*  Observer variation. Causes, symptoms, treatment Observer variation
Treatment Observer variation. Symptoms and causes Observer variation Prophylaxis Observer variation ... Observer variation: Failure by the observer to measure accurately, resulting in error. Observer variation may be due to the ... For More Information «Observer variation». *. Observer Variation - - MeSH result - National Center for .... We are sorry, but ... Inter-observer variation is the amount of variation between the results obtained by two or more observers examining the same ...
  http://drugster.info/medic/term/observer-variation/
*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00023817 - Analysis of components of variation in a radiological method for determining total...
An analysis of variance indicates that over 94 percent of the total variation could be attributed to film differences, the ... An attempt is made to characterize quantitatively the several components of variation existing in the determination of total ... remaining 6 percent being a consequence of interobserver and intraobserver variation and the inherent rand ... It is shown that a relative error of about 5.8 percent could be expected with one observer making one determination for each ...
  https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/00023817.html
*  Cancers | Free Full-Text | Reinventing Diagnostics for Personalized Therapy in Oncology | HTML
The criteria are based upon morphologic observations by pathologists and tend to be subject to interobserver variation. In ... a study of inter-observer and intra-observer variation. Histopathology 2001, 38, 202-208. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] ... Gene Copy Number Variation. A number of genes with copy number increases or overexpression of their encoded proteins, or both, ... The criteria are based upon morphologic observations by pathologists and tend to be subject to interobserver variation. In ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/2/2/1066/htm
*  Plus it
All 1.5T and 7T scans were independently scored by 2 observers, both experienced neuroradiologists. The observers were trained ... Excitation pulses consisted of tilt-optimized nonsaturated excitation pulses with nominal flip angle variation of 16-24° in the ... The observers were blinded to the scan on the other field strength and to all clinical information. The scans of 10 patients ... In other studies at 1.5T, observer reliabilities vary from fair to very good;3,7,36 probably this is also due to differences in ...
  http://www.ajnr.org/content/32/6/1043
*  Observer variation in grading sacroiliac radiographs might be a cause of 'sacroiliitis' reported in certain disease states. |...
Observer variation in grading sacroiliac radiographs might be a cause of 'sacroiliitis' reported in certain disease states. ... Observer variation in grading sacroiliac radiographs might be a cause of 'sacroiliitis' reported in certain disease states. ... We conclude that high observer variation in interpreting a film of the anteroposterior (AP) view of the pelvis for sacroiliitis ... Although the inter- and intraobserver variation was quite high, all observers found the expected changes in patients with AS. ...
  http://ard.bmj.com/content/46/2/139
*  Observer bias in randomised clinical trials with binary outcomes: systematic review of trials with both blinded and non-blinded...
We furthermore explored whether the variation in ratio of odds ratios was associated with the three prespecified outcome ... Observer bias in.... *Observer bias in randomised clinical trials with binary outcomes: systematic review of trials with both ... Fundamentally, observer bias is caused by the predispositions of the observers, which might vary unpredictably from trial to ... The problem of observer bias goes beyond the randomised clinical trial. Comparisons between blinded and non-blinded observers ...
  http://www.bmj.com/content/344/bmj.e1119.long
*  Venous duplex scanning of the leg: range, variability and reproducibility | Clinical Science
To determine the reproducibility the intra-observer variability was measured in 11 healthy individuals (187 vein segments) and ... The coefficient of variation of the diameter measurements ranged from 14 to 50% and that of the reflux measurements from 28 to ... The inter-observer variability of the reflux and compressibility measurements in the patients was good. ... the inter-observer variability in 15 healthy individuals (255 vein segments) and 13 patients (169 vein segments) previously ...
  http://www.clinsci.org/content/96/3/271
*  Robustness to noise of arterial blood flow estimation methods in CT perfusion | BMC Research Notes | Full Text
