Fetal Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, in the FETUS in utero.Infant Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in infants ages 1 month to 24 months.Child Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Parenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Parenteral Nutrition, Total: The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.Enteral Nutrition: Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Nutrition Therapy: Improving health status of an individual by adjusting the quantities, qualities, and methods of nutrient intake.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Parenteral Nutrition, Home: The at-home administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered via a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Nutritional Support: The administration of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient by means other than normal eating. It does not include FLUID THERAPY which normalizes body fluids to restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Parenteral Nutrition Solutions: Specialized solutions for PARENTERAL NUTRITION. They may contain a variety of MICRONUTRIENTS; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; CARBOHYDRATES; LIPIDS; and SALTS.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.United StatesPhobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Tic Disorders: Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Borderline Personality Disorder: A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Nutrigenomics: The study of the relationship between NUTRITIONAL PHYSIOLOGY and genetic makeup. It includes the effect of different food components on GENE EXPRESSION and how variations in GENES effect responses to food components.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Animal Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES, as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease in animals.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Short Bowel Syndrome: A malabsorption syndrome resulting from extensive operative resection of the SMALL INTESTINE, the absorptive region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Combat Disorders: Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Impulse Control Disorders: Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Nutrition Processes: Biological actions and events that constitute the steps by which living organisms take in and assimilate NUTRIENTS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Fat Emulsions, Intravenous: Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Micronutrients: Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Binge-Eating Disorder: A disorder associated with three or more of the following: eating until feeling uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating much more rapidly than normal; eating alone due to embarrassment; feeling of disgust, DEPRESSION, or guilt after overeating. Criteria includes occurrence on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior (i.e. purging, excessive exercise, etc.) and does not co-occur exclusively with BULIMIA NERVOSA or ANOREXIA NERVOSA. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Food Assistance: Food or financial assistance for food given to those in need.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Dysthymic Disorder: Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Deficiency Diseases: A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Dissociative Disorders: Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Conversion Disorder: A disorder whose predominant feature is a loss or alteration in physical functioning that suggests a physical disorder but that is actually a direct expression of a psychological conflict or need.Protein-Energy Malnutrition: The lack of sufficient energy or protein to meet the body's metabolic demands, as a result of either an inadequate dietary intake of protein, intake of poor quality dietary protein, increased demands due to disease, or increased nutrient losses.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.Growth Disorders: Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.Neurotic Disorders: Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Schools: Educational institutions.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Intubation, Gastrointestinal: The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.Taste Disorders: Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).Affective Disorders, Psychotic: Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Mexican Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican descent.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Menu PlanningMotor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Parenteral nutrition: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is feeding a person intravenously, bypassing the usual process of eating and digestion. The person receives nutritional formulae that contain nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, lipids and added vitamins and dietary minerals.United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: The United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs was a select committee of the United States Senate between 1968 and 1977. It was sometimes referred to as the McGovern committee, after its only chairperson, Senator George McGovern of South Dakota.Diane Kress: Diane Kress (born February 27, 1959) is a Registered Dietitian and Certified Diabetes Educator. She has spent her career specializing in medical nutrition therapy for overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes.Bipolar disorderHealthy eating pyramid: The healthy eating pyramid is a nutrition guide developed by the Harvard School of Public Health, suggesting quantities of each food category that a human should eat each day. The healthy eating pyramid is intended to provide a superior eating guide than the widespread food guide pyramid created by the USDA.Mental disorderSocial anxiety disorderTaurolidineSchizophreniaBrexpiprazoleMayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorderRelationship obsessive–compulsive disorder: In psychology, relationship obsessive–compulsive disorder (ROCD) is a form of obsessive-compulsive disorder focusing on intimate relationships (whether romantic or non-romantic). Such obsessions can become extremely distressing and debilitating, having negative impacts on relationships functioning.Oneirology: Oneirology (; from Greek [oneiron, "dream"; and -λογία], ["the study of") is the scientific study of [[dream]s. Current research seeks correlations between dreaming and current knowledge about the functions of the brain, as well as understanding of how the brain works during dreaming as pertains to memory formation and mental disorders.Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities: Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the field of special education. The editors-in-chief are Alisa K.International Journal of Obesity: The International Journal of Obesity (abbreviated as IJO) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.K-Mix 2: K-Mix 2 is a high energy food, used for the treatment of severe malnutrition. It was developed by UNICEF in response to the Biafran crisis, and was widely used in later famines in India and Africa.