Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.PhilippinesHealth Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.MexicoParenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Parenteral Nutrition, Total: The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Southwestern United States: The geographic area of the southwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah.Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Enteral Nutrition: Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Deficiency Diseases: A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.JapanNutrition Therapy: Improving health status of an individual by adjusting the quantities, qualities, and methods of nutrient intake.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.United StatesNutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Hypoalphalipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally low levels of ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins) in the blood. Hypoalphalipoproteinemia can be associated with mutations in genes encoding APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I; LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE; and ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Magnesium Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of magnesium in the diet, characterized by anorexia, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, and weakness. Symptoms are paresthesias, muscle cramps, irritability, decreased attention span, and mental confusion, possibly requiring months to appear. Deficiency of body magnesium can exist even when serum values are normal. In addition, magnesium deficiency may be organ-selective, since certain tissues become deficient before others. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1936)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Parenteral Nutrition, Home: The at-home administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered via a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Great BritainSocial Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Nutritional Support: The administration of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient by means other than normal eating. It does not include FLUID THERAPY which normalizes body fluids to restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Child Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.Parenteral Nutrition Solutions: Specialized solutions for PARENTERAL NUTRITION. They may contain a variety of MICRONUTRIENTS; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; CARBOHYDRATES; LIPIDS; and SALTS.Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Infant Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in infants ages 1 month to 24 months.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Nutrigenomics: The study of the relationship between NUTRITIONAL PHYSIOLOGY and genetic makeup. It includes the effect of different food components on GENE EXPRESSION and how variations in GENES effect responses to food components.Animal Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES, as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease in animals.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Short Bowel Syndrome: A malabsorption syndrome resulting from extensive operative resection of the SMALL INTESTINE, the absorptive region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.EuropeHealth Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Schools: Educational institutions.Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.Micronutrients: Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Nutrition Processes: Biological actions and events that constitute the steps by which living organisms take in and assimilate NUTRIENTS.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Fat Emulsions, Intravenous: Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Food Assistance: Food or financial assistance for food given to those in need.Fetal Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, in the FETUS in utero.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Mexican Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican descent.Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.

*  National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2008

Beginning in 1999, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) became a continuous, annual survey rather than ... National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2008 (ICPSR 25505) Principal Investigator(s): United States ... National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2008. ICPSR25505-v3. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium ... The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and ...
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*  Diabetes mellitus and serum carotenoids : Findings from the Third national Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. | Base...

Data from phase I of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988-1991 were used to examine concentrations ... Diabetes mellitus and serum carotenoids : Findings from the Third national Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. R f. 185810 ... Data from phase I of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1991) were used to examine concentrations ... Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Centers for ...
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*  National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

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*  National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II: Mortality Study, 1992

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*  SOPs| | National Pre-school Nutrition Survey UCC

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*  About the CLHNS - Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey

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*  Diet & Nutrition Survey Results - INFOGRAPHIC

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*  Breakfast and the diets of Australian adults: an analysis of data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey.

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*  National Diet and Nutrition Survey: assessment of dietary sodium Adults in England

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*  4364.0.55.009 - Australian Health Survey: Nutrition - State and Territory results, 2011-12

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*  4364.0.55.009 - Australian Health Survey: Nutrition - State and Territory results, 2011-12

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*  4364.0.55.009 - Australian Health Survey: Nutrition State and Territory results, 2011-12

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*  Nutrition message still not reaching Americans, FDA survey

The findings of FDA's latest survey on health and nutrition underscore that while US consumers have good health intentions, ... Nutrition message still not reaching Americans, FDA survey. By Clarisse Douaud Clarisse Douaud , 06-May-20082008-05-06T00:00: ... FDA found in the survey that women were more likely than men to agree that nutrition is important and were also more likely ... The findings of FDA's latest survey on health and nutrition underscore that while US consumers have good health intentions, ...
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*  Diana Stukel, Scientist, Survey Methods | Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance III Project (FANTA)

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*  Snacking Survey - Katie Chiffer: Nutrition Advocate, Food Blogger, & Health Enthusiast

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*  Estimation of traditional food intake in indigenous communities in Denendeh and the Yukon.

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*  UK Food Law News (10-58)

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*  Dietary surveys indicate vitamin intakes below recommendations are common in representative Western countries | British Journal...

