Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Obesity, Abdominal: A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.Pediatric Obesity: BODY MASS INDEX in children (ages 2-12) and in adolescents (ages 13-18) that is grossly above the recommended cut-off for a specific age and sex. For infants less than 2 years of age, obesity is determined based on standard weight-for-length percentile measures.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome: HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Waist-Hip Ratio: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Bariatric Surgery: Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in BRAIN. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH; BETA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.United StatesIntra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Receptors, Leptin: Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Mice, Inbred C57BLTriglyceridesMotor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Gastric Bypass: Surgical procedure in which the STOMACH is transected high on the body. The resulting small proximal gastric pouch is joined to any parts of the SMALL INTESTINE by an end-to-side SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS, depending on the amounts of intestinal surface being bypasses. This procedure is used frequently in the treatment of MORBID OBESITY by limiting the size of functional STOMACH, food intake, and food absorption.Gastroplasty: Surgical procedures involving the STOMACH and sometimes the lower ESOPHAGUS to correct anatomical defects, or to treat MORBID OBESITY by reducing the size of the stomach. There are several subtypes of bariatric gastroplasty, such as vertical banded gastroplasty, silicone ring vertical gastroplasty, and horizontal banded gastroplasty.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Overnutrition: An imbalanced NUTRITIONAL STATUS resulting from excessive intake of nutrients. Generally, overnutrition generates an energy imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure leading to disorders such as OBESITY.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Thermogenesis: The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Skinfold Thickness: The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Agouti Signaling Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids (depending on species) that regulates the synthesis of eumelanin (brown/black) pigments in MELANOCYTES. Agouti protein antagonizes the signaling of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS and has wide distribution including ADIPOSE TISSUE; GONADS; and HEART. Its overexpression in agouti mice results in uniform yellow coat color, OBESITY, and metabolic defects similar to type II diabetes in humans.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Schools: Educational institutions.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.CyclobutanesNutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Bardet-Biedl Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; POLYDACTYLY; OBESITY; MENTAL RETARDATION; hypogenitalism; renal dysplasia; and short stature. This syndrome has been distinguished as a separate entity from LAURENCE-MOON SYNDROME. (From J Med Genet 1997 Feb;34(2):92-8)Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Resistin: A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Hypothalamic Diseases: Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Biliopancreatic Diversion: A surgical procedure which diverts pancreatobiliary secretions via the duodenum and the jejunum into the colon, the remaining small intestine being anastomosed to the stomach after antrectomy. The procedure produces less diarrhea than does jejunoileal bypass.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Weight Reduction Programs: Services providing counseling and activities that help overweight individuals to attain a more healthy body weight.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Agouti-Related Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.Nutrigenomics: The study of the relationship between NUTRITIONAL PHYSIOLOGY and genetic makeup. It includes the effect of different food components on GENE EXPRESSION and how variations in GENES effect responses to food components.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Body Image: Individuals' concept of their own bodies.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Aurothioglucose: A thioglucose derivative used as an antirheumatic and experimentally to produce obesity in animals.Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)JapanPublic Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.BrazilJejunoileal Bypass: A procedure consisting of the SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS of the proximal part of the JEJUNUM to the distal portion of the ILEUM, so as to bypass the nutrient-absorptive segment of the SMALL INTESTINE. Due to the severe malnutrition and life-threatening metabolic complications, this method is no longer used to treat MORBID OBESITY.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.MexicoHypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Carbonated Beverages: Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.

*  Study Links Socio-Economic Deprivation to Maternal Obesity ( Pregnant women from economically disadv...)

Maternal obesity has increased from 9.9 percent in 1990 to 16 percen... The trends we have identified are from a primarily ... deprived populat...,Study,Links,Socio-Economic,Deprivation,to,Maternal,Obesity,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news, ... Study on obesity and heart failure 3. National Lung Study in the process 4. Study casts doubt on keyboard ills. 5. Study ... Maternal obesity has increased from 9.9 percent in 1990 to 16 percent in 2004. If this trend continues, by 2010, 22 percent of ...
bio-medicine.org/medicine-news/Study-Links-Socio-Economic-Deprivation-to-Maternal-Obesity-18011-1/