... and inter-observer variability but they did not regard the liver [25]. Besides, some aspects of crucial importance are still ... which represented the contrast time variations, was computed. At this point, the search of the maximum element was limited to ... corresponds to the maximum contrast variation. Three consecutive data points of Cl curve, centred around the identified element ... studies are increasingly advocated as a means to assess the grade of vascularisation in HCC patients and to evaluate variations ...
  https://bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-0500-7-540
*  "Observer variation in MRI evaluation of patients with suspected lumbar" by Imaad Ur Rehman, Rana Shoaib Hamid et al.
Both observers were unaware of the patient\'s clinical history and each other\'s findings. Lumbar discs at L3-L4, L4-L5 and L5- ... Excellent inter-observer agreement was seen for the presence or absence of nerve root compression (Percentage agreement = 88.89 ... Inter-observer agreement between neuroradiologist and neurosurgeon in diagnosing nerve root compression due to lumbar disc ... although inter-observer agreement was fair, but the difference was statistically significant (Percentage agreement =84.57%; k ...
  https://ecommons.aku.edu/pakistan_fhs_mc_surg_neurosurg/39/
*  Classification of trochanteric fracture of the proximal femur: a study of the reliability of current systems. - Semantic Scholar
... for intra-observer variation and 0.34 (range: 0.17-0.38) for inter-observer variation. For the AO system with subgroups, the ... for intra-observer variation and 0.33 (range: 0.14-0.48) for inter-observer variation. For the AO classification system without ... for intra-observer variation and 0.62 (range: 0.50-0.71) for inter-observer variation. We recommend classifying trochanteric ... Kappa statistical analysis was used for determination of intra- and inter-observer variation. For the Jensen classification, ...
  https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Classification-of-trochanteric-fracture-of-the-pro-Pervez-Parker/6bd1db8d2226bc6f2f27cdce49eeb5a2f39bd4a1
*  HRCT diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal lung disease: inter-observer variation
Inter-observer variation for the first choice diagnosis was quantified using the unadjusted kappa coefficient of agreement. ... This study was designed to measure inter-observer variation between thoracic radiologists in the diagnosis of diffuse ... Observer agreement on the first choice diagnosis was moderate for the entire cohort (kappa = 0.48) and was higher for cases ... Observers stated differential diagnoses and assigned a percentage likelihood to each. A weighted kappa was calculated for the ...
  http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/13599836/hrct-diagnosis-diffuse-parenchymal-lung-disease-inter-observer-variation
*  Observer variation in the histological grading of rectal carcinoma. | Journal of Clinical Pathology
The variation between two observers in grading 100 biopsies and the corresponding main specimens of rectal carcinomas has been ... However, disagreements between observers were in many instances "haphazard" and there were differences in bias between them. ... Fifty paired biopsies and main tumours were graded by five observers and the results analysed for bias and by kappa statistics ... Examination for observer bias indicated differing standards of grading, and haphazard disagreements reached high levels for ...
  http://jcp.bmj.com/content/36/4/385
*  HKU Scholars Hub: Inter-observer variations on interpretation of capsule endoscopies
Inter-observer variations on interpretation of capsule endoscopies. Authors. Lai, LHWong, GLHChow, DKLLau, JYWSung, JJYLeung, ... Article: Inter-observer variations on interpretation of capsule endoscopies. *Show simple item record ... Here we studied the potential inter-observer variations on the interpretation of capsule endoscopy. Method: Two residents and ... Here we studied the potential inter-observer variations on the interpretation of capsule endoscopy. Method: Two residents and ...
  http://hub.hku.hk/handle/10722/162943
*  Regional observer performance variation in the evaluation of gated cardiac blood pool studies - Semantic Scholar
The observer response is significantly better in the apex than either the septum or posterolateral wall segments. The observer ... analysis demonstrated that regional variations of sensitivity exist in the detection of wall motion abnormality in cardiac ... Regional observer performance variation in the evaluation of gated cardiac blood pool studies. *. Stephen Jackson, R. S. ... The observer response is significantly better in the apex than either the septum or posterolateral wall segments. The observer ...
  https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Regional-observer-performance-variation-in-the-of-Jackson-Nickerson/6028650970e42d339070e27d65c7b4bcc4940696
*  Variation of Proton Flux Profiles with the Observer's Latitude in Simulated Gradual SEP Events | SpringerLink