Dietary surveys indicate vitamin intakes below recommendations are common in representative Western countries - Volume 108 ... 32 I Elmadfa , A Meyer , V Nowak , (2009) European Nutrition and Health Report 2009. Forum of Nutrition, vol. 62. Basel: Karger ... intake surveys for the first three countries and data for adults from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey ... Dietary surveys indicate vitamin intakes below recommendations are common in representative Western countries. * Barbara ...
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*  How to Manage Time - Time Management Tips

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*  HIV & AIDS Information :: HATIP #98, 21st December 2007 - Managing meningitis in people with HIV in resource-limited settings:...

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*  Raiatea Hotels with Meeting Facilities- Meeting Hotels in Raiatea- Corporate Meeting Planning: Meetings and Conventions

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*  Notice Sent to Courts Asking Them to Stop Courting Mosquitoes

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*  Cough and Low blood platelet level and Mouth symptoms - Symptom Checker - check medical symptoms at RightDiagnosis

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Phoenix Petroleum Philippines, Inc.: Phoenix}}Old Portal de Mercaderes (Mexico City): Old Portal de Mercaderes in the historic center of Mexico City was and is the west side of the main plaza (otherwise known as the "Zócalo"). This side of the plaza has been occupied by commercial structures since the Spanish Conquest of Mexico in 1521.Parenteral nutrition: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is feeding a person intravenously, bypassing the usual process of eating and digestion. The person receives nutritional formulae that contain nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, lipids and added vitamins and dietary minerals.Healthy eating pyramid: The healthy eating pyramid is a nutrition guide developed by the Harvard School of Public Health, suggesting quantities of each food category that a human should eat each day. The healthy eating pyramid is intended to provide a superior eating guide than the widespread food guide pyramid created by the USDA.Southwestern United States: The Southwestern United States (also known as the American Southwest) is the United States portion of the Southwest (which is situated in both the United States and Mexico). It is a region of the United States defined in different ways by different sources.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.List of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: The United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs was a select committee of the United States Senate between 1968 and 1977. It was sometimes referred to as the McGovern committee, after its only chairperson, Senator George McGovern of South Dakota.Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Niigata UniversityDiane Kress: Diane Kress (born February 27, 1959) is a Registered Dietitian and Certified Diabetes Educator. She has spent her career specializing in medical nutrition therapy for overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,K-Mix 2: K-Mix 2 is a high energy food, used for the treatment of severe malnutrition. It was developed by UNICEF in response to the Biafran crisis, and was widely used in later famines in India and Africa.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Overweight PoochMagnesium (pharmaceutical preparation): Magnesium, as a pharmaceutical preparation, is used to treat conditions including magnesium deficiency and hypomagnesemia, as well as eclampsia. Magnesium is important to health.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Waterladder pumpQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.TaurolidineCircular flow of income: The circular flow of income or circular flow is a model of the economy in which the major exchanges are represented as flows of money, goods and services, etc. between economic agents.Protein toxicity: Protein toxicity with proteinuria can result in those with preexisting kidney disease, or those who have lost kidney function due to age.Robinson Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California: The Robinson Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California is a federally recognized tribe of Eastern Pomo people in Lake County, California.California Indians and Their Reservations.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Relative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.Spaced retrieval: Spaced retrieval, also known as expanded retrieval or uniform retrieval, is a learning technique, which requires users to rehearse information to be learned at different and increasing spaced intervals of time or a set uniform amount of time.Haslam, C.PRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.Animal fatInternational Journal of Obesity: The International Journal of Obesity (abbreviated as IJO) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.National Cholesterol Education Program: The National Cholesterol Education Program is a program managed by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health. Its goal is to reduce increased cardiovascular disease rates due to hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) in the United States of America.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Iron stress repressed RNA: Iron stress repressed RNA (IsrR) is a cis-encoded antisense RNA which regulates the expression of the photosynthetic protein isiA. IsiA expression is activated by the Ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) under iron stress conditions.HypertensionHeartScore: HeartScore is a cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management tool developed by the European Society of Cardiology, aimed at supporting clinicians in optimising individual cardiovascular risk reduction.Health claims on food labels: Health claims on food labels are claims by manufacturers of food products that their food will reduce the risk of developing a disease or condition. For example, it is claimed by the manufacturers of oat cereals that oat bran can reduce cholesterol, which will lower the chances of developing serious heart conditions.School meal programs in the United States: School meal programs in the United States provide school meals freely, or at a subsidized price, to the children of low income families. These free or reduced meals have the potential to increase household food security, which can improve children's health and expand their educational opportunities.Food desert: A food desert is a geographic area where affordable and nutritious food is difficult to obtain, particularly for those without access to an automobile.USDA Defines Food Deserts | American Nutrition Association Some research links food deserts to diet-related health problems and health disparities in affected populations, but this phenomenon has been disputed.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Banquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Nutrigenetics: Nutrigenetics is a branch of nutritional genomics which aims to identify genetic susceptibility to diseases and genetic variation in the effects of nutrient intake on the genome. Nutrigenetics is not to be confused with nutrigenomics, which focuses on the role specific foods have in activating genes that affect susceptibility to certain illnesses such as Alzheimer’s Disease and cancer.Michael Colgan (nutritionist)Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Dietary Supplements (database): The PubMed Dietary Supplement Subset (PMDSS) is a joint project between the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS). PMDSS is designed to help people search for academic journal articles related to dietary supplement literature.Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score: Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) is a method of evaluating the protein quality based on both the amino acid requirements of humans and their ability to digest it. The PDCAAS rating was adopted by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) in 1993 as "the preferred 'best'" method to determine protein quality.Short bowel syndromeVegetable juiceGA²LENSelf-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.St. Vrain Valley School DistrictMicronutrient deficiency: Micronutrient deficiency or dietary deficiency is a lack of one or more of the micronutrients required plant or animal health. In humans and other animals they include both vitamin deficiencies and mineral deficiencies, whereas in plants the term refers to deficiencies of essential trace minerals.Canadian Organ Replacement Registry: The Canadian Organ Replacement Registry CORR is a health organisation was started by Canadian nephrologists and kidney transplant surgeons in 1985 in order to develop the care of patients with renal failure. In the early 1990s data on liver and heart transplantation were added to the registry.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studying