*  Drug Treatment Of Child And Adolescent Obesity - PDF

Drug Treatment Of Child And Adolescent Obesity ebook.ecog-obesity.eu/chapter-treatment/drug-treatment-of-child-and-adolescent- ... obesity Marie-Laure Frelut Marie-Laure Frelut is a Pediatrician. She became ... Obesity Affects Quality of Life Obesity Obesity is a serious health epidemic. Obesity is a condition characterized by excessive ... Medications for Obesity: Why No Magic Bullets? OBESITY Pathophysiology Learning Objectives Medications for Obesity: Why No ...
docplayer.net/705127-Drug-treatment-of-child-and-adolescent-obesity.html

*  Heterozygous Mutations Causing Partial Prohormone Convertase 1 Deficiency Contribute to Human Obesity | Diabetes

Defining childhood obesity: the relative body mass index (BMI). European Childhood Obesity group. Acta Paediatr 1995;84:961-963 ... Non-synonymous polymorphisms in melanocortin-4 receptor protect against obesity: the two facets of a Janus obesity gene. Hum ... Clinical spectrum of obesity and mutations in the melanocortin 4 receptor gene. N Engl J Med 2003;348:1085-1095doi:10.1056/ ... associate with a rather penetrant form of obesity. Indeed, these functional variants increase the risk of developing obesity ...
diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/61/2/383.long?cited-by=yes&legid=diabetes

*  DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Nutritional and Metabolic Disorders: Obesity: Organizations

World Obesity Federation Network of professionals working in obesity research and education offering reports, conferences, ... Donald B. Brown Research Chair on Obesity A Laval University center dedicated to research, communication and education on ... Australian and New Zealand Obesity Society (ANZOS) A scientific organisation of medical practitioners, dietitians, scientists ... The European Association for the Study of Obesity Independent European biomedical membership association promoting research ...
dmoztools.net/Health/Conditions_and_Diseases/Nutritional_and_Metabolic_Disorders/Obesity/Organizations/

*  CDC Childhood Obesity Program Commits Millions to Fight Epidemic

... aims to develop programs to combat childhood obesity in low-income areas. ... The CDC's Childhood Obesity Demonstration Project, funded by the Affordable Care Act, ... Addressing childhood obesity and lifestyle choices has been a major endeavor undertaken by First Lady Michelle Obama since ... Over the last three decades, obesity rates among children and adolescents have nearly tripled, said CDC Director Thomas R. ...
ibtimes.com/cdc-childhood-obesity-program-commits-millions-fight-epidemic-320264

*  Obesity Linked to Breast Cancer - Redorbit

Obesity Linked to Breast Cancer. A study finds overweight and obese women are at higher risk for breast cancer recurrences even ...
redorbit.com/video/obesity_breast_cancer/

*  Rap1 Gene in the Brain Could be a Therapeutic Target for Obesity in Future

... explains how obesity is triggered by consumption of a high-fat diet. ... Obesity Gene may Increase Risk of Deadly Skin Cancer. Obesity could be a precursor to one of the deadliest forms of skin cancer ... Common Obesity Gene Contributes to Weight Gain: Study. The manner in which a gene commonly linked to obesity-FTO contributes to ... Obesity Gene Linked to Weight Gain. FTO, the gene commonly associated with obesity, may actually contribute to weight gain, a ...
medindia.net/news/healthinfocus/rap1-gene-in-the-brain-could-be-a-therapeutic-target-for-obesity-in-future-163417-1.htm

*  Obesity | Energetics Research Group

Energetics and Obesity. According to the WHO, obesity is the largest health threat facing the western world. Our work on ... The evolutionary context of our propensity to develop obesity. *Whether the obesity epidemic has been caused more by increases ... Obesity 15: 2994-3004.. *Rance, K.A., Fustin, J.M., Dalgleish, G., Hambly, C., Bünger, L. and SPEAKMAN, J.R. (2005). A ... Obesity 15: 600-606. *Johnstone, A.M., Murison, S.D., Duncan, J.S., Rance, K.A. and SPEAKMAN, J.R (2005) Factors influencing ...
https://abdn.ac.uk/energetics-research/research/obesity/

*  Pao Yue-kong Library PolyU Electronic Theses Database - Measurement of subcutaneous fat thickness with...

Childhood obesity is reported to be highly correlated with adult obesity, and risk of obesity-related diseases tends to be life ... Obesity in children.. Obesity -- Diagnosis.. Body composition -- Measurement.. Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- ... Background: The prevalence of obesity has increased very rapidly and has become a worldwide epidemic. It could happen in people ... In Hong Kong (HK), measurements commonly adopted to reflect childhood obesity status are body mass index (BMI), waist ...
theses.lib.polyu.edu.hk/handle/200/6525

*  Sedentary behaviour and obesity development in children and adolescents.

