Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Child Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.Protein-Energy Malnutrition: The lack of sufficient energy or protein to meet the body's metabolic demands, as a result of either an inadequate dietary intake of protein, intake of poor quality dietary protein, increased demands due to disease, or increased nutrient losses.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Infant Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in infants ages 1 month to 24 months.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Skinfold Thickness: The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Nutritional Support: The administration of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient by means other than normal eating. It does not include FLUID THERAPY which normalizes body fluids to restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Micronutrients: Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.BrazilGrowth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Deficiency Diseases: A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Wasting Syndrome: A condition of involuntary weight loss of greater then 10% of baseline body weight. It is characterized by atrophy of muscles and depletion of lean body mass. Wasting is a sign of MALNUTRITION as a result of inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, or hypermetabolism.Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.Enteral Nutrition: Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.Avitaminosis: A condition due to a deficiency of one or more essential vitamins. (Dorland, 27th ed)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Vitamin A Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.IndiaStatus Epilepticus: A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)Growth Disorders: Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.El SalvadorBreast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory: Portable peritoneal dialysis using the continuous (24 hours a day, 7 days a week) presence of peritoneal dialysis solution in the peritoneal cavity except for periods of drainage and instillation of fresh solution.BangladeshPregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Prealbumin: A tetrameric protein, molecular weight between 50,000 and 70,000, consisting of 4 equal chains, and migrating on electrophoresis in 3 fractions more mobile than serum albumin. Its concentration ranges from 7 to 33 per cent in the serum, but levels decrease in liver disease.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.GuatemalaChild Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Parenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Parenteral Nutrition, Total: The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Trace Elements: A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.Kwashiorkor: A syndrome produced by severe protein deficiency, characterized by retarded growth, changes in skin and hair pigment, edema, and pathologic changes in the liver, including fatty infiltration, necrosis, and fibrosis. The word is a local name in Gold Coast, Africa, meaning "displaced child". Although first reported from Africa, kwashiorkor is now known throughout the world, but mainly in the tropics and subtropics. It is considered to be related to marasmus. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Pyridoxine: The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Cachexia: General ill health, malnutrition, and weight loss, usually associated with chronic disease.Hypoalbuminemia: A condition in which albumin level in blood (SERUM ALBUMIN) is below the normal range. Hypoalbuminemia may be due to decreased hepatic albumin synthesis, increased albumin catabolism, altered albumin distribution, or albumin loss through the urine (ALBUMINURIA).Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Mouth, Edentulous: Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.Homes for the Aged: Geriatric long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.Peritoneal Dialysis: Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Selenium: An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.Nutrition Therapy: Improving health status of an individual by adjusting the quantities, qualities, and methods of nutrient intake.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Riboflavin Deficiency: A dietary deficiency of riboflavin causing a syndrome chiefly marked by cheilitis, angular stomatitis, glossitis associated with a purplish red or magenta-colored tongue that may show fissures, corneal vascularization, dyssebacia, and anemia. (Dorland, 27th ed)Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Congo: A republic in central Africa lying between GABON and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and south of Cameroon. Its capital is Brazzaville.Thiamine Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of THIAMINE in the diet, characterized by anorexia, irritability, and weight loss. Later, patients experience weakness, peripheral neuropathy, headache, and tachycardia. In addition to being caused by a poor diet, thiamine deficiency in the United States most commonly occurs as a result of alcoholism, since ethanol interferes with thiamine absorption. In countries relying on polished rice as a dietary staple, BERIBERI prevalence is very high. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1171)Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Overnutrition: An imbalanced NUTRITIONAL STATUS resulting from excessive intake of nutrients. Generally, overnutrition generates an energy imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure leading to disorders such as OBESITY.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Helminthiasis: Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.Chad: A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Vitamin B Deficiency: A condition due to deficiency in any member of the VITAMIN B COMPLEX. These B vitamins are water-soluble and must be obtained from the diet because they are easily lost in the urine. Unlike the lipid-soluble vitamins, they cannot be stored in the body fat.Gravity, Altered: A change in, or manipulation of, gravitational force. This may be a natural or artificial effect.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.MexicoPhilippinesPoverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.United StatesRecommended Dietary Allowances: The amounts of various substances in the diet recommended by governmental guidelines as needed to sustain healthy life.