(1/2452) Validation of measures of food insecurity and hunger.

The most recent survey effort to determine the extent of food insecurity and hunger in the United States, the Food Security Supplement, included a series of questions to assess this complex phenomenon. The primary measure developed from this Food Security Supplement was based on measurement concepts, methods and items from two previously developed measures. This paper presents the evidence available that questionnaire-based measures, in particular the national food security measure, provide valid measurement of food insecurity and hunger for population and individual uses. The paper discusses basic ideas about measurement and criteria for establishing validity of measures and then uses these criteria to structure an examination of the research results available to establish the validity of food security measures. The results show that the construction of the national food security measure is well grounded in our understanding of food insecurity and hunger, its performance is consistent with that understanding, it is precise within usual performance standards, dependable, accurate at both group and individual levels within reasonable performance standards, and its accuracy is attributable to the well-grounded understanding. These results provide strong evidence that the Food Security Supplement provides valid measurement of food insecurity and hunger for population and individual uses. Further validation research is required for subgroups of the population, not yet studied for validation purposes, to establish validity for monitoring population changes in prevalence and to develop and validate robust and contextually sensitive measures in a variety of countries that reflect how people experience and think about food insecurity and hunger.  (+info)

(2/2452) Measuring food insecurity and hunger in the United States: development of a national benchmark measure and prevalence estimates.

Since 1992, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) has led a collaborative effort to develop a comprehensive benchmark measure of the severity and prevalence of food insecurity and hunger in the United States. Based on prior research and wide consultation, a survey instrument specifically relevant to U.S. conditions was designed and tested. Through its Current Population Survey (CPS), the U.S. Bureau of the Census has fielded this instrument each year since 1995. A measurement scale was derived from the data through fitting, testing and validating a Rasch scale. The unidimensional Rasch model corresponds to the form of the phenomenon being measured, i.e., the severity of food insufficiency due to inadequate resources as directly experienced and reported in U.S. households. A categorical measure reflecting designated ranges of severity on the scale was constructed for consistent comparison of prevalence estimates over time and across population groups. The technical basis and initial results of the new measure were reported in September 1997. For the 12 months ending April 1995, an estimated 11.9% of U.S. households (35 million persons) were food insecure. Among these, 4.1% of households (with 6.9 million adults and 4.3 million children) showed a recurring pattern of hunger due to inadequate resources for one or more of their adult and/or child members sometime during the period. The new measure has been incorporated into other federal surveys and is being used by researchers throughout the U.S. and Canada.  (+info)

(3/2452) Economic determinants and dietary consequences of food insecurity in the United States.