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Claustrophobia: Claustrophobia is the fear of having no escape and being in closed or small space or room It is typically classified as an anxiety disorder and often results in panic attack, and can be the result of many situations or stimuli, including elevators crowded to capacity, windowless rooms, and even tight-necked clothing. The onset of claustrophobia has been attributed to many factors, including a reduction in the size of the amygdala, classical conditioning, or a genetic predisposition to fear small spaces.Substance-related disorderRelationship Development Intervention: Relationship Development Intervention (RDI) is a trademarked proprietary treatment program for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), based on the belief that the development of dynamic intelligence is the key to improving the quality of life for individuals with autism. The program's core philosophy is that individuals with autism can participate in authentic emotional relationships if they are exposed to them in a gradual, systematic way.DSM-IV Codes (alphabetical): __FORCETOC__Health claims on food labels: Health claims on food labels are claims by manufacturers of food products that their food will reduce the risk of developing a disease or condition. For example, it is claimed by the manufacturers of oat cereals that oat bran can reduce cholesterol, which will lower the chances of developing serious heart conditions.School meal programs in the United States: School meal programs in the United States provide school meals freely, or at a subsidized price, to the children of low income families. These free or reduced meals have the potential to increase household food security, which can improve children's health and expand their educational opportunities.List of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Tic disorderClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Postoperative cognitive dysfunction: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a short-term decline in cognitive function (especially in memory and executive functions) that may last from a few days to a few weeks after surgery. In rare cases, this disorder may persist for several months after major surgery.Girl, Interrupted: Girl, Interrupted is a best-sellingThe Unconfessional Confessionalist, Time Magazine, July 11, 1994 1993 memoir by American author Susanna Kaysen, relating her experiences as a young woman in a psychiatric hospital in the 1960s after being diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. The memoir's title is a reference to the Vermeer painting Girl Interrupted at her Music.Food desert: A food desert is a geographic area where affordable and nutritious food is difficult to obtain, particularly for those without access to an automobile.USDA Defines Food Deserts | American Nutrition Association Some research links food deserts to diet-related health problems and health disparities in affected populations, but this phenomenon has been disputed.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Comorbidity: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.Banquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Nutrigenetics: Nutrigenetics is a branch of nutritional genomics which aims to identify genetic susceptibility to diseases and genetic variation in the effects of nutrient intake on the genome. Nutrigenetics is not to be confused with nutrigenomics, which focuses on the role specific foods have in activating genes that affect susceptibility to certain illnesses such as Alzheimer’s Disease and cancer.Lymphoproliferative disordersMichael Colgan (nutritionist)Dietary Supplements (database): The PubMed Dietary Supplement Subset (PMDSS) is a joint project between the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS). PMDSS is designed to help people search for academic journal articles related to dietary supplement literature.Short bowel syndromeLifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.The Movement Disorder SocietyProtein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score: Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) is a method of evaluating the protein quality based on both the amino acid requirements of humans and their ability to digest it. The PDCAAS rating was adopted by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) in 1993 as "the preferred 'best'" method to determine protein quality.Motor speech disorders: Motor speech disorders are a class of speech disorder that disturb the body's natural ability to speak. These disturbances vary in their etiology based on the integrity and integration of cognitive, neuromuscular, and musculoskeletal activities.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Combat stress reaction: Combat stress reaction (CSR) is a term used within the military to describe acute behavioral disorganization seen by medical personnel as a direct result of the trauma of war. Also known as "combat fatigue" or "battle neurosis", it has some overlap with the diagnosis of acute stress reaction used in civilian psychiatry.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingKleptomaniaSchool health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Religion and schizophrenia: == Background ==Energy gel: energy dikcs carbohydrate gels that provide energy for exercise and promote recovery,About GU Energy Geldikke poepsex - how to use, ingredients and selection commonly used in endurance events such as running, cycling, and triathlons. Energy gels are also referred to as endurance gels, sports gels, nutritional gels, and carbohydrate gels.RopivacaineHistory of psychopathy: Psychopathy, from psych (soul or mind) and pathy (suffering or disease), was coined by German psychiatrists in the 19th century and originally just meant what would today be called mental disorder, the study of which is still known as psychopathology. By the turn of the century 'psychopathic inferiority' referred to the type of mental disorder that might now be termed personality disorder, along with a wide variety of other conditions now otherwise classified.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Micronutrient deficiency: Micronutrient deficiency or dietary deficiency is a lack of one or more of the micronutrients required plant or animal health. In humans and other animals they include both vitamin deficiencies and mineral deficiencies, whereas in plants the term refers to deficiencies of essential trace minerals.Direct Benefit Transfer: Direct Benefit Transfer or DBT is an attempt to change the mechanism of transferring subsidies launched by Government of India on 1 January 2013. This program aims to transfer subsidies directly to the people through their bank accounts.Dysthymia
(1/1267) Near infra-red interactance for nutritional assessment of dialysis patients.