The mind body connection: Impacts on obesity. PPT Version , PDF Version. *Shuo Wang. Childhood obesity interacts with the HIF3A ... 14th Global Obesity Meeting. Oct 23-24, 2017 Dubai, UAE. *16th International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity & Weight ... Childhood Obesity. PPT Version , PDF Version. *Jose-Maria Montero Environmental economics- Jose-Maria Montero. PPT Version , ... Sedentary behaviour and obesity development in children and adolescents.. Author(s): ReyLpez JP, VicenteRodrguez G, Biosca M, ...
https://omicsonline.org/references/sedentary-behaviour-and-obesity-development-in-children-and-adolescents-1437731.html

*  New Preventive Strategy to Fight Childhood Obesity ( Scientists from the University of Cinci...)

Obesity,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news ... The obesity intervention program is the creation of Megan Canavera, a registered dietician and master's degree candidate in the ... New Preventive Strategy to Fight Childhood Obesity. Scientists from the University of Cincinnati have come up with a new p... ... Scientists from the University of Cincinnati have come up with a new preventive strategy to fight childhood obesity.// This ...
bio-medicine.org/medicine-news/New-Preventive-Strategy-to-Fight-Childhood-Obesity-12469-1/

*  DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Nutritional and Metabolic Disorders: Obesity

Obesity is a chronic condition characterized by excessive bodily fat caused by a combination of genetic, behavioral, metabolic ... BBC Science - What are the health risks of obesity? The impact of obesity in the UK: financial, related health problems, ... Mercer University School of Medicine - The Obesity Problem Tutorial on specific health risks associated with obesity and what ... PBS NewsHour - Obesity in America: By the Numbers Startling statistics showing that American adults are expanding by the year, ...
dmoztools.net/Health/Conditions_and_Diseases/Nutritional_and_Metabolic_Disorders/Obesity/

*  Researchers Seek to Prevent High Obesity Risk Among Disabled Children

Children who are disabled are at increased risk of becoming obesity. Now, a team of researchers has described possible ways to ... Obesity. Obesity is a condition where there is excess accumulation of body fat which poses a risk to the health of the ... Bariatric Surgery Obesity Diabetes - Essentials Bulimia Nervosa Height and Weight-Kids Body Mass Index Liposuction Battle of ... An erratic way of eating or any metabolic disturbance in the hunger fullness signals is one of the major causes of obesity. ...
medindia.net/news/Researchers-Seek-to-Prevent-High-Obesity-Risk-Among-Disabled-Children-68525-1.htm

*  Obesity Rates Continue to Rise

A recent study has reported that obesity rates around the world are on the rise. Data indicates that, on average, ... The cause of obesity varies greatly from person to person. Some people inherit a propensity for weight gain, while others are ... "Obesity can leave affected individuals highly susceptible to many serious illnesses, including heart disease and stroke," said ... A recent study has reported that obesity rates around the world are on the rise. Data indicates that, on average, between .5 ...
prweb.com/releases/2006/08/prweb429046.htm

*  Second Genome, Pfizer Take On Obesity via the Microbiome | GEN

Second Genome is teaming up with Pfizer to conduct research on the microbiome as part of a study focused on obesity and ... Gut Bacteria May Hold Key to Overcoming Obesity. * Driven to Cancer by Obesity. Researchers reveal how an obesity-induced gut ... Second Genome, Pfizer Take On Obesity via the Microbiome * Second Genome is teaming up with Pfizer to conduct research on the ... which makes the microbiome an attractive target for obesity treatments. ...
genengnews.com/gen-news-highlights/second-genome-pfizer-take-on-obesity-via-the-microbiome/81249816?kwrd=Obesity

*  Prognostički čimbenici uspjeha različitih barijatrijskih zahvata | Repozitorij Stomatološkog fakulteta u Zagrebu

Obesity-related morbidity places a burden on healthcare systems. If left untreated, obesity is associated with the development ... obesity intragastric balloon bariatric surgery leptin ghrelin growth hormone insulin resistance prognostic factors. ... Obesity is a serious metabolic disease that has many clinical complications. It is associated with decreased life expectancy as ... Introduction: Obesity is a chronic metabolic disease that is characterized by an excessive accumulation of body fat and ...
https://repozitorij.sfzg.unizg.hr/islandora/object/sfzg:261