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Ascariasis: Infection by nematodes of the genus ASCARIS. Ingestion of infective eggs causes diarrhea and pneumonitis. Its distribution is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation and where human feces are used for fertilizer.Space Simulation: An environment simulating one or more parameters of the space environment, applied in testing space systems or components. Often, a closed chamber is used, capable of approximating the vacuum and normal environments of space. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988) This also includes simulated EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY studies in atmosphere exposure chambers or water tanks.CreatinineLactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Alcoholics: Persons who have a history of physical or psychological dependence on ETHANOL.Child, Hospitalized: Child hospitalized for short term care.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Bhutan: A kingdom in the eastern Himalayas on the northeast border of India, bounded on the north by Tibet, on the east by Assam, on the south by Assam and West Bengal, and on the west by Sikkim and Tibet. From 1720 to 1970 it was under Chinese or Indian domination. In 1971 it became a member of the United Nations. The name comes from the Sanskrit bhota, the name for Tibet, + anta, end, with reference to its location at the southern extremity of Tibet. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p144 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p64)Hymenolepis nana: The smallest species of TAPEWORMS. It is the only cestode that parasitizes humans without requiring an intermediate host.Anorexia: The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.Indians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Pancreatic Extracts: Extracts prepared from pancreatic tissue that may contain the pancreatic enzymes or other specific uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific activities. PANCREATIN is a specific extract containing digestive enzymes and used to treat pancreatic insufficiency.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Orphanages: Institutions for the housing and care of orphans, foundlings, and abandoned children. They have existed as such since the medieval period but the heading is applicable to such usage also in modern parlance.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Child, Orphaned: Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.Diet, Vegetarian: Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in the DIET, consuming VEGETABLES, CEREALS, and NUTS. Some vegetarian diets called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Riboflavin: Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.Ascorbic Acid Deficiency: A condition due to a dietary deficiency of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), characterized by malaise, lethargy, and weakness. As the disease progresses, joints, muscles, and subcutaneous tissues may become the sites of hemorrhage. Ascorbic acid deficiency frequently develops into SCURVY in young children fed unsupplemented cow's milk exclusively during their first year. It develops also commonly in chronic alcoholism. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1177)Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Feeding Methods: Methods of giving food to humans or animals.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Cecostomy: Surgical construction of an opening into the CECUM with a tube through the ABDOMINAL WALL (tube cecostomy) or by skin level approach, in which the cecum is sewn to the surrounding PERITONEUM. Its primary purpose is decompression of colonic obstruction.Arsenic Poisoning: Disorders associated with acute or chronic exposure to compounds containing ARSENIC (ARSENICALS) which may be fatal. Acute oral ingestion is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and an encephalopathy which may manifest as SEIZURES, mental status changes, and COMA. Chronic exposure is associated with mucosal irritation, desquamating rash, myalgias, peripheral neuropathy, and white transverse (Mees) lines in the fingernails. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1212)Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Nursing Homes: Facilities which provide nursing supervision and limited medical care to persons who do not require hospitalization.Pellagra: A disease due to deficiency of NIACIN, a B-complex vitamin, or its precursor TRYPTOPHAN. It is characterized by scaly DERMATITIS which is often associated with DIARRHEA and DEMENTIA (the three D's).Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
K-Mix 2: K-Mix 2 is a high energy food, used for the treatment of severe malnutrition. It was developed by UNICEF in response to the Biafran crisis, and was widely used in later famines in India and Africa.Malnutrition–inflammation complexWaterladder pumpBisalbuminemia: Bisalbuminemia is the, sometimes inherited, condition of having two types of serum albumin that differ in mobility during electrophoresis. It can be seen in densitometry as a bifid mountain where albumin has 2 heads.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.List of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Micronutrient deficiency: Micronutrient deficiency or dietary deficiency is a lack of one or more of the micronutrients required plant or animal health. In humans and other animals they include both vitamin deficiencies and mineral deficiencies, whereas in plants the term refers to deficiencies of essential trace minerals.University of CampinasMultivitaminDialysis adequacy: In nephrology, dialysis adequacy is the measurement of renal dialysis for the purpose of determining dialysis treatment regime and to better understand the pathophysiology of renal dialysis. It is an area of considerable controversy in nephrology.Dietary Supplements (database): The PubMed Dietary Supplement Subset (PMDSS) is a joint project between the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS). PMDSS is designed to help people search for academic journal articles related to dietary supplement literature.Protein toxicity: Protein toxicity with proteinuria can result in those with preexisting kidney disease, or those who have lost kidney function due to age.Jakob SegalVitamin WellIndonesia Trading Company: Indonesia Trading Company or ITC, known in Indonesia as PT Perusahaan Perdagangan Indonesia (Persero) or PPI, is the only Indonesian state-owned trading house. Its business is in export, import and distribution.Scurvy: Scurvy is a disease