that have been received by the CDC from state health departments.Carbon disulfide (data page): This page provides supplementary chemical data on carbon disulfide.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Biocidal natural building material: A biocidal natural building material is a natural building material which has biocidal properties. The biocidal properties of biocidal natural building materials are inherent to the material, rather than being supplemented afterwards.Doffer: A doffer is someone who removes ("doffs") bobbins, pirns or spindles holding spun fiber such as cotton or wool from a spinning frame and replaces them with empty ones. Historically, spinners, doffers, and sweepers each had separate tasks that were required in the manufacture of spun textiles.Stillwater Mining Company: Stillwater Mining Company () is a palladium and platinum mining company with headquarters located at Billings, Montana, United States. It is the only palladium and platinum producer in the USA.Green coke: Green coke (raw coke) is the primary solid carbonization product from high boiling hydrocarbon fractions obtained at temperatures below 900 K. It contains a fraction of matter that can be released as volatiles during subsequent heat treatment at temperatures up to approximately 1600 K.Ivan Magill: Sir Ivan Whiteside Magill (23 July 1888 – 25 November 1986) was an Irish born anaesthetist who is famous for his involvement in much of the innovation and development in modern anaesthesia. He helped to establish the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.Synthetic rubber: Synthetic rubber, invariably a polymer, is any type of artificial elastomer mainly synthesised from petroleum byproducts. An elastomer is a material with the mechanical (or material) property that it can undergo much more elastic deformation under stress than most materials and still return to its previous size without permanent deformation.Fiber: Fiber or fibre (from the Latin fibra) is a natural or synthetic string used as a component of composite materials, or, when matted into sheets, used to make products such as paper, papyrus, or felt.fiber.Pedicure: A pedicure is a superficial cosmetic treatment of the feet and toenails. It provides a similar service to a manicure.Tidewater (marine services)Radiation dose reconstruction: Radiation dose reconstruction refers to the process of estimating radiation doses that were received by individuals or populations in the past as a result of particular exposure situations of concern.A Review of the Dose Reconstruction Program of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.Breathing tube (breathing apparatus): A breathing tube is a flexible tube for breathing through, as part of a scuba set or other breathing apparatus or a medical oxygen apparatus or anaesthetic apparatus (Here they are distinguished from the medium-pressure hoses which are often found as parts of modern breathing apparatus.)Society of the Plastics IndustryTetrachloroethyleneChilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Biostimulation: Biostimulation involves the modification of the environment to stimulate existing bacteria capable of bioremediation. This can be done by addition of various forms of rate limiting nutrients and electron acceptors, such as phosphorus, nitrogen, oxygen, or carbon (e.Fumigation: Fumigation is a method of pest control that completely fills an area with gaseous pesticides—or fumigants—to suffocate or poison the pests within. It is used to control pests in buildings (structural fumigation), soil, grain, and produce, and is also used during processing of goods to be imported or exported to prevent transfer of exotic organisms.Silicon dioxideChromium: Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24. It is the first element in Group 6.Indoor air pollution in developing nations: Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a significant form of indoor air pollution (IAP) that is little known to those in the developed world.Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992: The Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 are set of regulations created under the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 which came into force in Great Britain on 1 January 1993.Lumpers and splitters: Lumpers and splitters are opposing factions in any discipline which has to place individual examples into rigorously defined categories. The lumper-splitter problem occurs when there is the need to create classifications and assign examples to them, for example schools of literature, biological taxa and so on.Exhaust systemOMEGA process: The OMEGA process ("Only MEG Advantage") is a process by Shell Global Solutions that is used to produce ethylene glycol from ethylene. This process comprises two steps, the controlled oxidation of ethylene to ethylene oxide, and the net hydrolysis of ethylene oxide to monoethylene glycol (MEG).Volumetric heat capacity: Volumetric heat capacity (VHC), also termed volume-specific heat capacity, describes the ability of a given volume of a substance to store internal energy while undergoing a given temperature change, but without undergoing a phase transition. It is different from specific heat capacity in that the VHC is a 'per unit volume' measure of the relationship between thermal energy and temperature of a material, while the specific heat is a 'per unit mass' measure (or occasionally per molar quantity of the material).Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Throat irritation: Throat irritation can refer to a dry cough, a scratchy feeling at the back of the throat, or a sensation of a lumpy feeling or something stuck at the back of the throat.Sodium sorbate: Sodium sorbate is the sodium salt of sorbic acid.Budic II of Brittany: Budic II (; or ; ), formerly known as Budick, was a king of Cornouaille in Brittany in the late 5th and early 6th centuries. He was the father of Hoel Mawr and is probably to be identified with the Emyr Llydaw ("Emperor of Brittany") and King Nentres who appear in Arthurian legend.National Offshore Petroleum Safety Authority: The National Offshore Petroleum Safety Authority (NOPSA) was the occupational health and safety (OHS) regulator for the Australian offshore petroleum industry between 2005 and 2011. The role of regulator has been transferred to NOPSEMA - the National Offshore Petroleum Safety and Environmental Management Authority from the first of January 2012.List of reporting marks: F: ==F==Exhaust gasContax N Digital: The Contax N Digital was a six-megapixel digital SLR camera produced by Contax in Japan. The camera was announced in late 2000, and began to be sold in spring 2002, after several delays.PneumoconiosisGasoline gallon equivalent: Gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) or gasoline-equivalent gallon (GEG) is the amount of alternative fuel it takes to equal the energy content of one liquid gallon of gasoline. GGE allows consumers to compare the energy content of competing fuels against a commonly known fuel—gasoline.Carcinogen: A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer. This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes.AsbestosisSolumbra: Solumbra is a line of sun protection clothing and a patented fabric. Introduced in 1992, Solumbra was reviewed under medical device regulations by the U.SilicosisImperial Leather: Imperial Leather is a brand of soaps, toiletries and healthcare products manufactured by PZ Cussons. The brand originates in Britain and is now available in a number of other countries including Australia, Denmark, Germany, India, Indonesia, Iran, Kenya, Pakistan, South Africa, New Zealand and the United Arab Emirates.Barbershop Digest: Barbershop Digest is a full-color narrowcast niche publication, reaching African-American men across a diverse section of demographics. Revealing, entertaining and thought provoking, Barbershop Digest is a publication on the pulse of African-American men.Birse Civils: Birse Civils is a civil engineering company based in North Yorkshire, England. It was formerly a separate civil engineering company simply known as Birse Group, but is now owned by Balfour Beatty.HexaneJohn Howie (businessman): John Howie (12 March 1833 – 20 September 1895) was a wealthy Victorian captain of industry and investor, the proprietor of the renowned J & R Howie Hurlford Fireclay Works. He would have been about 350th on a notional Rich List of Britain at the time, with a fortune equal to over £200 million today.Mycobacterium immunogenum: ATCC 700505Unsaturated hydrocarbon: Unsaturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons that have double or triple covalent bonds between adjacent carbon atoms. Those with at least one carbon to carbon double bond are called alkenes and those with at least one carbon to carbon triple bond are called alkynes.