*  Mothers and Others: Family-based Obesity Prevention for Infants and Toddlers - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Behavioral: Obesity Prevention Group Active Comparator: Injury Prevention Group Mothers and families receive a developmentally ... Mothers and Others: Family-based Obesity Prevention for Infants and Toddlers. Further study details as provided by University ... Mothers and Others: Family-based Obesity Prevention for Infants and Toddlers will be one of the first to meet the unique needs ... Mothers and Others: Family-based Obesity Prevention for Infants and Toddlers. This study is ongoing, but not recruiting ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01938118?recr=Open&cond="nutrition disorders" AND infant&rank=11

*  Childhood Obesity Review: (EUFIC)

What is childhood obesity and what can we do about it? ... Obesity in Europe has significantly increased, with 1 in 3 ... How is childhood obesity defined?. Obesity can be defined in simple terms as a condition of abnormal or excessive fat ... International Journal of Obesity 29(2):54-57. *Maziak W, Ward KD & Stockton MB (2008). Childhood obesity: Are we missing the ... The Obesity Society 31(11):2211-2221. *Walley AJ (2006). Genetics of obesity and the prediction of risk for health. Human ...
eufic.org/en/healthy-living/article/childhood-obesity-review

*  A dominant mutation in the obesity susceptibility gene FTO results in reduced fat mass with enhanced lipid and carbohydrate...

A dominant mutation in the obesity susceptibility gene FTO results in reduced fat mass with enhanced lipid and carbohydrate ... A dominant mutation in the obesity susceptibility gene FTO results in reduced fat mass with enhanced lipid and carbohydrate ...
https://dpag.ox.ac.uk/publications/41351

*  Abstract 20787: Maternal Obesity Causes Contractile Dysfunction of Term Fetal Sheep Cardiomyocytes | Circulation

Background: Maternal obesity (MO), in pregnancy, predisposes offspring to a higher risk of obesity, heart disease, hypertension ... Abstract 20787: Maternal Obesity Causes Contractile Dysfunction of Term Fetal Sheep Cardiomyocytes. Qiurong Wang, Chaoqun Zhu, ... Abstract 20787: Maternal Obesity Causes Contractile Dysfunction of Term Fetal Sheep Cardiomyocytes ... Abstract 20787: Maternal Obesity Causes Contractile Dysfunction of Term Fetal Sheep Cardiomyocytes ...
circ.ahajournals.org/content/134/Suppl_1/A20787

*  How Malnutrition Causes Obesity - Dr. Mark Hyman

How Malnutrition Causes Obesity. Americans are overfed and undernourished. That's right, the most obese children and adults in ... Fewer nutrients means lowered immunity and increased vulnerability to chronic disease and obesity. ...
drhyman.com/blog/2012/02/29/how-malnutrition-causes-obesity/

*  Alarming rates of Estrogen Dominance

... and often obesity. What is most shocking to me is that over 30% of modern day women now deal with this! Most women under the ...
sustainablyhealthy.net/alarming-rates-of-estrogen-dominance/

*  Obesity, genetics, and responsibility.

Nature tops nurture in childhood obesity,' a wire story announced last week. The article's first sentence reported that ... How do we know the modern environment is a factor? Because the obesity rate has soared in less than a generation. As the ... I've read and written a lot about obesity lately, and one thing I've learned, especially from my mistakes, is that genetics and ... The authors conclude that parents shouldn't be blamed for child obesity. After all, they note, the data show that "siblings' ...
slate.com/articles/health_and_science/human_nature/2008/02/fat_chance.single.html

*  Some Infant Care Practices May Contribute to Later Obesity

A new study reveals that many parents partake in infant feeding and activity behaviors that increase a child's risk for obesity ... While we don't know the exact causes of obesity, families of all races and ethnicities need early counseling to lead healthier ... A new study reveals that many parents partake in infant feeding and activity behaviors that increase a child's risk for obesity ... Some Infant Care Practices May Contribute to Later Obesity. By Rick Nauert PhD. ~ 1 min read ...
https://psychcentral.com/news/2014/03/18/some-infant-care-practices-may-contribute-to-later-obesity/67258.html