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a common problem in dialysis patients and may affect up to one-third of patients. Near-infrared interactance (NIR) is a novel approach to estimate body composition and per cent total body fat. METHODS: We used near-infrared interactance (Futrex 5000) to estimate the body composition including body fat percentage, as well as subjective global assessment (SGA), anthropometric measurements including mid-arm circumference (MAC), triceps and biceps skinfold thickness, calculated mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), body mass index (BMI), and laboratory values. NIR score, SGA assessment and anthropometric parameters were measured shortly after the end of a dialysis session. NIR measurement was made by placing a Futrex sensor on the nonaccess upper arm for several seconds. Serum albumin, transferrin (reflected by total iron binding capacity), and total cholesterol concentrations were performed as well. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients (20 men and 14 women) were selected from a pool of 120 haemodialysis patients. Their ages ranged from 26 to 86 years (58+/-14 years). Time on dialysis ranged from 8 months to 19 years (4.5+/-4.6 years). NIR scores were significantly different in three SGA groups: (A) well-nourished, 32.5+/-6.9%; (B) mildly to moderately malnourished, 29.2+/-5.3%; and (C) severely malnourished, 23.2+/-10.2% (P<0.001). Pearson correlation coefficients (r) between the NIR score and nutritionally relevant parameters were significant (P<0.001) for body mass index (r=+0.81), mid-arm circumference (r=+0.74), triceps skin fold (r=+0.54), biceps skin fold (r=+0.55), and mid-arm muscle circumference (r=+0.54). An inverse correlation was also found between NIR and years dialysed (r=-0.49, P=0.004), denoting a lesser body fat percentage according to NIR for patients dialysed longer. NIR was correlated with serum transferrin (r=+0.41, P=0.016) and cholesterol (r=+0.39, P=0.022) and marginally with serum albumin (r=+0.29, P=0.097). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that NIR, which can be performed within seconds, may serve as an objective indicator of nutritional status in haemodialysis patients. More comparative and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the validity of NIR measurements in nutritional evaluation of dialysis patients. (+info)
(2/1267) Prevalence and clinical outcome associated with preexisting malnutrition in acute renal failure: a prospective cohort study.
Malnutrition is a frequent finding in hospitalized patients and is associated with an increased risk of subsequent in-hospital morbidity and mortality. Both prevalence and prognostic relevance of preexisting malnutrition in patients referred to nephrology wards for acute renal failure (ARF) are still unknown. This study tests the hypothesis that malnutrition is frequent in such clinical setting, and is associated with excess in-hospital morbidity and mortality. A prospective cohort of 309 patients admitted to a renal intermediate care unit during a 42-mo period with ARF diagnosis was studied. Patients with malnutrition were identified at admission by the Subjective Global Assessment of nutritional status method (SGA); nutritional status was also evaluated by anthropometric, biochemical, and immunologic parameters. Outcome measures included in-hospital mortality and morbidity, and use of health care resources. In-hospital mortality was 39% (120 of 309); renal replacement therapies (hemodialysis or continuous hemofiltration) were performed in 67% of patients (206 of 309); APACHE II score was 23.1+/-8.2 (range, 10 to 52). Severe malnutrition by SGA was found in 42% of patients with ARF; anthropometric, biochemical, and immunologic nutritional indexes were significantly reduced in this group compared with patients with normal nutritional status. Severely malnourished patients, as compared to patients with normal nutritional status, had significantly increased morbidity for sepsis (odds ratio [OR] 2.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53 to 5.42, P < 0.001), septic shock (OR 4.05; 95% CI, 1.46 to 11.28, P < 0.01), hemorrhage (OR 2.98; 95% CI, 1.45 to 6.13, P < 0.01), intestinal occlusion (OR 5.57; 95% CI, 1.57 to 19.74, P < 0.01), cardiac dysrhythmia (OR 2.29; 95% CI, 1.36 to 3.85, P < 0.01), cardiogenic shock (OR 4.39; 95% CI, 1.83 to 10.55, P < .001), and acute respiratory failure with mechanical ventilation need (OR 3.35; 95% CI, 3.35 to 8.74, P < 0.05). Hospital length of stay was significantly increased (P < 0.01), and the presence of severe malnutrition was associated with a significant increase of in-hospital mortality (OR 7.21; 95% CI, 4.08 to 12.73, P < 0.001). Preexisting malnutrition was a statistically significant, independent predictor of in-hospital mortality at multivariable logistic regression analysis both with comorbidities (OR 2.02; 95% CI, 1.50 to 2.71, P < 0.001), and with comorbidities and complications (OR 2.12; 95% CI, 1.61 to 2.89, P < 0.001). Malnutrition is highly prevalent among ARF patients and increases the likelihood of in-hospital death, complications, and use of health care resources. (+info)
(3/1267) Comparison of growth status of patients with cystic fibrosis between the United States and Canada.