(1/7692) Socioeconomic inequalities in health in the working population: the contribution of working conditions.

BACKGROUND: The aim was to study the impact of different categories of working conditions on the association between occupational class and self-reported health in the working population. METHODS: Data were collected through a postal survey conducted in 1991 among inhabitants of 18 municipalities in the southeastern Netherlands. Data concerned 4521 working men and 2411 working women and included current occupational class (seven classes), working conditions (physical working conditions, job control, job demands, social support at work), perceived general health (very good or good versus less than good) and demographic confounders. Data were analysed with logistic regression techniques. RESULTS: For both men and women we observed a higher odds ratio for a less than good perceived general health in the lower occupational classes (adjusted for confounders). The odds of a less than good perceived general health was larger among people reporting more hazardous physical working conditions, lower job control, lower social support at work and among those in the highest category of job demands. Results were similar for men and women. Men and women in the lower occupational classes reported more hazardous physical working conditions and lower job control as compared to those in higher occupational classes. High job demands were more often reported in the higher occupational classes, while social support at work was not clearly related to occupational class. When physical working conditions and job control were added simultaneously to a model with occupational class and confounders, the odds ratios for occupational classes were reduced substantially. For men, the per cent change in the odds ratios for the occupational classes ranged between 35% and 83%, and for women between 35% and 46%. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial part of the association between occupational class and a less than good perceived general health in the working population could be attributed to a differential distribution of hazardous physical working conditions and a low job control across occupational classes. This suggests that interventions aimed at improving these working conditions might result in a reduction of socioeconomic inequalities in health in the working population.  (+info)

(2/7692) Methodological issues in biomonitoring of low level exposure to benzene.