*  obesity : NPR

obesity
npr.org/tags/128854588/obesity/archive?start=placeholder&date=8-31-1996

Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Abdominal obesityOverweight PoochAdipose tissue macrophages: Adipose tissue macrophages (abbr. ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue.LeptinQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Management of obesity: The main treatment for obesity consists of dieting and physical exercise. Diet programs may produce weight loss over the short term, but maintaining this weight loss is frequently difficult and often requires making exercise and a lower calorie diet a permanent part of an individual's lifestyle.Anti-obesity medication: Anti-obesity medication or weight loss drugs are all pharmacological agents that reduce or control weight. These drugs alter one of the fundamental processes of the human body, weight regulation, by altering either appetite, or absorption of calories.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Waist-to-height ratio: A person's waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), also called waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), is defined as their waist circumference divided by their height, both measured in the same units. The WHtR is a measure of the distribution of body fat.National Cholesterol Education Program: The National Cholesterol Education Program is a program managed by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health. Its goal is to reduce increased cardiovascular disease rates due to hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) in the United States of America.Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Animal fatOutline of diabetes: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to diabetes:Obesity hypoventilation syndromeInsulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.PRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.List of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.Blood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.Obesity Treatments and Medical Research: Obesity and its associated diseases are now one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the scale of this problem, successful preventative and treatment options for overweight and obesity remain limited.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,High-intensity interval training: High-intensity interval training (HIIT), also called high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) or sprint interval training (SIT), is an enhanced form of interval training, an exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less-intense recovery periods. HIIT is a form of cardiovascular exercise.Adipokine: The adipokines, or adipocytokines (Greek adipo-, fat; cytos-, cell; and -kinos, movement) are cytokines (cell signaling proteins) secreted by adipose tissue. The first adipokine to be discovered was leptin in 1994.Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus: A newly identified and potentially treatable form of monogenic diabetes is the neonatal diabetes caused by activating mutations of the KCNJ11 gene, which codes for the Kir6.2 subunit of the beta cell KATP channel.Adiponectin: Adiponectin (also referred to as GBP-28, apM1, AdipoQ and Acrp30) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene. It is involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown.Fatty liverTriglycerideHeartScore: HeartScore is a cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management tool developed by the European Society of Cardiology, aimed at supporting clinicians in optimising individual cardiovascular risk reduction.Lipotoxicity: Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. The tissues normally affected include the kidneys, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Gastric bypass surgeryVertical banded gastroplasty surgeryHypertensionWaterladder pumpLifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Adipogenesis: Adipogenesis is the process of cell differentiation by which preadipocytes become adipocytes. Adipogenesis has been one of the most intensively studied models of cellular differentiation.Lipid droplet: Lipid droplets, also referred to as lipid bodies, oil bodies or adiposomes, are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose tissue.Mobilization and cellular uptake of stored fats and triacylglycerol (with Animation) They also serve as a reservoir for cholesterol and acyl-glycerols for membrane formation and maintenance.Inflammation: Inflammation (Latin, [is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogen]s, damaged cells, or irritants.Dieter Weichert: Dieter Weichert (born 1948) is a German mechanical engineer specialising in solid mechanics and polymer rheology. Since 1995 he is the Director of the Institute for General Mechanics of RWTH Aachen.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Comorbidity: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Overnutrition: Overnutrition or hyperalimentation is a form of malnutrition in which the intake of nutrients is oversupplied. The amount of nutrients exceeds the amount required for normal growth, development, and metabolism.TiflorexAgouti gene: The Agouti gene is responsible for determining whether a mammal's coat is banded (agouti) or of a solid color (non-agouti). The chief product of the Agouti gene is Agouti signalling peptide (ASP), but there are a number of alternative splice products.Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Emergency (UK television programme): Emergency was a twentieth century UK television programme presented by Sue Robbie where a panel of experts gave advice on emergency situations. The programme was produced by David Crossman, and was an Action Time production for This Morning and Granada Television.

(1/23597) Leptin suppression of insulin secretion and gene expression in human pancreatic islets: implications for the development of adipogenic diabetes mellitus.