... events with the relative observer's position in space with respect to... ... We studied the variation of the shape of the proton intensity-time profiles in simulated gradual Solar Energetic Particle (SEP ... The peak intensity variation with the radial distance for the pair of observers located at the same angular position was also ... Variation of Proton Flux Profiles with the Observer's Latitude in Simulated Gradual SEP Events. ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11207-013-0442-1
*  Imaging and Oncology Flashcards - Oncology | Brainscape
1. X-RAYS. -Simple, inexpensive, readily available, easily interpreted. -Radiation, poor tissue contrast, technician dependent, 2D. 2. CT SCAN. -Rapid, 3D capability, axial imaging, good bony detail. -Highest radiation, motion & metal artifact, limited ST contrast. 3. BONE SCANS. -Images metabolic activity, very sensitive in bones, low cost. -Non-specific, poor detail, anatomic changes not visualized. 4. MRI. -Superior tissue resolution. -Expensive, motion & metal artifact, can't use in some patients. 5. PET/CT or MRI. -Combines function and anatomy, best imaging for most cancers. -Expensive (pre-authorization). 6. ULTRASOUND. -Very safe, inexpensive, quick. -Small field of view, technician and radiologist dependent, artifacts. ...
  https://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/imaging-and-oncology-5106033/packs/7549553
*  Development of a methodological PubMed search filter for finding studies on measurement properties of measurement instruments |...
... "observer variation"[MeSH] OR observer variation[tiab] OR "discriminant analysis"[MeSH] OR reliab*[tiab] OR valid*[tiab] OR ... "observer variation"[MeSH] OR observer variation[tiab] OR "Health Status Indicators"[Mesh] OR "reproducibility of results"[MeSH ... OR inter-observer[tiab] OR intraobserver[tiab] OR intra-observer[tiab] OR intertechnician[tiab] OR inter-technician[tiab] OR ... OR inter-observer[tiab] OR intraobserver[tiab] OR intra-observer[tiab] OR intertechnician[tiab] OR inter-technician[tiab] OR ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11136-009-9528-5
*  Cardiovascular magnetic resonance tagging of the right ventricular free wall for the assessment of long axis myocardial...
Observer Variation. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Reproducibility of Results. Stroke Volume*. Ventricular ... Bland-Altman plots showing inter-observer and intra-observer reproducibility of RV displacements by the manual (a and c) and ... The gains in intra-observer reproducibility were of a similar magnitude. The intra- and inter-observer reproducibility we ... This technique introduces potential sources of variation between observers or studies. Another approach used 3D-modeling to ...
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Cardiovascular-Magnetic-Resonance-Tagging-Right/22168638.html
*  Reproducibility of dobutamine digital stress echocardiography.
Observer Variation. Reproducibility of Results. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 34368-04-2/Dobutamine ... Two observers assessed the wall motion using a six-point score in a 16-segment model and calculated the wall motion score index ...
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Reproducibility-dobutamine-digital-stress-echocardiography/9168356.html
*  Computer input devices: neutral party or source of significant error in manual lesion segmentation?
Observer Variation. Phantoms, Imaging. Physicians*. Radiology*. Comments/Corrections. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the ...
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Computer-Input-Devices-Neutral-Party/20049624.html
*  The crossover sign overestimates acetabular retroversion.
Observer Variation. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Reproducibility ...
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Crossover-Sign-Overestimates-Acetabular-Retroversion/23136058.html
*  Best lighting for naturalness and preference | JOV | ARVO Journals
There were six observers. All but one of the authors (OM) were naïve to the purpose of the experiment. Each observer had normal ... Fedorovskaya E. A. De Ridder H. Blommaert F. J. J. (1997). Chroma variations and perceived quality of color images of natural ... The instructions to the observers were written and shown to the observers at the beginning of each experimental session. None ... Average spectra chosen by observers in the preference condition. (a) The average across all the observers and categories. The ...
  http://jov.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2121619
*  Anarchy in Critical Dystopias: An Anatomy of Rebellion | The Anarchist Library
How many times have you heard some variation of derisive statements such as: "that couldn't work; it would be complete anarchy ... Hence, a high level of technological momentum "often causes observers to assume that a technological system has become ...
  https://theanarchistlibrary.org/library/taylor-andrew-loy-anarchy-in-critical-dystopias-an-anatomy-of-rebellion