This paper reviews recent research on the economic determinants and dietary consequences of food insecurity and hunger in the United States. The new Current Population Study (CPS) food insecurity and hunger measure shows that hunger rates decline sharply with rising incomes. Despite this strong relationship, confirmed in other national datasets, a one-to-one correspondence between poverty-level incomes and hunger does not exist. In 1995, 13.1% of those in poverty experienced hunger and half of those experiencing hunger had incomes above the poverty level. Panel data indicate that those who are often food insufficient are much more likely than food-sufficient households to have experienced recent events that stress household budgets, such as losing a job, gaining a household member or losing food stamps. Cross-sectional work also demonstrates the importance of food stamps because benefit levels are inversely related to food insufficiency. Concern for the dietary consequences of domestic food insufficiency is well placed; recent research shows that the odds of consuming intakes <50% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) are higher for adult women and elderly individuals from food-insufficient households. Preschoolers from food-insufficient households do not consume significantly lower amounts than those from food-sufficient households, but mean intakes for the rest of members in those very same households are significantly lower for the food insufficient. This research highlights the importance of food insecurity and hunger indicators, further validates the use of self-reported measures and points to areas of need for future research and interventions.  (+info)

(4/2452) Validity and reproducibility of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire for a cohort study in Japan.

BACKGROUND: A self-administered quantitative food frequency questionnaire (Qx) was developed for a population-based cohort study on cancer in Takayama, Japan. METHODS: The Qx was tested among 58 male and 59 female volunteers. Average daily nutrient intakes for the previous year calculated from the Qx were compared with those from 3-day food records and four 24-h recalls. The Qx was also validated among 37 volunteers by comparing the nutrient intakes calculated from the Qx with 12 1-day food records during a year. We also calculated the intra-class correlation coefficients for various nutrients between the Qx and the second Qx administered by the same volunteers 1 year after the first survey. RESULTS: Pearson correlation coefficients between total energy from the Qx and 3-day records were 0.38 for men and 0.25 for women and those between the Qx and 24-h recalls were 0.19 and -0.02 for men and women, respectively. Correlations between the several nutrients from the Qx and 3-day records ranged from 0.2 to 0.5 for both men and women. These correlations after energy adjustment ranged from 0.2 to 0.6 for men and from 0.1 to 0.7 for women. In general, the correlations for various nutrients between the Qx and 12 1-day records were higher than those described above. The intra-class correlation coefficients ranged from 0.46 to 0.78 in men and from 0.36 to 0.67, except for vitamin C in women. When the information on portion size was excluded, almost all of the above indices showed somewhat lower figures. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that our food frequency questionnaire with portion size information can be used to estimate nutrient intakes of each individual.  (+info)

(5/2452) Serum and red blood cell folate concentrations, race, and education: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relations between race or ethnicity, educational attainment, and serum and red blood cell folate concentrations. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relation between educational attainment and serum and red blood cell folate concentrations in 8457 white, African American, and Mexican American men and women aged > or = 17 y. DESIGN: We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from Phase 1 of the third National health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1991). RESULTS: White men had significantly higher adjusted serum and red blood cell folate concentrations (16.9 and 502.6 nmol/L, respectively) than did African American men (15.6 and 423.3 nmol/L, respectively) or Mexican American men (16.0 and 457.0 nmol/L, respectively); white women had significantly higher concentrations (18.4 and 515.9 nmol/L, respectively) than did African American women (16.3 and 415.4 nmol/L, respectively) or Mexican American women (15.9 and 455.7 nmol/L, respectively). For the entire sample, rank correlation coefficients between educational attainment and serum and red blood cell folate were 0.11 and 0.12, respectively, and were larger in white participants than in other participants. No significant linear trends between adjusted serum or red blood cell folate and educational attainment were found. Among participants with > 12 y of education, the mean adjusted concentrations of serum folate were 15% and 18% lower and those of red blood cell were 18% and 22% lower in African American men and women than in white men and women, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: African Americans and Mexican Americans could benefit most from public health programs to boost folate intakes by encouraging increased intake of folate-rich foods and vitamin supplements.  (+info)

(6/2452) Serum total homocysteine concentrations in adolescent and adult Americans: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

