Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Nutritional Support: The administration of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient by means other than normal eating. It does not include FLUID THERAPY which normalizes body fluids to restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Thiamine: 3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Trace Elements: A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.

*  Nutritional Requirements of Dogs and Cats with Cancer | OncoLink

The specific nutritional requirements of the pet with cancer are unknown. We have a good idea of the day-to-day nutritional ... Nutritional Requirements of Dogs and Cats with Cancer. Clinical Oncology Service. Veterinary Hospital of the University of ... Patients with good nutritional status have an improved response to therapy and better quality of life. While the effects of ... Meeting the basic nutritional needs of a cancer patient can be a significant challenge. In human cancer patients, it is ...

*  Tanya's Comprehensive Guide to Feline Chronic Kidney Disease - Nutritional Requirements

Feline Protein Requirements. Determining protein requirements: nitrogen balance versus lean body mass (2013) Laflamme DP Nestl ... It then examines the nutritional requirements of CKD cats in particular, and includes a discussion of the reduced protein ... In Feeding older cats - an update in new nutritional therapies (2011) Sparkes A Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 26(1) pp37- ... Nutritional management of renal disease: an evidence-based approach (2014) Sanderson SL Today's Veterinary Practice 4(1) pp51- ...

*  Nutritional requirements for pantothenate, pantethine or coenzyme A in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans » ...

After initial experiments established that either pantothenate or pantethine would satisfy the vitamin B5 requirement in C. ... Home , Journals , Nematology , Nutritional requirements for pantothenate, pantet... Advanced Search All Content. E-Books & ... Nutritional requirements for pantothenate, pantethine or coenzyme A in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans ... Nutritional requirements for pantothenate, pantethine or coenzyme A in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans ...

*  Foreign Object Consumption |

Equine Supplements and Nutritional Requirements (AAEP 2011). PrevNext. POLL: Older Horse Care Concerns. ...

*  Summer Slim-Down (for a Belgian horse) |

... but I do want to make sure he is getting all of his nutritional requirements, especially for the winter. Can you give me some ... Analysis of this horse's pasture would be necessary to determine if the grass meets his nutritional requirements. Specific ... The difficulty in using pasture as the primary nutritional source lies in the inconsistency in nutritional value of different ... but I do want to make sure he is getting all of his nutritional requirements, especially for the winter. He has free-choice ...

*  eCite - Defining the nutritional requirements of the early larvae of striped trumpeter (Latris lineata) (1B.4)

Defining the nutritional requirements of the early larvae of striped trumpeter (Latris lineata) (1B.4) ... Defining the nutritional requirements of the early larvae of striped trumpeter (Latris lineata) (1B.4). You are here *UTAS Home ... Defining the nutritional requirements of the early larvae of striped trumpeter (Latris lineata) (1B.4), Aquafin CRC Conference ...

*  Printing | The All I Need

5 Cases of Special Nutritional Requirements. February 24, 2017. Stand vs. sit: Can 2 hours a day help your heart?. August 12, ...

*  Perikabiven (Amino Acids, Electrolytes, Dextrose and Lipid Injectable Emulsion for Intravenous Use): Side Effects, Interactions...

Table 1: Nutritional Comparison. Nutrition Provided by. Recommended Nutritional Requirements1. PERIKABIVEN® recommended dose. ... The dosage selection is based upon fluid requirements which can be used in conjunction with the nutritional requirements to ... The recommended daily nutritional requirements for protein, dextrose and lipids compared to the amount of nutrition provided by ... PERIKABIVEN® meets the total nutritional requirements for protein, dextrose and lipids in stable patients, and can be ...

*  Perikabiven - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses

Determine the fluid requirements (27 to 40 mL/kg/day) and the patient's nutritional requirements (see Table 1) to be delivered ... The dosage selection is based upon fluid requirements which can be used in conjunction with the nutritional requirements to ... The recommended daily nutritional requirements for protein, dextrose and lipids compared to the amount of nutrition provided by ... Parenteral nutrition should be considered if a pregnant woman's nutritional requirements cannot be fulfilled by oral or enteral ...