(1/5805) Integrated visualization of functional and anatomic brain data: a validation study.

Two-dimensional SPECT display and three methods for integrated visualization of SPECT and MRI patient data are evaluated in a multiobserver study to determine whether localization of functional data can be improved by adding anatomical information to the display. METHODS: SPECT and MRI data of 30 patients were gathered and presented using four types of display: one of SPECT in isolation, two integrated two-dimensional displays and one integrated three-dimensional display. Cold and hot spots in the peripheral cortex were preselected and indicated on black-and-white hard copies of the image data. Nuclear medicine physicians were asked to assign the corresponding spots in the image data on the computer screen to a lobe and a gyrus and give a confidence rating for both localizations. Interobserver agreement using kappa statistics and average confidence ratings were assessed to interpret the reported observations. RESULTS: Both the interobserver agreement and the confidence of the observers were greater for the integrated two-dimensional displays than for the two-dimensional SPECT display. An additional increase in agreement and confidence was seen with the integrated three-dimensional display. CONCLUSION: Integrated display of SPECT and MR brain images provides better localization of cerebral blood perfusion abnormalities in the peripheral cortex in relation to the anatomy of the brain than single-modality display and increases the confidence of the observer.  (+info)

(2/5805) The Sock Test for evaluating activity limitation in patients with musculoskeletal pain.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Assessment within rehabilitation often must reflect patients' perceived functional problems and provide information on whether these problems are caused by impairments of the musculoskeletal system. Such capabilities were examined in a new functional test, the Sock Test, simulating the activity of putting on a sock. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Intertester reliability was examined in 21 patients. Concurrent validity, responsiveness, and predictive validity were examined in a sample of 337 patients and in subgroups of this sample. RESULTS: Intertester reliability was acceptable. Sock Test scores were related to concurrent reports of activity limitation in dressing activities. Scores also reflected questionnaire-derived reports of problems in a broad range of activities of daily living and pain and were responsive to change over time. Increases in age and body mass index increased the likelihood of Sock Test scores indicating activity limitation. Pretest scores were predictive of perceived difficulties in dressing activities after 1 year. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: Sock Test scores reflect perceived activity limitations and restrictions of the musculoskeletal system.  (+info)

(3/5805) Identifying homologous anatomical landmarks on reconstructed magnetic resonance images of the human cerebral cortical surface.

Guided by a review of the anatomical literature, 36 sulci on the human cerebral cortical surface were designated as homologous. These sulci were assessed for visibility on 3-dimensional images reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brains of 20 normal volunteers by 2 independent observers. Those sulci that were found to be reproducibly identifiable were used to define 24 landmarks around the cortical surface. The interobserver and intraobserver variabilities of measurement of the 24 landmarks were calculated. These reliably reproducible landmarks can be used for detailed morphometric analysis, and may prove helpful in the analysis of suspected cerebral cortical structured abnormalities in patients with such conditions as epilepsy.  (+info)

(4/5805) Venous duplex scanning of the leg: range, variability and reproducibility.

Despite the many studies on venous haemodynamics using duplex, only a few evaluated the normal values, variability and reproducibility. Therefore, the range and variability of venous diameter, compressibility, flow and reflux were measured. To obtain normal values, 42 healthy individuals (42 limbs, 714 vein segments) with no history of venous disease were scanned by duplex. To determine the reproducibility the intra-observer variability was measured in 11 healthy individuals (187 vein segments) and the inter-observer variability in 15 healthy individuals (255 vein segments) and 13 patients (169 vein segments) previously diagnosed with deep venous thrombosis. Of the 714 normal vein segments, 708 (99%) were traceable, including the crural veins. Of the traceable vein segments, 675 (95%) were compressible and in 696 (98%) flow was present. Of the 42 common femoral vein segments, in 25 (60%) the reflux duration exceeded 1.0 s, but in the other proximal vein segments the reflux duration was less than 1.0 s (95% confidence interval 3.0-10.0). With the exception of the distal long saphenous vein, in the distal vein segments the reflux duration was less than 0.5 s (95% confidence interval 3.5-8.2). The coefficient of variation of the diameter measurements ranged from 14 to 50% and that of the reflux measurements from 28 to 60%. The kappa-coefficient of the inter-observer variability in the classification of compressibility measurements in the patients was 0. 77 and that of the reflux measurements was 0.86. This study shows that almost all veins were compressible in healthy individuals, except the distal femoral veins. In healthy individuals the duration of reflux of the proximal veins was less than 1.0 s and in the distal veins it was less than 0.5 s. The inter-observer variability of the reflux and compressibility measurements in the patients was good.  (+info)

(5/5805) Computed radiography dual energy subtraction: performance evaluation when detecting low-contrast lung nodules in an anthropomorphic phantom.