Previously we demonstrated the expression of the long form of the leptin receptor in rodent pancreatic beta-cells and an inhibition of insulin secretion by leptin via activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Here we examine pancreatic islets isolated from pancreata of human donors for their responses to leptin. The presence of leptin receptors on islet beta-cells was demonstrated by double fluorescence confocal microscopy after binding of a fluorescent derivative of human leptin (Cy3-leptin). Leptin (6.25 nM) suppressed insulin secretion of normal islets by 20% at 5.6 mM glucose. Intracellular calcium responses to 16.7 mM glucose were rapidly reduced by leptin. Proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid expression in islets was inhibited by leptin at 11.1 mM, but not at 5.6 mM glucose. Leptin also reduced proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid levels that were increased in islets by treatment with 10 nM glucagon-like peptide-1 in the presence of either 5.6 or 11.1 mM glucose. These findings demonstrate direct suppressive effects of leptin on insulin-producing beta-cells in human islets at the levels of both stimulus-secretion coupling and gene expression. The findings also further indicate the existence of an adipoinsular axis in humans in which insulin stimulates leptin production in adipocytes and leptin inhibits the production of insulin in beta-cells. We suggest that dysregulation of the adipoinsular axis in obese individuals due to defective leptin reception by beta-cells may result in chronic hyperinsulinemia and may contribute to the pathogenesis of adipogenic diabetes.  (+info)

(2/23597) DEF-1, a novel Src SH3 binding protein that promotes adipogenesis in fibroblastic cell lines.

The Src homology 3 (SH3) motif is found in numerous signal transduction proteins involved in cellular growth and differentiation. We have purified and cloned a novel protein, DEF-1 (differentiation-enhancing factor), from bovine brain by using a Src SH3 affinity column. Ectopic expression of DEF-1 in fibroblasts resulted in the differentiation of a significant fraction of the culture into adipocytes. This phenotype appears to be related to the induction of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), since DEF-1 NIH 3T3 cells demonstrated augmented levels of PPARgamma mRNA and, when treated with activating PPARgamma ligands, efficient induction of differentiation. Further evidence for a role for DEF-1 in adipogenesis was provided by heightened expression of DEF-1 mRNA in adipose tissue isolated from obese and diabetes mice compared to that in tissue isolated from wild-type mice. However, DEF-1 mRNA was detected in multiple tissues, suggesting that the signal transduction pathway(s) in which DEF-1 is involved is not limited to adipogenesis. These results suggest that DEF-1 is an important component of a signal transduction process that is involved in the differentiation of fibroblasts and possibly of other types of cells.  (+info)

(3/23597) Low calorie diet enhances renal, hemodynamic, and humoral effects of exogenous atrial natriuretic peptide in obese hypertensives.

The expression of the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor is abundant in human and rat adipose tissue, where it is specifically inhibited by fasting. In obese hypertensives, plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels were found to be lower than in obese normotensives. Therefore, the increased adipose mass might influence ANP levels and/or its biological activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the humoral, hemodynamic, and renal effects of exogenous ANP in obese hypertensives might be enhanced by a very low calorie diet. Eight obese hypertensives received a bolus injection of ANP (0.6 mg/kg) after 2 weeks of a normal calorie/normal sodium diet, and blood pressure (BP), heart rate, ANP, cGMP, plasma renin activity, and aldosterone were evaluated for 2 hours before and after the injection. Diuresis and natriuresis were measured every 30 minutes. The patients then started a low calorie/normal sodium diet (510 kcal/150 mmol/d) for 4 days, and then the ANP injection protocol was repeated. The low calorie diet induced a slight weight loss (from 90.6+/-1.1 to 87. 7+/-1.2 kg; P<0.01), which was accompanied by increase of cGMP excretion (from 146.0+/-10.1 to 154.5+/-9.5 nmol/24 h; P<0.05) together with a reduction of BP (P<0.01 versus basal levels). ANP injection after diet was followed by an increase of ANP levels similar to that observed before diet, but plasma cGMP, diuresis, and natriuresis increased significantly only after diet. Similarly, the decrease of BP after ANP administration was significantly higher after diet (change in mean arterial pressure, -6.4+/-0.7 versus -4. 0+/-0.6 mm Hg; P<0.05) as well as that of aldosterone (P<0.01). These data show that a low calorie diet enhances the humoral, renal, and hemodynamic effects of ANP in obese hypertensives and confirm the importance of caloric intake in modulating the biological activity of ANP, suggesting that the natriuretic peptide system can play a role in the acute changes of natriuresis and diuresis associated with caloric restriction.  (+info)

(4/23597) Relation between obesity and breast cancer in young women.