*  Gardening: September plant of the month is firebush - CT Now

Nutritional requirements: Low. Soil requirements: Wide range of soil types. Salt tolerance: Poor. Drought tolerance: Moderate. ... Light requirements: Full sun, part shade. Pests: Aphids. More info: Find it: Firebush is available at ...

*  Weight reduction Green tea: sport nutrition for your Nutritional Requirements ~ Mormon Articles

Coping with weight reduction is among the toughest things you can do for this needs self-discipline, constraint as well as effort. Being overweight is becoming one of the main reasons for demise as well as harmful residing in the entire world. Bodyweight is not really the main problem however the extra body fat in your body that triggers illnesses such as cardiovascular assaults, diabetic as well as swings ...

*  Provider | Priority Health

Provider" refers to the health care professional who tested the patient and recorded the requirement values. After selecting the "Group" in the dropdown, select the provider from the associated list that appears. If you don't see the provider's name you are looking for, select "PAY GROUP.". ...

*  Nutritional Comparison: Bulgur, dry vs Oats

Amino acid RDI's are based on the World Health Organization's recommended daily intake for an adult human weighing 70 kg (154.3 pounds). "Protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition". WHO Press, page 150 ...

*  Nutritional Comparison: Kale, raw vs Collards, raw

Amino acid RDI's are based on the World Health Organization's recommended daily intake for an adult human weighing 70 kg (154.3 pounds). "Protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition". WHO Press, page 150 ...

Eagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.Proteinogenic amino acid: Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are precursors to proteins, and are incorporated into proteins cotranslationally — that is, during translation. There are 23 proteinogenic amino acids in prokaryotes (including N-Formylmethionine, mainly used to initiate protein synthesis and often removed afterward), but only 21 are encoded by the nuclear genes of eukaryotes.MultivitaminThiamine transporter: Members of this protein family have been assigned as thiamine transporters by a phylogenomic analysis of families of genes regulated by the THI element, a broadly conserved RNA secondary structure element through which thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) levels can regulate transcription of many genes related to thiamine transport, salvage, and de novo biosynthesis. Species with this protein always lack the ThiBPQ ABC transporter.PurineTrace metal: Trace metals are metals that can be present in animal and plant cells and tissue and are a necessary part of nutrition and physiology. Ingestion of, or exposure to, excessive quantities can be toxic.Casein: Casein ( or , from Latin caseus, "cheese") is the name for a family of related phosphoproteins (αS1, αS2, β, κ). These proteins are commonly found in mammalian milk, making up 80% of the proteins in cow milk and between 20% and 45% of the proteins in human milk.Nitrogen deficiencyMayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococci (plural), or gonococcus (singular), is a species of Gram-negative coffee bean-shaped diplococci bacteria responsible for the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea.Protein toxicity: Protein toxicity with proteinuria can result in those with preexisting kidney disease, or those who have lost kidney function due to age.List of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.Glucose transporterButyl acetate (disambiguation): Butyl acetate most often refers to n-butyl acetate. However, there are other isomers that may be considered to be butyl acetates:Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.MethionineLactic acid fermentationReplica plating: 350px|right|thumb|[[Negative selection (artificial selection)|Negative selection through replica plating to screen for ampicillin sensitive colonies]]List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Coles Phillips

(1/2033) Sodium requirement of adult cats for maintenance based on plasma aldosterone concentration.

The sodium requirement of adult cats for maintenance was determined using a randomized block design of eight dietary sodium treatments (0.1, 0.4, 0.5, 0.66, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 or 2.0 g Na/kg in a casein-lactalbumin-based purified diet) administered for periods of 4 wk. A total of 35 adult specific-pathogen-free domestic shorthaired cats (26 males and 9 females, 1.5-3 y of age) was given an equilibration diet (2 g Na/kg) for 14 d before assignment (or reassignment) to the treatments. A total of 12 cats (8 males, 4 females) was randomly assigned to the lowest six levels of sodium, and four cats to the highest two sodium levels. Cats consuming the diet containing 0.1 g Na/kg had significantly elevated aldosterone concentration in plasma, and packed cell volume. In addition, these cats exhibited anorexia, body weight loss, reduced urinary specific gravity and sodium excretion, and had a negative sodium balance. However, adult cats did not develop polydypsia and polyuria reported in sodium-deficient kittens. Cats given the diet containing 0.66 g Na/kg did not have an increased packed cell volume, but aldosterone concentration in the plasma was significantly elevated. However, cats given diets containing >/=0.8 g Na/kg had plasma aldosterone concentrations +info)