resulting from a deficiency of vitamin C. Humans and certain animals require vitamin C in their diets for the synthesis of collagen.Nathan W. LevinQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversitySoo Ik Lee: Soo Ik Lee, MD (died 1995) was a Korean-born American neurologist and a subspecialist in clinical neurophysiology based at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia.Idiopathic short statureAge adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Illegal drug trade in El Salvador: Illegal drug trade in El Salvador has included, according to some sources, trans-shipping of cocaine by the Nicaraguan Contras.Breastfeeding promotionZinc toxicityPeritoneal dialysisEconomy of ChittagongPrenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Transthyretin: Transthyretin (TTR) is a serum and cerebrospinal fluid carrier of the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) and retinol-binding protein bound to retinol. This is how transthyretin gained its name, transports thyroxine and retinol.Overweight PoochIntestinal parasiteHemoglobin, alpha 2: Hemoglobin, alpha 2 also known as HBA2 is a gene that in humans codes for the alpha globin chain of hemoglobin.Guatemala syphilis experiment: The syphilis experiments in Guatemala were United States-led human experiments conducted in Guatemala from 1946 to 1948, during the administration of President Truman and President Juan José Arévalo with the cooperation of some Guatemalan health ministries and officials. Doctors infected soldiers, prostitutes, prisoners and mental patients with syphilis and other sexually transmitted diseases, without the informed consent of the subjects, and treated most subjects with antibiotics.David Rees Griffiths: David Rees Griffiths (November 6, 1882 – December 17, 1953), also known by his bardic name of Amanwy, was a Welsh poet, and an older brother of politician Jim Griffiths.PRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.Iron stress repressed RNA: Iron stress repressed RNA (IsrR) is a cis-encoded antisense RNA which regulates the expression of the photosynthetic protein isiA. IsiA expression is activated by the Ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) under iron stress conditions.Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes: Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is diabetes specifically caused by cystic fibrosis, a genetic condition. Cystic fibrosis related diabetes mellitus (CFRD) develops with age, and the median age at diagnosis is 21 years.List of minerals (complete): Mineralogy is an active science in which minerals are discovered or recognised on a regular basis. Use of old mineral names is also discontinued, for example when a name is no longer considered valid.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingMothers TalkParenteral nutrition: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is feeding a person intravenously, bypassing the usual process of eating and digestion. The person receives nutritional formulae that contain nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, lipids and added vitamins and dietary minerals.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Trace metal: Trace metals are metals that can be present in animal and plant cells and tissue and are a necessary part of nutrition and physiology. Ingestion of, or exposure to, excessive quantities can be toxic.Compensatory growth (organism): Compensatory growth, known as catch-up growth and compensatory gain, is an accelerated growth of an organism following a period of slowed development, particularly as a result of nutrient deprivation. The growth may be with respect to weight or length (or height in humans).Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.International Baby Food Action Network: The International Baby Food Action Network, IBFAN, consists of public interest groups working around the world to reduce infant and young child morbidity and mortality. IBFAN aims to improve the health and well-being of babies and young children, their mothers and their families through the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding and optimal infant feeding practices.Lucas paradox: In economics, the Lucas paradox or the Lucas puzzle is the observation that capital does not flow from developed countries to developing countries despite the fact that developing countries have lower levels of capital per worker.}}AnemiaKwashiorkorMicronutrient Fortification Programs: The 2002 farm bill (P.L.PyridoxineRelative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.CachexiaBiomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.
(1/4438) Maternal vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation in lactating bangladeshi women benefits mothers and infants but does not prevent subclinical deficiency.
The effects of maternal postpartum vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation on maternal and infant serum retinol concentrations, modified relative dose-response (MRDR) ratios and breast milk vitamin A concentrations were assessed during a community-based trial in Matlab, Bangladesh. At 1-3 wk postpartum, women were randomly assigned to receive either (1) a single dose of 200,000 international units [60,000 retinol equivalents (RE)] vitamin A followed by daily placebos (n = 74), (2) daily doses of beta-carotene [7.8 mg (1300 RE)] (n = 73) or (3) daily placebos (n = 73) until 9 mo postpartum. Compared to placebos, vitamin A supplementation resulted in lower maternal MRDR ratios (i.e., increased liver stores) and higher milk vitamin A concentrations at 3 mo, but these improvements were not sustained. The beta-carotene supplementation acted more slowly, resulting in milk vitamin A concentrations higher than the placebo group only at 9 mo. Irrespective of treatment group, over 50% of women produced milk with low vitamin A concentrations (=1.05 micromol/L or =0.28 micromol/g fat) throughout the study. Overall, mean maternal serum retinol concentrations were not affected by supplementation. Compared to the placebo group, the mean MRDR ratio of 6-mo-old infants was higher in the vitamin A group. Infants (33%) had serum retinol concentrations <0.70 micromol/L and 88% had MRDR ratios >/=0. 06. We conclude that while both interventions were beneficial, neither was sufficient to correct the underlying subclinical vitamin A deficiency in these women nor to bring their infants into adequate vitamin A status. (+info)
(2/4438) A prospective randomized study of megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in gastrointestinal cancer patients with weight loss.