This study was conducted to assess the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer among young women. A case-control study was conducted among women aged 21-45 years living in three counties in Washington State. Cases were women born after 1944 with invasive or in situ breast cancer that was diagnosed between January 1, 1983, and April 30, 1990. Controls were selected using random digit dialing and were frequency-matched to cases on the basis of age and county of residence. Interviews took place between 1986 and 1992. Body size was evaluated using indices from several different time periods. After adjustment for confounders, a decreased risk of breast cancer was found for women in the highest quintile of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2) as compared with the lowest quintile (for maximum lifetime body mass index, odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.94). Age modified the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer. The odds ratio for women in the highest quintile of maximum body mass index who were aged 21-35 years was 0.29 (95% CI 0.16-0.55), as compared with an odds ratio of 1.5 for women aged 36-45 years (95% CI 0.9-2.5) (p for interaction = 0.003). This study supports prior research showing a decreased risk of breast cancer associated with increased body size among premenopausal or young women. More detailed analysis in this study found a strong effect that was limited to the youngest age group (< or = 35 years).  (+info)

(5/23597) Obesity induces expression of uncoupling protein-2 in hepatocytes and promotes liver ATP depletion.

Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) uncouples respiration from oxidative phosphorylation and may contribute to obesity through effects on energy metabolism. Because basal metabolic rate is decreased in obesity, UCP2 expression is predicted to be reduced. Paradoxically, hepatic expression of UCP2 mRNA is increased in genetically obese (ob/ob) mice. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis of ob/ob livers demonstrate that UCP2 mRNA and protein expression are increased in hepatocytes, which do not express UCP2 in lean mice. Mitochondria isolated from ob/ob livers exhibit an increased rate of H+ leak which partially dissipates the mitochondrial membrane potential when the rate of electron transport is suppressed. In addition, hepatic ATP stores are reduced and these livers are more vulnerable to necrosis after transient hepatic ischemia. Hence, hepatocytes adapt to obesity by up-regulating UCP2. However, because this decreases the efficiency of energy trapping, the cells become vulnerable to ATP depletion when energy needs increase acutely.  (+info)

(6/23597) Descriptive analysis of eating regulation in obese and nonobese children.

Bite rate, sip rate, and concurrent activities of six 7-yr-old children, three obese and three nonobese, were observed at lunchtime over a six-month period. A procedure for decreasing bite rate, putting eating utensils down between bites, was implemented in a multiple-baseline across-subjects design. Sip rates and concurrent activities were observed to assess behavioral covariations. In addition, bite rate and amount of food completed were computed over six food categories to analyze food preferences. Results indicated the control of bite rate acorss all subjects, with a significant reduction in amount of food consumed. Correlations between the response classes indicated they were at least partially independent. Differences in eating behavior of obese and nonobese subjects were observed for breadstuffs and milk drinking.  (+info)

(7/23597) Divergent effects of intracerebroventricular and peripheral leptin administration on feeding and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y in lean and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats.

Leptin inhibits feeding and decreases body weight. It may act partly by inhibiting hypothalamic neurons that express neuropeptide Y, a powerful inducer of feeding and obesity. These neuropeptide Y neurons express the Ob-Rb leptin receptor and are overactive in the fatty (fa/fa) Zucker rat. The fa mutation affects the extracellular domain of the leptin receptor, but its impact on leptin action and neuropeptide Y neuronal activity is not fully known. We compared the effects of three doses of leptin given intracerebroventricularly and three doses of leptin injected intraperitoneally on food intake and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y mRNA, in lean and fatty Zucker rats. In lean rats, 4-h food intake was reduced in a dose-related fashion (P<0.01) by all intracerebroventricular leptin doses and by intraperitoneal doses of 300 and 600 microg/kg. Neuropeptide Y mRNA levels were reduced by 28% and 21% after the highest intracerebroventricular and intraperitoneal doses respectively (P<0. 01 for both). In fatty rats, only the highest intracerebroventricular leptin dose reduced food intake (by 22%; P<0. 01). Neuropeptide Y mRNA levels were 100% higher in fatty rats than in lean animals, and were reduced by 18% (P<0.01) after the highest intracerebroventricular leptin dose. Intraperitoneal injection had no effect on food intake and neuropeptide Y mRNA. The fa/fa Zucker rat is therefore less sensitive to leptin given intracerebroventricularly and particularly intraperitoneally, suggesting that the fa mutation interferes both with leptin's direct effects on neurons and its transport into the central nervous system. Obesity in the fa/fa Zucker rat may be partly due to the inability of leptin to inhibit hypothalamic neuropeptide Y neurons.  (+info)

(8/23597) No association between the -308 polymorphism in the tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) promoter region and polycystic ovaries.

