Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Silage: Fodder converted into succulent feed for livestock through processes of anaerobic fermentation (as in a silo).Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Sucking Behavior: Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Nutritive Sweeteners: Any agent that adds not only sweet taste but some energy value to food. They include natural sugars such as SUCROSE; FRUCTOSE; and GALACTOSE; and certain SUGAR ALCOHOLS.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Bottle Feeding: Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Moringa oleifera: A plant species of the family Moringaceae, order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae. It is a source of niaziminin and hypotensive thiocarbamate glycosides.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Strongylocentrotus: A genus of SEA URCHINS in the family Strongylocentrotidae. They possess more than three pore pairs per ambulacral plate. The species STRONGYLOCENTROTUS PURPURATUS is commonly used for research.Paspalum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is used for forage.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Deglutition: The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score: Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) is a method of evaluating the protein quality based on both the amino acid requirements of humans and their ability to digest it. The PDCAAS rating was adopted by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) in 1993 as "the preferred 'best'" method to determine protein quality.Dry matter: The dry matter (or otherwise known as dry weight) is a measurement of the mass of something when completely dried.SilagePaddock: A paddock has two primary meanings in different parts of the English-speaking world. In Canada, the USA and UK, a paddock is a small enclosure used to keep horses.Protein toxicity: Protein toxicity with proteinuria can result in those with preexisting kidney disease, or those who have lost kidney function due to age.General Mills monster-themed breakfast cerealsNitrogen deficiencyComplete Wheat Bran Flakes: Kellogg's Complete Wheat Bran Flakes is a breakfast cereal containing 100% of the United States' Recommended Dietary Allowance of eleven vitamins and minerals, including vitamins B1, B3, B5, B6, B12, C, E, and Iron, Riboflavin, Folic Acid, and Zinc. One 3/4 cup serving contains 3 grams of protein, 5 grams of dietary fiber and 90 calories, 5 of which come from fat.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Glycine soja: Glycine soja, or wild soybean (previously G. ussuriensis) is an annual plant in the legume family.Lactic acid fermentationPRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.Corriedale: Corriedale sheep are a dual purpose breed, meaning they are used both in the production of wool and meat. The Corriedale is the oldest of all the crossbred breeds, a Merino-Lincoln cross developed almost simultaneously in Australia and New ZealandStock Types, The Land, North Richmond, c.Proteinogenic amino acid: Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are precursors to proteins, and are incorporated into proteins cotranslationally — that is, during translation. There are 23 proteinogenic amino acids in prokaryotes (including N-Formylmethionine, mainly used to initiate protein synthesis and often removed afterward), but only 21 are encoded by the nuclear genes of eukaryotes.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Tomato seed oil: Tomato seed oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of tomatoes.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Bottle recycling: Bottles are able to be recycled and this is generally a positive option. Bottles are collected via kerbside collection or returned using a bottle deposit system.Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.Moringa drouhardii: The bottle tree, Moringa drouhardii, is an endemic species of southwest Madagascar. It occurs in the Madagascar spiny thickets ecoregion, especially at the limestone cliffs to the east of Lake Tsimanampetsotsa, on the Mahafaly Plateau.Sweetness: Sweetness is one of the five basic tastes and is universally regarded as a pleasurable experience, except perhaps in excess. Foods rich in simple carbohydrates such as sugar are those most commonly associated with sweetness, although there are other natural and artificial compounds that are sweet at much lower concentrations, allowing their use as non-caloric sugar substitutes.Paspalum notatum: Paspalum notatum, known commonly as bahiagrass, common bahia, and Pensacola bahia, is a tropical to subtropical perennial grass (family Poaceae). It is known for its prominent V-shaped inflorescence consisting of two spike-like racemes containing multiple tiny spikelets, each about long.Organic fertilizer: Organic fertilizers are fertilizers derived from animal matter, human excreta or vegetable matter. (e.Charlotte Canning, Countess Canning: Charlotte Canning, Countess Canning (31 March 1817–18 November 1861), one of the most prolific women artists in India, was the wife of Charles Canning, 1st Earl Canning. Two portfolios in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London contain some three hundred and fifty watercolours by her, the result of four major tours in India.Taste: Taste, gustatory perception, or gustationAdjectival form: [is the sensory impression of food] or other substances on the tongue and is one of the [[sense|five traditional senses.Banquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.Ethernet flow control: Ethernet flow control is a mechanism for temporarily stopping the transmission of data on Ethernet family computer networks. The first flow control mechanism, the PAUSE frame, was defined by the IEEE 802.