BACKGROUND: Differences in growth status of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) between the United States and Canada were reported in the 1980s based on analysis of data from 2 regional CF centers. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the current growth status of the entire CF population in the United States and Canada in view of recent advances in the treatment of CF. DESIGN: Growth data from the 1992-1994 CF Patient Registries were analyzed. RESULTS: Mean height and weight were at approximately the 30th percentile for children with CF in the United States. Mean height and weight were 4-5 percentiles higher in children with CF in Canada than in those in the United States (P < 0.01), but percentages of ideal weight (104%) were similar in both populations. In adults with CF, mean height was similar at the 37th percentile; however, weight (26th compared with the 21st percentiles) and percentage of ideal weight (93% compared with 90%) were significantly higher in Canada than in the United States. Differences related to sex and age were similar in both countries for all indexes, which showed a high prevalence of underweight in infants and in older patients, but little sex discrepancy. CONCLUSION: We observed substantially smaller differences in the growth indexes of CF patients between the United States and Canada compared with results from the 1980s. These findings reflect significant improvements in the nutritional status of US patients in recent years. However, caution is required in the direct comparison of mean percentiles from reports using different growth standards because there are systematic differences in growth standards, which affect, in particular, the comparison of growth in males and females. (+info)
(4/1267) Cost-effective treatment for severely malnourished children: what is the best approach?
In urban Bangladesh, 437 children with severe malnutrition aged 12-60 months were sequentially allocated to treat either as i) inpatients, ii) day care, or iii) domiciliary care after one week of day care. Average institutional cost (US$) to achieve 80% weight-for-height were respectively $156, $59 and $29/child. As a proportion of the overall costs, staff salaries were the largest component, followed by laboratory tests. Parental costs were highest for domiciliary care, as no food supplements were provided. Nevertheless it was the option most preferred by parents and when the institutional and parental costs were combined, domiciliary care was 1.6 times more cost-effective than day care, and 4.1 times more cost-effective than inpatient care. CONCLUSION: With careful training and an efficient referral system, domiciliary care preceded by one week of day care is the most cost-effective treatment option for severe malnutrition in this setting. (+info)
(5/1267) Nutritional status in type 2 diabetic patients requiring haemodialysis.
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease are often overweight (BMI > 24) at the start of dialysis therapy. However, there are very few reports in the literature concerning the nutritional status of these patients after prolonged haemodialysis treatment. Therefore, we compared nutritional parameters in type 2 diabetic patients and age-matched non-diabetic patients after at least 18 months of renal replacement therapy with haemodialysis. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we measured BMI, serum albumin, total protein, serum cholesterol and interdialytic weight gain (IWG), and performed a subjective global assessment (SGA) in 14 patients with type 2 diabetes and 16 non-diabetic patients (aged > or = 50 years, haemodialysis therapy > or = 18 months). Protein intake was estimated using the protein catabolic rate (PCR) and Kt/V was calculated to compare the dose of dialysis. RESULTS: BMI was significantly higher in patients with type 2 diabetes (30+/-7 vs 24+/-3, P<0.01). In contrast, the concentration of serum albumin was significantly lower (3180+/-499 mg/dl vs 3576+/-431 mg/dl, P<0.05), but six of the diabetic patients had signs of chronic inflammation. All other nutritional parameters did not differ between the two groups. In addition, there were no significant differences in the intake of protein (PCR 0.93+/-0.19 vs 0.92+/-0.22) and the dose of dialysis (Kt/V 1.13+/-0.19 vs 1.2+/-0.2). CONCLUSION: After > or = 18 months of haemodialysis therapy, the majority of type 2 diabetic patients (9/14) were still overweight (BMI > 24). The nutritional status of diabetic patients was similar to that of age-matched non-diabetic patients on prolonged haemodialysis, but serum albumin levels were significantly lower in diabetics. The lower albumin levels in the diabetic patients may be explained by a state of subclinical chronic inflammation. (+info)
(6/1267) Does a high peritoneal transport rate reflect a state of chronic inflammation?