BACKGROUND: The elevation of circulating total homocysteine concentrations in a fasting state is associated with an increased risk of occlusive vascular disease. OBJECTIVE: The primary goals of this study were to describe the distribution of serum total homocysteine concentrations in the United States and to test for differences in homocysteine concentrations among sex, age, and race-ethnicity categories. DESIGN: Using surplus sera from phase 2 of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we measured serum total homocysteine concentrations for a nationally representative sample of 3766 males and 4819 females aged > or = 12 y. RESULTS: Age-adjusted geometric mean total homocysteine concentrations were 9.6 and 7.9 mmol/L in non-Hispanic white males and females, 9.8 and 8.2 mmol/L in non-Hispanic black males and females, and 9.4 and 7.4 mmol/L in Mexican American males and females, respectively. Age-adjusted geometric mean total homocysteine concentrations were significantly lower in females than in males in each race-ethnicity group (P < 0.01) and were significantly lower in Mexican American females than in non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black females (P < 0.01). There was a significant age-sex interaction (P < 0.01), reflecting the fact that homocysteine concentrations in females tended to diverge from those in males at younger ages and converge with those in males at older ages. CONCLUSIONS: The first data on homocysteine concentrations in a nationally representative sample of Americans confirm the age and sex differences reported previously in nonrepresentative samples. These data also indicate that differences between Mexican American and non-Hispanic females may influence circulating homocysteine concentrations.  (+info)

(7/2452) Body mass index, weight change, and incidence of self-reported physician-diagnosed arthritis among women.

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI), weight change, and arthritis in women. METHODS: Data were taken from the 1982-1984 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study of 3617 women, aged 25 to 74 years. RESULTS: Women with a BMI greater than 32 at initial interview were at significantly higher risk of developing arthritis than women with a BMI of 19 to 21.9. Compared with stable-weight women with a BMI of less than 25, women who were obese at initial interview (BMI > 29) and who subsequently maintained their weight or gained more than 10% of their body weight were at significantly higher risk of developing arthritis. CONCLUSIONS: Attaining and maintaining a healthy weight may reduce the risk of developing arthritis.  (+info)

(8/2452) Racial and ethnic differences in glycemic control of adults with type 2 diabetes.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate glycemic control in a representative sample of U.S. adults with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey included national samples of non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans aged > or = 20 years. Information on medical history and treatment of diabetes was obtained to determine those who had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes by a physician before the survey (n = 1,480). Fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c were measured, and the frequencies of sociodemographic and clinical variables related to glycemic control were determined. RESULTS: A higher proportion of non-Hispanic blacks were treated with insulin and a higher proportion of Mexican Americans were treated with oral agents compared with non-Hispanic whites, but the majority of adults in each racial or ethnic group (71-83%) used pharmacologic treatment for diabetes. Use of multiple daily insulin injections was more common in whites. Blood glucose self-monitoring was less common in Mexican Americans, but most patients had never self-monitored. HbA1c values in the nondiabetic range were found in 26% of non-Hispanic whites, 17% of non-Hispanic blacks, and 20% of Mexican Americans. Poor glycemic control (HbA1c > 8%) was more common in non-Hispanic black women (50%) and Mexican-American men (45%) compared with the other groups (35-38%), but HbA1c for both sexes and for all racial and ethnic groups was substantially higher than normal levels. Those with HbA1c > 8% included 52% of insulin-treated patients and 42% of those taking oral agents. There was no relationship of glycemic control to socioeconomic status or access to medical care in any racial or ethnic group. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that many patients with type 2 diabetes in the U.S. have poor glycemic control, placing them at high risk of diabetic complications. Non-Hispanic black women, Mexican-American men, and patients treated with insulin and oral agents were disproportionately represented among those in poor glycemic control. Clinical, public health, and research efforts should focus on more effective methods to control blood glucose in patients with diabetes.  (+info)



study


  • The primary aim of the study is to determine if the early initiation of subcutaneous glargine insulin with supplemental doses of sliding scale human regular (SSR) insulin in hospitalized subjects with diabetes receiving enteral nutrition reduces the frequency of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia when compared to use of SSR insulin alone. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Conducted by a team of researchers from the United States and the Philippines, the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey is part of an ongoing study of a cohort of Filipino women who gave birth between May 1, 1983, and April 30, 1984. (unc.edu)
  • The 1991-92 follow-up study included 2,399 women who had answered the baseline and birth information surveys of the original CLHNS. (unc.edu)
  • A total of 2,260 children, with an average age of 8.5 years, were surveyed in this follow up study. (unc.edu)