The tumour necrosis factor (TNF)2 allele appears to be linked with increased insulin resistance and obesity, conditions often found in overweight patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The significance of TNFalpha polymorphism in relation to the clinical and biochemical parameters associated with PCOS was investigated in 122 well-characterized patients with polycystic ovaries (PCO). Of these, 84 had an abnormal menstrual cycle and were classified as having PCOS, while the remaining 38 had a normal menstrual cycle and were classified as having PCO. There were a further 28 individuals without PCO (non-PCO) and 108 individuals whose PCO status was undetermined (reference population). The promoter region of the TNFalpha gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the presence or absence of the polymorphism at -308 was determined by single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. The less common TNF allele (TNF2) was found as TNF1/2 or TNF2/2 in 11/38 (29%) of PCO subjects, 25/84 (30%) of PCOS subjects, 7/28 (25%) of non-PCO subjects, and 45/108 (42%) of the reference population. There was no significant difference in the incidence of the TNF2 allele between the groups. The relationship of TNF genotype to clinical and biochemical parameters was examined. In both the PCO group and the PCOS group, the presence of the TNF2 allele was significantly associated with lower glucose values obtained from the glucose tolerance testing (P<0.05). The TNF genotype was not significantly associated with any clinical or biochemical parameter measured in the PCO, PCOS or non-PCOS groups. Thus, the TNFalpha -308 polymorphism does not appear to strongly influence genetic susceptibility to polycystic ovaries.  (+info)



Morbid Obesity


  • Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity. (clinicaltrials.gov)

overweight and obesity


  • More than half of British adults are overweight, and obesity among preschool children has increased by an alarming 70% in the past generation. (bmj.com)
  • 1 2 We aimed to explore parents' awareness of overweight and obesity in themselves and their children, and their degree of concern about weight. (bmj.com)
  • 3 Overweight and obesity were defined as body mass index at least 25 and 30 in adults, and at least 91st and 98th centiles of the UK 1990 body mass index reference curves for children. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions Several risk factors for both overweight and obesity in childhood are identifiable during infancy. (bmj.com)

leptin


  • Mice with inactivating mutations in the gene encoding leptin or its receptor have indistinguishable, recessive phenotypes of obesity, with roughly three times the body weight and five times the fat mass of normal mice. (colostate.edu)
  • Researchers will then discuss regulation of the nonneuronal leptin system in obesity. (blogspot.com)
  • Overall, the glial leptin system shows robust regulation and plays an essential role in obesity. (blogspot.com)

type 2 diabet


  • 4 Cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity-attributable cancers, osteoarthritis and psychological disturbance generate much of the morbidity and years of life lost associated with increasing levels of obesity. (bmj.com)
  • The US prevalence of childhood-onset obesity and type 2 diabetes, both predictors of cardiovascular risk, have increased to epidemic proportions in recent decades. (clinicaltrials.gov)

increases the risk


  • This study suggests that loss of PKCθ reduces energy expenditure and increases the risk of dietary obesity and insulin resistance in mice. (physiology.org)
  • 2 Evidence suggests that weight at 5 years of age is a good indicator of the future health of a child 3 and that obesity during childhood increases the risk of adult obesity. (bmj.com)

risk


  • elevated free fatty acid (FFA) is a risk factor for obesity-associated insulin resistance ( 6 , 25 , 31 , 34 ). (physiology.org)
  • Children with mental illness, especially those treated with antipsychotic medications, are at additional risk for obesity (adiposity) and related risk conditions. (clinicaltrials.gov)

study


  • The aim of the study is to compare outcomes of these two surgical methods in terms of weight loss, improvement of common comorbidities of obesity and influence on metabolic and hormonal status. (clinicaltrials.gov)

essential


  • Acknowledgment of excess weight and an understanding of its health consequences are essential first steps in tackling obesity. (bmj.com)

lost


  • Our data confirm recent findings indicating that the longstanding inverse relationship between social class and obesity has been lost, at least in the United Kingdom. (bmj.com)

health


  • Obesity is a serious public health concern. (bmj.com)