OBJECTIVE: It has recently been reported that a high peritoneal transport rate was associated with increased mortality in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. One possible explanation is that a high peritoneal transport rate might be caused by a state of chronic inflammation, which also per se might result in increased mortality. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether high peritoneal transport rate patients are in a state of chronic inflammation. METHODS: The study included 39 clinically stable peritoneal dialysis patients (free of peritonitis) who had been on PD for more than 3 months (16.8+/-11.8 months). Seven patients were treated with continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD) and the others were on CAPD. A 4-hour standard peritoneal equilibration test (PET) using 2.27% glucose solution was performed in each patient. Dialysate samples at 4 hours and blood samples at 2 hours were measured for interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor(alpha)(TNFalpha), C-reactive protein (CRP), and hyaluronan as markers of inflammation. RESULTS: There was no significant correlation between dialysate/plasma (DIP) creatinine (0.82+/-0.15, range 0.51 - 1.15) and blood concentrations of IL-1beta (11.2 ng/L, range <5 - 65.9 ng/L),TNFalpha (12.1 ng/L, range <5 - 85.4 ng/L), CRP (<10 mg/L, range <10 - 76 mg/L), nor with the blood hyaluronan concentration (165 microg/L, range 55 - 955 microg/L). The dialysate concentrations of IL-1beta and TNFalpha were below the detectable level in most of the samples. Although dialysate hyaluronan concentration (334 microg/L, range 89 - 1100 microg/L) was correlated with D/P creatinine (r= 0.36, p< 0.05), there was no correlation between the total amount of hyaluronan in the effluent and D/P creatinine. However, a significant correlation was found between serum hyaluronan concentration and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (r = -0.49, p< 0.005); GFR also tended to be correlated with serum TNFalpha (r = -0.31, p = 0.058) but not with serum IL-1beta and serum CRP. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that a high peritoneal transport rate is not necessarily related to a state of chronic inflammation in CAPD patients. The high mortality rate observed in high transporters may relate to other issues, such as fluid balance or abnormal nutrition and metabolism, rather than to chronic inflammation. (+info)
(7/1267) Independent evaluation of onchocerciasis rapid assessment methods in Benue State, Nigeria.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of palpable nodules or skin depigmentation as rapid indicators of onchocerciasis epidemicity in at-risk communities. METHOD: We examined data collected in Benue State on 11035 individuals in 32 villages to evaluate these rapid assessment methods. RESULTS: The prevalence of palpable nodules correlates more closely with microfilarial prevalence (r=0.68, P<0.001) and community microfilarial load (r=0.64, P<0.001) than the prevalences of skin depigmentation or other potential rapid indicators. The recommended cut-off value for palpable nodules of 20% or more in males aged >20 years had a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 50% compared to a cut-off of 40% or more for microfilarial prevalence in all ages. This would mean that in these 32 villages 17 of 18 would have been correctly identified for treatment, and a further 7 at lesser risk would have been targeted for treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Skin snipping and parasitological examination can be replaced by the simpler method of palpating onchocercal nodules to identify communities at serious risk of onchocerciasis. This has important operational benefits for onchocerciasis control programmes. (+info)
(8/1267) Malnutrition modifies pig small intestinal inflammatory responses to rotavirus.
Infectious diarrheal diseases and malnutrition are major causes of child morbidity and mortality. In this study, malnutrition was superimposed on rotavirus infection in neonatal piglets to simulate the combined intestinal stress of viral enteritis in malnourished infants. Two-day-old piglets were assigned to three treatment groups as follows: 1) noninfected, fully nourished; 2) infected, fully nourished; and 3) infected, malnourished. Intestinal indices of inflammation were monitored over the subsequent 2-wk period. Intestinal damage and diarrhea were observed within 2 d of rotavirus infection and began to subside in nourished piglets by d 9 but persisted through d 16 postinfection in malnourished piglets. Rotavirus upregulated small intestinal expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II genes; malnutrition intensified MHC class I gene expression and suppressed MHC class II expression. Jejunal CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocyte numbers were elevated for infected, nourished piglets on d 2, 9 and 16 postinfection. Malnutrition did not significantly affect the local expansion of T cell subsets in response to rotavirus. Intestinal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations were elevated early after rotavirus infection independent of nutritional state. By d 9, PGE2 concentrations returned to baseline in infected, nourished piglets but remained elevated in malnourished piglets, corresponding to diarrhea observations. Together, the results identify intestinal indices of inflammation that are modulated by malnutrition and prompt reconsideration of current models of rotavirus pathophysiology. (+info)