Data from a pilot study on unmetabolized benzene and trans,trans muconic acid (t,t-MA) excretion in filling station attendants and unexposed controls were used to afford methodological issues in the biomonitoring of low benzene exposures (around 0.1 ppm). Urinary concentrations of benzene and t,t-MA were measured by dynamic head-space capillary GC/FID and HPLC, respectively. The accuracy of the HPLC determination of t,t-MA was assessed in terms of inter- and intra-method reliability. The adequacy of urinary t,t-MA and benzene as biological markers of low benzene exposure was evaluated by analysing the relationship between personal exposure to benzene and biomarker excretion. Filling station attendants excreted significantly higher amounts of benzene, but not of t,t-MA, than controls. Adjusting for occupational benzene exposure, smokers excreted significantly higher amounts of t,t-MA, but not of unmetabolized benzene, than nonsmokers. A comparative analysis of the present and previously published biomonitoring surveys showed a good inter-study agreement regarding the amount of t,t-MA and unmetabolized benzene excreted (about 0.1-0.2 mg/l and 1-2 micrograms/l, respectively) per unit of exposure (0.1 ppm). For each biomarker, based on the distribution of parameters observed in the pilot study, we calculated the minimum sample size required to estimate the population mean with given confidence and precision.  (+info)

(3/7692) Lead exposure in the lead-acid storage battery manufacturing and PVC compounding industries.

This study was conducted as part of the Human Exposure Assessment Location (HEAL) Project which comes under the United Nations Environment Programme/World Health Organisation (UNEP/WHO) Global environmental Monitoring System (GEMS). The objective of the study was to evaluate workers' exposure to lead in industries with the highest exposure. All subjects were interviewed about their occupational and smoking histories, the use of personal protective equipment and personal hygiene. The contribution of a dietary source of lead intake from specified foods known to contain lead locally and personal air sampling for lead were assessed. A total of 61 workers from two PVC compounding and 50 workers from two lead acid battery manufacturing plants were studied together with 111 matched controls. In the PVC compounding plants the mean lead-in-air level was 0.0357 mg/m3, with the highest levels occurring during the pouring and mixing operations. This was lower than the mean lead-in-air level of 0.0886 mg/m3 in the lead battery manufacturing plants where the highest exposure was in the loading of lead ingots into milling machines. Workers in lead battery manufacturing had significantly higher mean blood lead than the PVC workers (means, 32.51 and 23.91 mcg/100 ml respectively), but there was poor correlation with lead-in-air levels. Among the lead workers, the Malays had significantly higher blood lead levels than the Chinese (mean blood levels were 33.03 and 25.35 mcg/100 ml respectively) although there was no significant difference between the two ethnic groups in the control group. There were no significant differences between the exposed and control group in terms of dietary intake of specified local foods known to contain lead. However, Malays consumed significantly more fish than the Chinese did. There were no ethnic differences in the hours of overtime work, number of years of exposure, usage of gloves and respirators and smoking habits. Among the Malays, 94.3% eat with their hands compared with 9.2% of the Chinese. Workers who ate with bare hands at least once a week had higher blood lead levels after adjusting for lead-in-air levels (mean blood lead was 30.2 and 26.4 mcg/100 ml respectively). The study indicated that the higher blood lead levels observed in the Malay workers might have been due to their higher exposure and eating with bare hands.  (+info)

(4/7692) Contact dermatitis in Alstroemeria workers.

Hand dermatitis is common in workers in the horticultural industry. This study determined the prevalence of hand dermatitis in workers of Alstroemeria cultivation, investigated how many workers had been sensitized by tulipalin A (the allergen in Alstroemeria) and took stock of a wide range of determinants of hand dermatitis. The 12-month period prevalence of major hand dermatitis amounted to 29.5% whereas 7.4% had minor dermatitis. Of these workers, 52.1% were sensitized for tulipalin A. Several personal and work-related determinants played a role in the multifactorial aetiology of hand dermatitis. Factors which showed a significant relationship with major hand dermatitis were: female sex, atopic dermatitis, chapped hands and the frequency of washing hands. It may be concluded that the Alstroemeria workers are a population at risk of developing contact dermatitis and it might be useful to carry out an educational campaign to lower the high prevalence.  (+info)

(5/7692) The feasibility of conducting occupational epidemiology in the UK.