(2/2033) Lysine deficiency alters diet selection without depressing food intake in rats.

Under states of protein deficiency, the dietary limiting amino acid, rather than protein content, can act as the dietary stimulus to control diet selection. If fact, threonine-deficient rats will alter their diet selection patterns solely on the basis of very small changes (0.009 g/100 g) in the dietary threonine concentration. In these studies, we assessed whether lysine-deficient rats will also alter their diet selection patterns on the basis of small changes in dietary Lys concentration. In all experiments, growing rats were adapted to diets in which the protein fraction (purified amino acids or wheat gluten) was limiting in Lys. They were then given a choice between the adaptation diet (AD) diet and a slightly more deficient diet. Rats that were adapted to a Lys-deficient diet (0.25 g Lys/100 g) selected their AD over diets containing as little as 0.01% less Lys (P < 0.01) within 5 d. To determine how deficient rats must be before they alter their selection patterns, rats were adapted to diets containing various levels of Lys, i.e., 2 levels below the requirement for growth and 2 levels above the requirement for growth, but below the requirement for maximal nitrogen retention. Only rats adapted to diets containing Lys below their requirement for growth selected their AD over a diet containing 0.05% less Lys (P < 0.005). Finally, to determine whether rats will alter their selection to whole protein-based diets, rats were adapted to 25% wheat gluten diets supplemented with 0.03-0.21% Lys. Rats selected the AD over a diet containing as little as 0.09% less supplemental Lys by d 4 of the trial (P < 0.05). We conclude that rats are sensitive to changes as small as 0.01% in dietary Lys concentration, but that sensitivity requires prior adaptation to Lys-deficient diets.  (+info)

(3/2033) An estimation of the requirement for folic acid in gestating sows: the metabolic utilization of folates as a criterion of measurement.

Sows at their second parity were randomly distributed in five groups of seven animals each to determine the dietary concentration of folic acid that optimizes the metabolic utilization of the vitamin during gestation. The groups differed by dietary supplement of folic acid: 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20 ppm. Sows were fed 2.5 kg of diet each day. The response of serum folates and folate binding capacity to treatments and the excretion of urinary folates after an i.v. injection of folic acid were measured. The total daily excretion of urinary folates was corrected according to the response to one i.v. injection of saline on the day preceding the i.v. injection of folic acid. The decrease of total serum folates throughout gestation was less pronounced in the groups fed 15 and 20 ppm of dietary folic acid (supplement x period interaction, P<.06) than it was in the other three treatments. The proportion of i.v. folic acid not recovered in sow urine (injected - excreted) decreased as the amount of dietary folic acid increased to reach a minimum, which differed according to the period (supplement x period interaction, P<.02); it was 15 ppm during wk 1 of gestation and 10 ppm for the other periods studied. The unrecovered folates increased over a dietary concentration of 15 ppm. These minimum values correspond to the most appropriate feed concentration that covered the whole body utilization (tissue and cell metabolism, catabolism, and storage) of folates by the sows and could be interpreted as a reliable index of the requirement.  (+info)

(4/2033) Comparison of indirect calorimetry, the Fick method, and prediction equations in estimating the energy requirements of critically ill patients.