The use of megestrol acetate in the treatment of weight loss in gastrointestinal cancer patients has been disappointing. The aim of the present study was to compare the combination of megestrol acetate and placebo with megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in the treatment of weight loss in such patients. At baseline, 4-6 weeks and 12 weeks, patients underwent measurements of anthropometry, concentrations of albumin and C-reactive protein and assessment of appetite, performance status and quality of life using EuroQol-EQ-5D and EORTC QLQ-C30. Thirty-eight and 35 patients (median weight loss 18%) were randomized to megestrol acetate/placebo or megestrol acetate/ibuprofen, respectively, for 12 weeks. Forty-six (63%) of patients failed to complete the 12-week assessment. Of those evaluable at 12 weeks, there was a decrease in weight (median 2.8 kg) in the megestrol acetate/placebo group compared with an increase (median 2.3 kg) in the megestrol acetate/ibuprofen group (P<0.001). There was also an improvement in the EuroQol-EQ-5D quality of life scores of the latter group (P<0.05). The combination of megestrol acetate/ibuprofen appeared to reverse weight loss and appeared to improve quality of life in patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer. Further trials of this novel regimen in weight-losing patients with hormone-insensitive cancers are warranted. (+info)
(3/4438) Leptin and reproduction.
In the few years since leptin was identified as a satiety factor in rodents, it has been implicated in the regulation of various physiological processes. Leptin has been shown to promote sexual maturation in rodent species and a role in reproduction has been investigated at various sites within the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. This review considers the evidence that leptin (or alteration in amount of body fat) can affect reproduction. There is evidence that leptin plays a permissive role in the onset of puberty, probably through action on the hypothalamus, where leptin receptors are found in cells that express appetite-regulating peptides. There is little evidence that leptin has a positive effect on the pituitary gonadotrophs and the gonads. There is also very little indication that leptin acts in an acute manner to regulate reproduction in the short term. It seems more likely that leptin is a 'barometer' of body condition that sends signals to the brain. Studies in vitro have shown negative effects on ovarian steroid production and there are no reports of effects on testicular function. Leptin concentrations in plasma increase in women during pregnancy, owing to production by the placenta but the functional significance of this is unknown. A number of factors that affect the production and action of leptin have yet to be studied in detail. (+info)
(4/4438) Effects of pre- or postpartum selenium supplementation on selenium status in beef cows and their calves.
The effect of Se supplementation before or after calving on Se status in deficient cows and their calves was studied using 72 beef cows in two experiments. In Exp. 1, cows calving in February or March 1997 were supplemented orally for 15 d in late pregnancy with 13.0, 32.5, or 45.5 mg of Se/d as sodium selenite. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were measured in red blood cells (RBC) or plasma of cows and calves at d 15 and between d 17 and 88 after calving. In Exp. 2, cows calving in January 1997 were supplemented orally with .0, 13.0, or 32.5 mg of Se/d for 15 d postpartum, and calves were injected with 1.38 mg of Se when 2 d old and at an average age of 49 d. The GSH-Px activities were measured in 30-d-old calves and in cows and calves between d 77 and 115 after calving. In both experiments, Se supplementation resulted in adequate Se status for the dams. The increase in RBC GSH-Px activity was faster with 45.5 mg of Se/d, and GSH-Px activities remained high for up to 98 d after the end of supplementation. The improvement in Se status in calves as a result of maternal supplementation was greater in Exp. 1 than in Exp. 2, suggesting that the placental transfer of Se is more efficient than milk transfer. Prepartum oral Se supplementation of deficient beef cows with 13.0 mg of Se/d for 15 d allowed adequate Se status of dams and calves, and 45.5 mg of Se/d resulted in a faster improvement of Se status. Parenteral administration of 1.38 mg of Se to newborn calves did not sustain normal Se status in calves issued from deficient cows. (+info)
(5/4438) Copper status of ewes fed increasing amounts of copper from copper sulfate or copper proteinate.