A postal survey was carried out of 1,000 UK companies to collect information about employee biographical and work history records. The overall response rate was 46%. All companies collected surname, forenames, address, date of birth and National Insurance number--information needed for cross-sectional studies. Other biographical details such as maiden name and National Health Service number were collected less often, which could increase the cost and difficulty of tracing ex-employees. Seventy per cent reported destroying their records within 10 years of an employee leaving, rising to 82% for companies with fewer than 100 employees. The destruction of employee records creates problems for historical cohort studies and case-control studies, and may hamper ex-employees trying to claim benefit for occupational-related illness. If the scope of future occupational epidemiology is to be improved, guidelines for the collection and retention of the data required must be developed and industry encouraged to participate.  (+info)

(6/7692) Cohort study of art glass workers in Tuscany, Italy: mortality from non-malignant diseases.

This investigation studies cause-specific mortality of art glass workers employed in 17 industrial facilities in Tuscany, Italy. A cohort of 3,390 workers employed for at least 1 year was enumerated from company payrolls. Follow-up was between the start of employment in each factory and 31 December 1993. The cause-specific expected mortality was computed relative to Tuscany rates and specified for gender, 5-year age groups and calendar year. Separate analyses were carried out for the jobs of makers and formers and for batch mixers. Among males (3, 180 individuals) observed mortality for non-cancer causes was higher than expected for hypertensive disease [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 178, 90% confidence interval (90% CI) = 96-301], pneumoconiosis (SMR = 200, 90% CI = 94-376) and diseases of the genitourinary system (SMR = 169, 90% CI = 95-279). Increases for the above causes were shown also among makers and formers: hypertensive disease (SMR = 182, 90% CI = 85-341), pneumoconiosis (SMR = 250, 90% CI = 109-493) and diseases of the genitourinary system (SMR = 224, 90% CI = 121-380). For batch mixers an increase was present for cerebrovascular disease. The observed mortality for cancer causes was above the expected for cancers of the larynx, lung, stomach and brain. This study points to the existence for Tuscan glass workers of health effects in addition to cancer; previously observed carcinogenic effects were also confirmed.  (+info)

(7/7692) Irritant contact dermatitis due to 1-bromo-3-chloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoin in a hydrotherapy pool. Risk assessments: the need for continuous evidence-based assessments.

A physiotherapist working in hydrotherapy presented to occupational health with irritant contact dermatitis. Subsequent investigation revealed that the likely causative agent was 1-bromo 3-chloro 5,5 dimethylhydantoin which was used to disinfect the hydrotherapy pool. A COSHH risk assessment had been performed which failed to take full account of current knowledge and this agent had been introduced into the workplace. The development of adverse health effects among staff and other pool users lead to a review of this risk assessment and eventually a return to less hazardous chlorine-based disinfection. Had an evidence-based approach been combined with an appropriate COSHH assessment prior to and following changes in the workplace then unnecessary risk to employees would not have occurred.  (+info)

(8/7692) Mushroom worker's lung resulting from indoor cultivation of Pleurotus osteatus.

Indoor cultivation of oyster mushroom Pleurotus osteatus lead to an outbreak of extrinsic allergic alveolitis in two workers. High titer of indirect fluorescent antibody and positive precipitins against basidiospores of P. osteatus were demonstrated in sera of the patients. Mushroom workers should protect themselves from the basidiospores, being aware of their pathogenicity.  (+info)

pesticide exposures

  • We reviewed epidemiologic evidence related to occupational pesticide exposures and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) cohort. (scielosp.org)
  • However, the potential health effects of agricultural pesticide exposures are of particular interest, as these chemicals are designed to have adverse biological effects on target organisms. (scielosp.org)
  • To address this concern, the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) was initiated in 1993 to explore the potential health effects of pesticide exposures in commercial pesticide applicators, farmers, and their families in Iowa and North Carolina, USA. (scielosp.org)
  • In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. (mdpi.com)
  • Ye M, Beach J, Martin JW, Senthilselvan A. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health. (mdpi.com)


  • In addition to pesticides, occupational exposure to solvents, metals, engine exhaust, welding fumes, and grain dusts are prevalent in agriculture (Coble et al. (scielosp.org)


  • There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. (mdpi.com)


  • An occupational disease caused by inhalation of particles and fumes of metallic oxides and characterized by malarialike symptoms. (online-vitamins-guide.com)
  • The main cause of this exposure is usually breathing the fumes from welding, cutting, or brazing on galvanized metal. (online-vitamins-guide.com)


  • Epidemiological studies suggest an association between an increased incidence of childhood leukemia and benzene exposure during the early stages of pregnancy. (cdc.gov)


  • In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. (mdpi.com)
  • There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. (mdpi.com)