(1/1069) The food matrix of spinach is a limiting factor in determining the bioavailability of beta-carotene and to a lesser extent of lutein in humans.
Carotenoid bioavailability depends, amongst other factors, on the food matrix and on the type and extent of processing. To examine the effect of variously processed spinach products and of dietary fiber on serum carotenoid concentrations, subjects received, over a 3-wk period, a control diet (n = 10) or a control diet supplemented with carotenoids or one of four spinach products (n = 12 per group): whole leaf spinach with an almost intact food matrix, minced spinach with the matrix partially disrupted, enzymatically liquefied spinach in which the matrix was further disrupted and the liquefied spinach to which dietary fiber (10 g/kg wet weight) was added. Consumption of spinach significantly increased serum concentrations of all-trans-beta-carotene, cis-beta-carotene, (and consequently total beta-carotene), lutein, alpha-carotene and retinol and decreased the serum concentration of lycopene. Serum total beta-carotene responses (changes in serum concentrations from the start to the end of the intervention period) differed significantly between the whole leaf and liquefied spinach groups and between the minced and liquefied spinach groups. The lutein response did not differ among spinach groups. Addition of dietary fiber to the liquefied spinach had no effect on serum carotenoid responses. The relative bioavailability as compared to bioavailability of the carotenoid supplement for whole leaf, minced, liquefied and liquefied spinach plus added dietary fiber for beta-carotene was 5.1, 6.4, 9.5 and 9.3%, respectively, and for lutein 45, 52, 55 and 54%, respectively. We conclude that the bioavailability of lutein from spinach was higher than that of beta-carotene and that enzymatic disruption of the matrix (cell wall structure) enhanced the bioavailability of beta-carotene from whole leaf and minced spinach, but had no effect on lutein bioavailability. (+info)
(2/1069) Variation in ruminants' preference for tall fescue hays cut either at sundown or at sunup.
Plants vary diurnally in concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates. If ruminants prefer forages with higher total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC), then the preference for hays harvested within the same 24-h period may vary. An established field of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) was harvested six times in the vegetative stage. Harvests were paired such that each cutting at sundown (PM) was followed by a cutting the next morning at sunup (AM). We harvested in this manner three times, resulting in six hays. The hays were field-dried, baled, and passed through a hydraulic bale processor prior to feeding. Experiments were conducted with sheep, goats, and cattle, using six animals in each case. During an adaptation phase, hays were offered alone as meals. In the experimental phase, every possible pair of hays (15 pairs) was presented for a meal. Data were analyzed by multidimensional scaling and by traditional analyses. Multidimensional scaling indicated that selection was based on a single criterion. Preference for PM hays was greater than for AM hays (P < .01) in all experiments. Increased preference was associated with increased TNC (P < .01) and in vitro true DM disappearance (P < .01) and decreased fiber concentration (P < .01; NDF, ADF, cellulose, and ADL). Mowing hay late in the day was effective in increasing forage preference. (+info)
(3/1069) The energy content of barley fed to growing pigs: characterizing the nature of its variability and developing prediction equations for its estimation.
Currently, the pork industry attempts to formulate energy levels in swine diets to within a tolerance of 1.5%. This is difficult to achieve in practice when the energy content of primary ingredients fluctuates by up to 15%. This experiment was carried out to define the sources of variation in the energy content of barley and to develop a practical method to accurately estimate the DE and ME content of individual barley samples. Four samples of each of five covered barley varieties (AC Lacombe, B-1602, Bedford, Harrington, and Manley) were collected to obtain a range of quality within each variety. Five measurements were collected on each barley sample using 60 crossbred barrows in an apparent total tract digestibility study. The barrows, average BW of 35.3 kg, were housed in individual metabolism crates to facilitate separate collection of urine and feces. Five-day collection periods followed 5-d diet acclimation periods. Levels of total beta-glucan, ADF, CP, and starch (90% DM) in the 20 barley samples ranged from 2.7 to 4.5%, 4.5 to 9.2%, 10.8 to 15.1%, and 42.3 to 53.4%, respectively. The mean DE and ME content of the 20 samples were 2,934 and 2,857 kcal/kg (90% DM), respectively, and varied among samples by 15.2% (447 kcal). The complex structural cell wall carbohydrates seemed to have the greatest influence on the energy content of individual barley samples. The ADF fraction alone accounted for 85% of the total variation in energy content of the 20 samples. Converted into a prediction equation, DE = 3,526 - 92.8 x ADF (90% DM), the ADF content was used to estimate the DE content of barley with 85% accuracy. This experiment confirms the large variation in the energy content of barley, describes the factors that influence this variation, and presents equations based on chemical and(or) physical measurements that may be used to predict the DE and ME content of individual barley samples. (+info)
(4/1069) Impact of amino acid nutrition during lactation on body nutrient mobilization and milk nutrient output in primiparous sows.