The Cu status of mature, crossbred ewes fed two sources (CuSO4 vs. Cu proteinate) and three levels (10, 20, or 30 mg/kg) of dietary Cu was determined in a 73-d feeding trial. Ewes (n = 30) were fed a basal diet containing rice meal feed, cottonseed hulls, cottonseed meal, meat and bone meal, cracked corn, and vitamin-mineral supplements at 2.5% of BW to meet NRC requirements for protein, energy, macrominerals, and microminerals, excluding Cu. The basal diet contained 5 mg/kg Cu, 113 mg/kg Fe, .1 mg/kg Mo, and .17% S. Copper sulfate or Cu proteinate was added to the basal diet to supply 10, 20, or 30 mg/kg of dietary copper in a 2x3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Ewes were housed in 3.7- x 9.1-m pens in an open-sided barn. Blood samples were collected on d 28 and 73. Ewes were slaughtered on d 74, and liver and other tissues were collected to determine Cu concentrations. An interaction (P = .08) occurred between source and level for liver Cu. The interaction existed due to an increase in liver Cu concentrations when ewes were fed increasing dietary Cu from CuSO4 but not when fed Cu proteinate diets. There was no source x level interaction (P>.10) for the blood constituents measured. On d 73, plasma ceruloplasmin activity was greater (P<.05) in ewes fed Cu proteinate than in those fed CuSO4 (33.1 vs. 26.8 microM x min(-1) x L(-1)). Increasing the concentration of dietary Cu did not affect (P>.10) plasma ceruloplasmin. Packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cell count, whole blood hemoglobin (wHb), plasma hemoglobin, and plasma Cu were similar between sources of Cu. Ewes fed 20 mg/kg Cu had lower (P<.05) PCV, RBC, and wHb than those fed 10 or 30 mg/kg Cu diets. Feeding up to 30 mg/kg Cu from these sources did not cause an observable Cu toxicity during the 73-d period. (+info)
(6/4438) Biotin status: which are valid indicators and how do we know?
Although estimated average requirements for biotin have been proposed, the human requirements for biotin in specific populations and at various ages remain uncertain, in part because indicators of biotin status have not been validated. With the use of improved methods for measuring biotin and metabolites, a recent study indicated that decreased urinary excretion of biotin and bisnorbiotin is an early and sensitive indicator of biotin deficiency, but decreased serum concentration of biotin is not. Increased urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3-HIA), a leucine metabolite that is excreted in increased quantities with deficiency of the biotin-dependent enzyme beta-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, is also an early and sensitive indicator of biotin deficiency. When these indicators were assessed longitudinally in 13 pregnant women, biotin excretion was not significantly decreased early in pregnancy but did decrease significantly from early to late pregnancy. Excretion of 3-HIA was abnormally increased in about three-fourths of the women studied in both early and late pregnancy. Thus, each indicator detected biotin deficiency late in pregnancy, but assessment of biotin status for the two indicators conflicted early in pregnancy. Preliminary results from a trial assessing response of 3-HIA excretion to biotin treatment indicate that biotin status is indeed impaired both early and late in pregnancy. (+info)
(7/4438) Nutrition and health outcomes associated with food insecurity and hunger.
This paper explores how food insecurity and hunger relate to health and nutrition outcomes in food-rich countries such as the United States. It focuses on two subgroups of the population for whom data are available: women of childbearing age and school-age children. Special consideration is given to examining how food insecurity relates to these outcomes independently of socioeconomic status and poverty. In a population-based sample of women of childbearing age, the least severe level of food insecurity (household food insecurity) was correlated with higher body mass index (BMI), controlling for other available and known influences on obesity including income level. In low income school-age children from two large urban areas of the U.S., risk of hunger and hunger were associated with compromised psychosocial functioning, controlling for maternal education and estimated household income. The nutrition and health consequences of food insecurity comprise a potentially rich area for future, socially relevant research in the field of nutritional sciences. (+info)
(8/4438) Food insecurity: consequences for the household and broader social implications.
A conceptual framework showing the household and social implications of food insecurity was elicited from a qualitative and quantitative study of 98 households from a heterogeneous low income population of Quebec city and rural surroundings; the study was designed to increase understanding of the experience of food insecurity in order to contribute to its prevention. According to the respondents' description, the experience of food insecurity is characterized by two categories of manifestations, i.e., the core characteristics of the phenomenon and a related set of actions and reactions by the household. This second category of manifestations is considered here as a first level of consequences of food insecurity. These consequences at the household level often interact with the larger environment to which the household belongs. On a chronic basis, the resulting interactions have certain implications that are tentatively labeled "social implications" in this paper. Their examination suggests that important aspects of human development depend on food security. It also raises questions concerning the nature of socially acceptable practices of food acquisition and food management, and how such acceptability can be assessed. Guidelines to that effect are proposed. Findings underline the relevance and urgency of working toward the realization of the right to food. (+info)