BACKGROUND: Accurate measurement of resting energy expenditure (REE) is helpful in determining the energy needs of critically ill patients requiring nutritional support. Currently, the most accurate clinical tool used to measure REE is indirect calorimetry, which is expensive, requires trained personnel, and has significant error at higher inspired oxygen concentrations. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare REE measured by indirect calorimetry with REE calculated by using the Fick method and prediction equations by Harris-Benedict, Ireton-Jones, Fusco, and Frankenfield. DESIGN: REEs of 36 patients [12 men and 24 women, mean age 58+/-22 y and mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score 22+/-8] in a hospital intensive care unit and receiving mechanical ventilation and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) were measured for > or = 15 min by using indirect calorimetry and compared with REEs calculated from a mean of 2 sets of hemodynamic measurements taken during the metabolic testing period with an oximetric pulmonary artery catheter. RESULTS: Mean REE by indirect calorimetry was 8381+/-1940 kJ/d and correlated poorly with the other methods tested (r = 0.057-0.154). This correlation did not improve after adjusting for changes in respiratory quotient (r2 = 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: These data do not support previous findings showing a strong correlation between REE determined by the Fick method and other prediction equations and indirect calorimetry. In critically ill patients receiving TPN, indirect calorimetry, if available, remains the most appropriate clinical tool for accurate measurement of REE.  (+info)

(5/2033) Dietary pantothenic acid requirement of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

A feeding trial was conducted to estimate the minimal dietary pantothenic acid (PA) requirement for juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Purified diets with seven levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 120, 240, and 480 mg/kg) of supplemental PA were fed to P. monodon (mean weight 0.88 +/- 0.01 g) for 8 wk. The level of PA detected in the unsupplemented diet was 0.02 mg/kg. Each diet was fed to three replicate groups of shrimp. Feed efficiencies (FE) and protein efficiency ratios were highest in shrimp fed the diets supplemented with 120, 240, and 480 mg PA/kg diet, followed by the groups fed 60 mg/kg, then 40 mg/kg, and finally the unsupplemented control group (P < 0.05). Shrimp fed diets supplemented with PA had significantly higher survival percentages and lower hepatopancreatic lipid concentration than those fed the unsupplemented, control diets. Broken-line regression analyses of weight gain percentage and hepatopancreatic CoA and PA concentrations of the shrimp indicated that the adequate dietary PA concentration in growing P. monodon is 101-139 mg/kg.  (+info)

(6/2033) Criteria for choosing amino acid therapy in acute renal failure.

Metabolic studies were performed on 19 patients with acute renal failure. Therapy included intravenous hyperalimentation using 15 to 20 g of essential amino acids or 20 to 40 g of essential plus nonessential amino acids and hypertonic glucose (37 to 50%). The effect of this parenteral feeding appears to be primarily pharmacological. Hypertonic glucose promotes the hyperinsulinemia important to be membrane function, the operation of the sodium pump, and cell metabolism. Administration of high biological value crystalline amino acdis potentiates the effect of insulin by inhibiting protein breakdown and promoting protein synthesis, particularly in muscle. This reduces tissue catabolism and urea formation, and promotes potassium, magnesium, and phosphate homeostasis. The branched-chain ketogenic amino acids valine, leucine, and isoleucine may be of particular importance. When indicated, administration of renal failure hyperalimentation and peritoneal or hemodialysis can be expected to complement each other and accelerate recovery. This intravenous fluid therapy, in turn, must be coordinated with proper hemodynamics, usually requiring a colloidal solution to maintain intravascular volume, and cardiotrophic agents such as digitalis and dopamine. Early use of renal failure can be expected to demonstrate the most striking response in terms of survival, early recovery from acute renal failure, and the preservation of physiological homeostasis.  (+info)

(7/2033) Folate metabolism and requirements.

Folate functions in multiple coenzyme forms in acceptance, redox processing and transfer of one-carbon units, including nucleotides and certain amino acids. Folate-requiring metabolic processes are influenced by folate intake, intake of other essential nutrients, including vitamins B-12 and B-6, and at least one common genetic polymorphism. Estimates of folate requirements have been based on intakes associated with maintenance of normal plasma and erythrocyte folate concentrations and functional tests that reflect abnormalities in folate-dependent reactions. Dietary Reference Intakes for folate that have been developed recently are based primarily on metabolic studies in which erythrocyte folate concentration was considered the major indicator of adequacy. For adults >/=19 y, the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is 400 microg/d of dietary folate equivalents (DFE); for lactating and pregnant women, the RDAs include an additional 100 and 200 microg of DFE/d, respectively.  (+info)

(8/2033) Postnatal profiles of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis are modified in rat pups by maternal dietary glucose restriction.