The impact of amino acid nutrition during lactation on body nutrient mobilization and milk nutrient output in primiparous sows was evaluated. Thirty-six sows, nursing litters of 13 pigs, were allocated daily 6 kg of a fortified corn-soybean meal diet containing a high (HP, 1.20% lysine) or low (LP, .34% lysine) protein content during a 23-d lactation. Dietary lysine concentration was achieved by altering the ratio of corn and soybean meal in the diet. The LP sows consumed less daily ME (14.2 vs 16.1 Mcal; P < .11) and daily lysine (16 vs 59 g; P < .01) than the HP sows. Daily litter weight gain was less (P < .01) for sows fed the LP vs HP diet, and the differences increased (P < . 01) as lactation progressed. The lower litter weight gain for the LP sows was reflective of the lower (P < .01) estimated milk DM, CP, and GE output of these sows. The LP sows lost more body weight (1.23 vs .21 kg/d; P < .01) during the initial 20 d of lactation. In the LP sows, 59% of the weight loss was protein, water, and ash, and 37% was fat. Weight loss in the HP sows was entirely accounted for by body fat mobilization, because these sows accrued body protein, water, and ash. Muscle myofibrillar breakdown rate was higher in LP sows than in HP sows (4.05 vs 2.80%/d; P < .01). On the basis of these data, dietary amino acid restriction during lactation increases maternal mobilization of proteinaceous tissue and reduces milk nutrient output. Maternal protein mobilization is maintained over the entire lactation even though milk output is decreased as lactation progresses. (+info)
(5/1069) Inulin and oligofructose: what are they?
Inulin is a term applied to a heterogeneous blend of fructose polymers found widely distributed in nature as plant storage carbohydrates. Oligofructose is a subgroup of inulin, consisting of polymers with a degree of polymerization (DP) =10. Inulin and oligofructose are not digested in the upper gastrointestinal tract; therefore, they have a reduced caloric value. They stimulate the growth of intestinal bifidobacteria. They do not lead to a rise in serum glucose or stimulate insulin secretion. Several commercial grades of inulin are available that have a neutral, clean flavor and are used to improve the mouthfeel, stability and acceptability of low fat foods. Oligofructose has a sweet, pleasant flavor and is highly soluble. It can be used to fortify foods with fiber without contributing any deleterious organoleptic effects, to improve the flavor and sweetness of low calorie foods and to improve the texture of fat-reduced foods. Inulin and oligofructose possess several functional and nutritional properties, which may be used to formulate innovative healthy foods for today's consumer. (+info)
(6/1069) Expression of the insecticidal bean alpha-amylase inhibitor transgene has minimal detrimental effect on the nutritional value of peas fed to rats at 30% of the diet.
The effect of expression of bean alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha-AI) transgene on the nutritional value of peas has been evaluated by pair-feeding rats diets containing transgenic or parent peas at 300 and 650 g/kg, respectively, and at 150 g protein/kg diet, supplemented with essential amino acids to target requirements. The results were also compared with the effects of diets containing lactalbumin with or without 0.9 or 2.0 mg bean alpha-AI, levels equivalent to those in transgenic pea diets. When 300 and 650 g peas/kg diet were fed, the daily intake of alpha-AI was 11.5 or 26.3 mg alpha-AI, respectively. At the 300 g/kg level, the nutritional value of the transgenic and parent line peas was not significantly different. The weight gain and tissue weights of rats fed either of the two pea diets were not significantly different from each other or from those of rats given the lactalbumin diet even when this was supplemented with 0.9 g alpha-AI/kg. The digestibilities of protein and dry matter of the pea diets were slightly but significantly lower than those of the lactalbumin diet, probably due to the presence of naturally occurring antinutrients in peas. The nutritional value of diets containing peas at the higher (650 g) inclusion level was less than that of the lactalbumin diet. However, the differences between transgenic and parent pea lines were small, possibly because neither the purified recombinant alpha-AI nor that in transgenic peas inhibited starch digestion in the rat small intestine in vivo to the same extent as did bean alpha-AI. This was the case even though both forms of alpha-AI equally inhibited alpha-amylase in vitro. Thus, this short-term study indicated that transgenic peas expressing bean alpha-AI gene could be used in rat diets at 300 g/kg level without major harmful effects on their growth, metabolism and health, raising the possibility that transgenic peas may also be used at this level in the diet of farm animals. (+info)
(7/1069) Effects of underfeeding and refeeding on weight and cellularity of splanchnic organs in ewes.