A dedicated chest computed radiography (CR) system has an option of energy subtraction (ES) acquisition. Two imaging plates, rather than one, are separated by a copper filter to give a high-energy and low-energy image. This study compares the diagnostic accuracy of conventional computed radiography to that of ES obtained with two radiographic techniques. One soft tissue only image was obtained at the conventional CR technique (s = 254) and the second was obtained at twice the radiation exposure (s = 131) to reduce noise. An anthropomorphic phantom with superimposed low-contrast lung nodules was imaged 53 times for each radiographic technique. Fifteen images had no nodules; 38 images had a total of 90 nodules placed on the phantom. Three chest radiologists read the three sets of images in a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study. Significant differences in Az were only found between (1) the higher exposure energy subtracted images and the conventional dose energy subtracted images (P = .095, 90% confidence), and (2) the conventional CR and the energy subtracted image obtained at the same technique (P = .024, 98% confidence). As a result of this study, energy subtracted images cannot be substituted for conventional CR images when detecting low-contrast nodules, even when twice the exposure is used to obtain them.  (+info)

(6/5805) Tomatoes, tomato-based products, lycopene, and cancer: review of the epidemiologic literature.

The epidemiologic literature in the English language regarding intake of tomatoes and tomato-based products and blood lycopene (a compound derived predominantly from tomatoes) level in relation to the risk of various cancers was reviewed. Among 72 studies identified, 57 reported inverse associations between tomato intake or blood lycopene level and the risk of cancer at a defined anatomic site; 35 of these inverse associations were statistically significant. No study indicated that higher tomato consumption or blood lycopene level statistically significantly increased the risk of cancer at any of the investigated sites. About half of the relative risks for comparisons of high with low intakes or levels for tomatoes or lycopene were approximately 0.6 or lower. The evidence for a benefit was strongest for cancers of the prostate, lung, and stomach. Data were also suggestive of a benefit for cancers of the pancreas, colon and rectum, esophagus, oral cavity, breast, and cervix. Because the data are from observational studies, a cause-effect relationship cannot be established definitively. However, the consistency of the results across numerous studies in diverse populations, for case-control and prospective studies, and for dietary-based and blood-based investigations argues against bias or confounding as the explanation for these findings. Lycopene may account for or contribute to these benefits, but this possibility is not yet proven and requires further study. Numerous other potentially beneficial compounds are present in tomatoes, and, conceivably, complex interactions among multiple components may contribute to the anticancer properties of tomatoes. The consistently lower risk of cancer for a variety of anatomic sites that is associated with higher consumption of tomatoes and tomato-based products adds further support for current dietary recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable consumption.  (+info)

(7/5805) The psychometric properties of clinical rating scales used in multiple sclerosis.

OullII;l y Many clinical rating scales have been proposed to assess the impact of multiple sclerosis on patients, but only few have been evaluated formally for reliability, validity and responsiveness. We assessed the psychometric properties of five commonly used scales in multiple sclerosis, the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), the Scripps Neurological Rating Scale (SNRS), the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the Ambulation Index (AI) and the Cambridge Multiple Sclerosis Basic Score (CAMBS). The score frequency distributions of all five scales were either bimodal (EDSS and AI) or severely skewed (SNRS, FIM and CAMBS). The reliability of each scale depended on the definition of 'agreement'. Inter-and intra-rater reliabilities were high when 'agreement' was considered to exist despite a difference of up to 1.0 EDSS point (two 0.5 steps), 13 SNRS points, 9 FIM points, 1 AI point and 1 point on the various CAMBS domains. The FIM, AI, and the relapse and progression domains of the CAMBS were sensitive to clinical change, but the EDSS and the SNRS were unresponsive. The validity of these scales as impairment (SNRS and EDSS) and disability (EDSS, FIM, AI and the disability domain of the CAMBS) measures was established. All scales correlated closely with other measures of handicap and quality of life. None of these scales satisfied the psychometric requirements of outcome measures completely, but each had some desirable properties. The SNRS and the EDSS were reliable and valid measures of impairment and disability, but they were unresponsive. The FIM was a reliable, valid and responsive measure of disability, but it is cumbersome to administer and has a limited content validity. The AI was a reliable and valid ambulation-related disability scale, but it was weakly responsive. The CAMBS was a reliable (all four domains) and responsive (relapse and progression domains) outcome measure, but had a limited validity (handicap domain). These psychometric properties should be considered when designing further clinical trials in multiple sclerosis.  (+info)

(8/5805) Cephalometric abnormalities in non-obese and obese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