Because glucose is an important metabolic fuel during perinatal development, the effect of restriction of maternal dietary glucose on the developmental profile of neonatal glucoregulatory pathways was investigated. Pregnant rats were fed isoenergetic diets (0, 12, 24 or 60% glucose) and offspring were killed at seven postpartum time periods: 0-2, 4-6, 12-16 and 24 h, and 3, 6 and 15 d. Failure of the most restricted pups (0%) to survive 24 h was explained by persistent hypoglycemia resulting from the following: 1) insufficient tissue glycogen reserves at birth; 2) lower liver glycogen mobilization; 3) delayed phosphorylase a induction; and 4) low phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene expression, all of which occurred despite the lower insulin:glucagon ratio. Differences in liver glycogen stores, which had been exhausted in all dietary groups by 16 h, could not account for the high d 1 pup mortality in the moderately restricted (12 and 24% glucose) groups. However, a certain metabolic distress was suggested because these moderately restricted neonates had significantly higher liver PEPCK gene expression at 12-16 h but significantly lower plasma glucose at 24 h. The high d 3 mortality, confirmed by analysis of deviance, was not supported by significant differences in any of the measured glucoregulatory indices. We conclude that dietary glucose during pregnancy is required for neonatal survival; its restriction not only lowers tissue glycogen reserves, but can disrupt the normal gene expression of liver PEPCK and the neonatal profile of phosphorylase a activity. Importantly, these observations show that the development of neonatal glucoregulatory mechanisms is modified by the availability of maternal dietary glucose.  (+info)


  • you are no longer in the world of nutritional supplementation and have passed into the riskier world of megadose treatment. (


  • Need for Nutritional Support Essential for Preterm Infants. (


  • There are two main ways to use vitamins and mineral supplements: "megadose" and nutritional therapy. (
  • The megadose approach involves taking supplements at doses far above nutritional needs in hopes of producing a specific medical benefit. (
  • The minerals calcium and magnesium are very bulky, and few multivitamin/mineral supplements provide the daily requirement. (


  • We have a good idea of the day-to-day nutritional needs of healthy dogs and cats but do not know whether a pet with cancer has any special or different needs. (
  • Health Canada's proposed discretionary fortification policy is misaligned with the nutritional needs of Canadians. (
  • Our modeling suggests that Health Canada's proposed policies are misaligned with the nutritional needs of the population, because they are not rooted in an assessment of current nutrient intake patterns. (
  • This article addresses the second approach: taking nutrients at the level of nutritional needs. (




  • The specific nutritional requirements of the pet with cancer are unknown. (


  • Does the food suit your parent's taste, nutritional requirements and cultural preferences? (


  • The simplest way to support your nutrition is to take a general multivitamin and mineral supplement providing a broad range of nutrients at standard nutritional levels. (


  • We discuss general issues regarding such "nutritional insurance" and indicate which nutrients you should consider taking on a daily basis. (


  • It also discusses other nutritional issues, such as the importance of weight and muscle maintenance. (


  • After initial experiments established that either pantothenate or pantethine would satisfy the vitamin B5 requirement in C. elegans , reproduction in the nematodes was measured in eight equimolar concentrations of calcium pantothenate, pantethine or coenzyme A. The optimal levels for pantothenate were found to be 7.5, 30 and 120 μ g ml −1 . (
  • CONCLUSIONS This evidence that dietary fat increases glucose levels and insulin requirements highlights the limitations of the current carbohydrate-based approach to bolus dose calculation. (
  • This carbohydrate-based approach to insulin dose calculation assumes that carbohydrate is the only dietary macronutrient that affects glucose levels and insulin requirements. (


  • It then examines the nutritional requirements of CKD cats in particular, and includes a discussion of the reduced protein debate. (