We assessed the effects of a long and severe period of underfeeding, followed by a rapid refeeding with a high-concentrate diet, on weight, protein mass, and cellularity of the splanchnic organs in adult ewes. Twenty-four ewes, allocated to four groups of six, were fed a forage diet (50% regrowth of natural grassland hay and 50% wheat straw) either at maintenance (groups M and MO) or at 40% maintenance (groups U and UO) for 78 d. Groups M and U were then slaughtered, and groups MO and UO were subsequently overfed a high-concentrate diet (52% hay, 20% barley, 16% rapeseed meal, 4% fish meal, and 8% Megalac) at 236% maintenance for 26 d before being slaughtered. During the experiment, feed was adjusted to maintain feed supply at a constant percentage of animal requirements. After slaughter, fresh weight, dry weight, and protein mass of the reticulorumen, omasum, abomasum, small intestine, large intestine, and liver were measured. Cellularity was assessed from nucleic acids and protein contents for both ruminal mucosa and muscular-serosa layers, jejunum, and liver. The concentrations of ubiquitin and cathepsin D mRNA were measured in ruminal mucosa and muscular-serosa layers and in jejunum. Underfeeding decreased protein mass of splanchnic organs, especially in liver (-29%) and reticulorumen (-39%). Refeeding previously underfed animals increased protein mass of liver (+102%) and small intestine (+59%). No carry-over effect of the previous level of intake (UO vs. MO) was observed on the protein mass of splanchnic tissues after 26 d of refeeding. Variations in liver mass were mainly due to hypertrophy, as determined by the protein:DNA ratio, whereas variations in small intestinal mass were mainly due to hyperplasia, as determined by the amount of DNA. By contrast, changes in rumen mass associated with increasing ME intake seemed to be related to hypertrophy in the muscular-serosal component and hyperplasia in the epithelial component. The concentrations of ubiquitin and cathepsin D mRNA in the rumen and jejunum were not modified by feeding level, demonstrating that the expression of these genes for proteolytic enzymes was unchanged under these conditions. (+info)
(8/1069) Legumes and soybeans: overview of their nutritional profiles and health effects.
Legumes play an important role in the traditional diets of many regions throughout the world. In contrast in Western countries beans tend to play only a minor dietary role despite the fact that they are low in fat and are excellent sources of protein, dietary fiber, and a variety of micronutrients and phytochemicals. Soybeans are unique among the legumes because they are a concentrated source of isoflavones. Isoflavones have weak estrogenic properties and the isoflavone genistein influences signal transduction. Soyfoods and isoflavones have received considerable attention for their potential role in preventing and treating cancer and osteoporosis. The low breast cancer mortality rates in Asian countries and the putative antiestrogenic effects of isoflavones have fueled speculation that soyfood intake reduces breast cancer risk. The available epidemiologic data are limited and only weakly supportive of this hypothesis, however, particularly for postmenopausal breast cancer. The data suggesting that soy or isoflavones may reduce the risk of prostate cancer are more encouraging. The weak estrogenic effects of isoflavones and the similarity in chemical structure between soybean isoflavones and the synthetic isoflavone ipriflavone, which was shown to increase bone mineral density in postmenopausal women, suggest that soy or isoflavones may reduce the risk of osteoporosis. Rodent studies tend to support this hypothesis, as do the limited preliminary data from humans. Given the nutrient profile and phytochemical contribution of beans, nutritionists should make a concerted effort to encourage the public to consume more beans in general and more soyfoods in particular. (+info)