The aim of this work was to comprehensively evaluate the cephalometric features in Japanese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and to elucidate the relationship between cephalometric variables and severity of apnoea. Forty-eight cephalometric variables were measured in 37 healthy males and 114 male OSA patients, who were classed into 54 non-obese (body mass index (BMI) <27 kg x m(-2), apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI)=25.3+/-16.1 events x h(-1)) and 60 obese (BMI > or = 27 kg x m(-2), AHI=45.6+/-28.0 events h(-1)) groups. Diagnostic polysomnography was carried out in all of the OSA patients and in 19 of the normal controls. The non-obese OSA patients showed several cephalometric defects compared with their BMI-matched normal controls: 1) decreased facial A-P distance at cranial base, maxilla and mandible levels and decreased bony pharynx width; 2) enlarged tongue and inferior shift of the tongue volume; 3) enlarged soft palate; 4) inferiorly positioned hyoid bone; and 5) decreased upper airway width at four different levels. More extensive and severe soft tissue abnormalities with a few defects in craniofacial bony structures were found in the obese OSA group. For the non-obese OSA group, the stepwise regression model on AHI was significant with two bony structure variables as determinants: anterior cranial base length (S-N) and mandibular length (Me-Go). Although the regression model retained only linear distance between anterior vertebra and hyoid bone (H-VL) as an explainable determinant for AHI in the obese OSA group, H-VL was significantly correlated with soft tissue measurements such as overall tongue area (Ton), inferior tongue area (Ton2) and pharyngeal airway length (PNS-V). In conclusion, Japanese obstructive sleep apnoea patients have a series of cephalometric abnormalities similar to those described in Caucasian patients, and that the aetiology of obstructive sleep apnoea in obese patients may be different from that in non-obese patients. In obese patients, upper airway soft tissue enlargement may play a more important role in the development of obstructive sleep apnoea, whereas in non-obese patients, bony structure discrepancies may be the dominant contributing factors for obstructive sleep apnoea.  (+info)



  • differences
  • The differences among flux profiles are the result of the way each observer establishes a magnetic connection with the shock front, and we found that changes in the observer's latitude may result in intensity changes of up to one order of magnitude at the two radial distances considered here. (springer.com)
  • Measurements can be useful to study growth, variation between geographically separated forms, identify differences between the sexes, age or otherwise characterize individuals birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • Examination for observer bias indicated differing standards of grading, and haphazard disagreements reached high levels for some observer pairs. (bmj.com)
  • We conclude that high observer variation in interpreting a film of the anteroposterior (AP) view of the pelvis for sacroiliitis may be a major cause of reported 'sacroiliitis' in BS and FMF. (bmj.com)
  • different
  • Under the assumption of an existing relation between the normalized ratio in speed across the shock front and the injection rate of shock-accelerated particles, we modelled the transport of the particles and obtained the proton flux profiles to be measured by a grid of 18 virtual observers located at 0.4 and 1.0 AU, with different latitudes and longitudes with respect to the shock nose. (springer.com)
  • analysis
  • Although field measurements are usually univariate, laboratory techniques can often make use of multivariate measurements derived from an analysis of variation and correlations of these univariate measures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of Hipparcos photometry showed clear variation with a maximum range of 0.12 magnitudes and the star was treated as an α Cygni variable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although
  • Although a large number of sites were independently assessed by up to six observers, variations of up to four degrees of the Mercalli scale indicated that an accurate figure was practically impossible to gauge. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • As such it takes the form of a perceptual prototype category that does not require discrete boundaries in order to function in the eyes (and ears) of lay observers of language variation and change. (wikipedia.org)
  • variable
  • Albert Francis Arthur Lofley Jones OBE (9 August 1920 - 11 September 2013) was a New Zealand amateur astronomer, and a prolific variable star and comet observer, a member of the Variable Star Section and the Comet Section of the Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand. (wikipedia.org)
  • American Association of Variable Star Observers. (wikipedia.org)
  • less
  • In some birds the distance between the back of the skull and the tip of the beak may be more suitable and less prone to variation resulting from the difficulty of interpreting the feathered base of the mandible. (wikipedia.org)
  • materials
  • variations in damage were related to the materials used and construction method of individual buildings, rather than the proximity to the fault break. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • We studied the variation of the shape of the proton intensity-time profiles in simulated gradual Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events with the relative observer's position in space with respect to the main direction of propagation of an interplanetary (IP) shock. (springer.com)