Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Sports Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES during EXERCISE and ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE as well as specific NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS of ATHLETES and the relationship between NUTRITIONAL STATUS and NUTRITION DISORDERS in athletes.Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: The United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs was a select committee of the United States Senate between 1968 and 1977. It was sometimes referred to as the McGovern committee, after its only chairperson, Senator George McGovern of South Dakota.International Journal of Obesity: The International Journal of Obesity (abbreviated as IJO) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.The Republican War on Science: The Republican War on Science is a 2005 book by Chris C. Mooney, an American journalist who focuses on the politics of science policy.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Vinnytsia Institute of Economics and Social Sciences: Vinnytsia Institute of Economics and Social Sciences – structural unit of Open International University of Human Development “Ukraine” (OIUHD “Ukraina”).MBF Bioscience
(1/429) Food safety training for nutritionists.
A course on food safety for nutritionists has been developed in Indonesia through collaboration between government, industry, academia and international agencies. By teaching the basic principles of the subject it equips the participants to recommend foods that are safe as well as nutritious. (+info)
(2/429) How best to measure implementation of school health curricula: a comparison of three measures.
The impact of school health education programs is often attenuated by inadequate teacher implementation. Using data from a school-based nutrition education program delivered in a sample of fifth graders, this study examines the discriminant and predictive validity of three measures of curriculum implementation: class-room observation of fidelity, and two measures of completeness, teacher self-report questionnaire and post-implementation interview. A fourth measure, obtained during teacher observations, that assessed student and teacher interaction and student receptivity to the curriculum (labeled Rapport) was also obtained. Predictive validity was determined by examining the association of implementation measures with three study outcomes; health knowledge, asking behaviors related to fruit and vegetables, and fruit and vegetable intake, assessed by 7-day diary. Of the 37 teachers observed, 21 were observed for two sessions and 16 were observed once. Implementation measures were moderately correlated, an indication of discriminant validity. Predictive validity analyses indicated that the observed fidelity, Rapport and interview measures were significantly correlated with post-test student knowledge. The association between health knowledge and observed fidelity (based on dual observation only), Rapport and interview measures remained significant after adjustment for pre-test knowledge values. None of the implementation variables were significantly associated with student fruit and vegetable intake or asking behaviors controlling for pre-test values. These results indicate that the teacher self-report questionnaire was not a valid measure of implementation completeness in this study. Post-implementation completeness interviews and dual observations of fidelity and Rapport appear to be more valid, and largely independent methods of implementation assessment. (+info)
(3/429) Nationwide implementation of guided supermarket tours in The Netherlands: a dissemination study.
The purpose of this study was to assess adoption, implementation and maintenance of a guided supermarket tour program of nutrition education by Dutch Public Health Services (PHSs), and the factors associated with program dissemination. A first questionnaire was sent to all 60 PHSs, and measured program adoption, perceived program attributes, and characteristics of the adopting organization and person. A second questionnaire was only sent to adopting PHSs, and measured extent and success of implementation, intentions to continue the program, and characteristics of the main implementing person. Of the 59 PHSs who responded, 30 adopted the program and 17 implemented it sufficiently. Perceived program complexity, social influence within the PHS toward program participation and existence of a separate health education department were predictors of adoption. Perceived program complexity was also a predictor of extent of implementation. The number of health educators within each PHS was a predictor of sufficient implementation. It was concluded that adoption and implementation of the program was reasonable, considering the limited dissemination strategy. Dissemination might have been more successful if the program had been less complex and required less effort, if positive social influence had been generated, and if specific attention had been given to PHSs without a separate health education department. (+info)
(4/429) Initial results of 'Language for Health': cardiovascular disease nutrition education for English-as-a-second-language students.
Low literacy skills may negatively affect health through misuse of medication, inability to follow medical directions or due to limitations placed on the consumer's ability to access health information. The association between low literacy among adults and cardiovascular disease has not been thoroughly investigated in some ethnic groups. The purpose of this comprehensive study is to describe the results of a nutritional-related cardiovascular health program for limited English proficient adults enrolled in English-as-a-second-language (ESL) classes. Subjects (n = 408), nearly 87% of whom were Latino, were exposed to either nutrition education (intervention group) or stress management (attention-placebo control group) classes designed specifically for ESL classes. Subjects completed physiological measures assessing blood pressure, total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, waist and hip circumference, and body mass. Self-report surveys were administered to collect students' nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. Data were collected at baseline, 3 month post-test and 6 month follow-up. Analyses showed that differential group change was seen for fat avoidance, nutrition knowledge, HDL and total cholesterol:HDL ratio, but, for the two latter variables, the effect was not maintained at the 6 month follow-up. Both groups showed positive changes in blood pressure, total cholesterol and nutrition-related attitudes. Results showed moderate success of the intervention, but suggest contamination between experimental groups may have occurred. (+info)
(5/429) Worksite and family education for dietary change: the Treatwell 5-a-Day program.
The National Cancer Institute's '5-a-Day for Better Health Campaign is examining the efficacy of interventions in increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables to five or more servings a day. This paper presents the study design, intervention and baseline survey results of the Treatwell 5-a-Day project, a randomized, controlled worksite-based intervention study. Twenty-two community health centers were randomly assigned to either a Minimal Intervention, Worksite Intervention or Worksite Plus Family Intervention. The Worksite Intervention included participation of employee advisory boards, programs aimed at individual behavior change and programs aimed at changes in the worksite environment. The Worksite Plus Family Intervention incorporated family-focused interventions into the worksite program, including a learn-at-home program, family newsletter, family festival and materials mailings. A self-administered survey was conducted prior to randomization (mean response rate: 87%, n = 1359). Twenty-three percent reported consuming five or more servings of fruits and vegetables a day. Consumption of fruits and vegetables was directly associated with level of household support for healthy eating. The Treatwell 5-a-Day intervention model has the potential to enhance existing worksite-based intervention through incorporation of its family focus, especially given the association of household support with individual eating habits. (+info)
(6/429) Text and graphics: manipulating nutrition brochures to maximize recall.
This study examined how altering text and graphics of a nutrition brochure could affect the ability to remember the content of the message. Two theoretical models were used to guide alterations: dual-coding theory and the communications model. Three brochure formats were tested: the original brochure containing abstract text and abstract graphics, a modified brochure with relatively concrete text and abstract graphics, and a relatively concrete text brochure with concrete graphics. Participants (N = 239 women) were divided into four age groups: 20-30, 40-50, 60-70 and over 70 years. Women were randomly assigned into each of the three experimental brochure formats or a control group. Participants completed recalled materials from the assigned brochures (the no treatment control group did not include a brochure) at two different sessions, 30 days apart. Data were content analyzed and results were compared using analysis of covariance to test differences by age and brochure types. Younger women (20-30 and 40-50 years) recalled more information than women over 60 years. More concrete nutrition education print materials enhanced recall of information presented immediately after reading the material; however, this effect was transient and lasted less than 30 days after a one-time reading. The implications of these data for communicating nutrition messages with print materials are discussed. (+info)
(7/429) Introducing cancer nutrition to medical students: effectiveness of computer-based instruction.
BACKGROUND: Computer-based instruction has been introduced at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill to augment its nutrition course for first-year medical students. Seven program modules have been completed; 2 more are planned. Each module explains the biochemistry and physiology of nutrition through interactive lessons, exercises, and a video case study. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to evaluate the instructional efficacy and acceptability of the nutrition and cancer module when used by first-year medical students. DESIGN: The module was used by 163 first-year medical students at the university's medical school as an obligatory component of the nutrition course. Before and after using the module, students were asked to answer multiple-choice questions concerning their knowledge and attitudes; each question had 5 possible answers. RESULTS: On average, students spent approximately 3 h studying the lessons. The percentage of correct responses to 20 knowledge questions increased from 22% before the module was used to 86% immediately after its use. When a randomly selected subsample of 25% of the students took the same test 3 mo later, they answered 62% of the questions correctly. The increase in the percentage of students who felt prepared to provide advice regarding nutrition's role in cancer prevention (from 5.7% to 66.9%) suggested a successful subjective learning experience. Neither the students' initial level of interest in cancer nutrition nor their acceptance of computer-based instruction was related to learning outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The tested module is a useful and effective aid for teaching nutritional principles of cancer prevention. The evaluation strategy helped identify areas for instructional improvement. (+info)
(8/429) Nutrition and the health care agenda: a primary care perspective.
The current climate of prioritizing in the NHS brings into focus the debate surrounding efficient and effective management of conditions associated with the modern lifestyle. In any such debate, nutrition should be considered a primary issue as there is now international consensus regarding the optimum diet for the prevention of both coronary heart disease and cancer. Over recent years, government has stated that primary care is in an ideal setting to provide nutrition education to the public. However, we present the case that there currently is a mismatch between the attitude of the public, who appear willing to accept dietary advice from primary care professionals, and the reluctance on behalf of these professionals to fulfil this role. Dissatisfaction with the quality of nutrition education received by those working in primary care is often cited as a barrier to providing dietary advice to patients. With that in mind, we go on to discuss educational strategies that may motivate primary care staff to increase their involvement in providing dietary advice for their patients. The challenge to those involved in the delivery of nutrition training to primary care professionals is to convince them that dietary intervention is worthwhile and that they can make a positive contribution to dietary change within the current organization of primary care. Increasing motivation is an essential outcome of such training, along with providing the skills and knowledge to fulfil this role. The contribution which diet could make is significant and, in this time of questioning priorities, the role of nutrition needs to be put firmly on the health care agenda. (+info)