Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Parenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Parenteral Nutrition, Total: The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.Enteral Nutrition: Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.
Parenteral nutrition: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is feeding a person intravenously, bypassing the usual process of eating and digestion. The person receives nutritional formulae that contain nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, lipids and added vitamins and dietary minerals.United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: The United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs was a select committee of the United States Senate between 1968 and 1977. It was sometimes referred to as the McGovern committee, after its only chairperson, Senator George McGovern of South Dakota.
(1/1193) Near infra-red interactance for nutritional assessment of dialysis patients.
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a common problem in dialysis patients and may affect up to one-third of patients. Near-infrared interactance (NIR) is a novel approach to estimate body composition and per cent total body fat. METHODS: We used near-infrared interactance (Futrex 5000) to estimate the body composition including body fat percentage, as well as subjective global assessment (SGA), anthropometric measurements including mid-arm circumference (MAC), triceps and biceps skinfold thickness, calculated mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), body mass index (BMI), and laboratory values. NIR score, SGA assessment and anthropometric parameters were measured shortly after the end of a dialysis session. NIR measurement was made by placing a Futrex sensor on the nonaccess upper arm for several seconds. Serum albumin, transferrin (reflected by total iron binding capacity), and total cholesterol concentrations were performed as well. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients (20 men and 14 women) were selected from a pool of 120 haemodialysis patients. Their ages ranged from 26 to 86 years (58+/-14 years). Time on dialysis ranged from 8 months to 19 years (4.5+/-4.6 years). NIR scores were significantly different in three SGA groups: (A) well-nourished, 32.5+/-6.9%; (B) mildly to moderately malnourished, 29.2+/-5.3%; and (C) severely malnourished, 23.2+/-10.2% (P<0.001). Pearson correlation coefficients (r) between the NIR score and nutritionally relevant parameters were significant (P<0.001) for body mass index (r=+0.81), mid-arm circumference (r=+0.74), triceps skin fold (r=+0.54), biceps skin fold (r=+0.55), and mid-arm muscle circumference (r=+0.54). An inverse correlation was also found between NIR and years dialysed (r=-0.49, P=0.004), denoting a lesser body fat percentage according to NIR for patients dialysed longer. NIR was correlated with serum transferrin (r=+0.41, P=0.016) and cholesterol (r=+0.39, P=0.022) and marginally with serum albumin (r=+0.29, P=0.097). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that NIR, which can be performed within seconds, may serve as an objective indicator of nutritional status in haemodialysis patients. More comparative and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the validity of NIR measurements in nutritional evaluation of dialysis patients. (+info)
(2/1193) Plasma-soluble CD30 in childhood tuberculosis: effects of disease severity, nutritional status, and vitamin A therapy.
Plasma-soluble CD30 (sCD30) is the result of proteolytic splicing from the membrane-bound form of CD30, a putative marker of type 2 cytokine-producing cells. We measured sCD30 levels in children with tuberculosis, a disease characterized by prominent type 1 lymphocyte cytokine responses. We postulated that disease severity and nutritional status would alter cytokine responses and therefore sCD30 levels. Samples from South African children enrolled prospectively at the time of diagnosis of tuberculosis were analyzed. (Patients were originally enrolled in a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study of the effects of oral vitamin A supplementation on prognosis of tuberculosis.) Plasma samples collected at the time of diagnosis and 6 and 12 weeks later (during antituberculosis therapy) were analyzed. sCD30 levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The 91 children included in the study demonstrated high levels of sCD30 at diagnosis (median, 98 U/liter; range, 11 to 1,569 U/liter). Although there was a trend toward higher sCD30 levels in more severe disease (e.g., culture-positive disease or miliary disease), this was not statistically significant. Significantly higher sCD30 levels were demonstrated in the presence of nutritional compromise: the sCD30 level was higher in patients with a weight below the third percentile for age, in those with clinical signs of kwashiorkor, and in those with a low hemoglobin content. There was minimal change in the sCD30 level after 12 weeks of therapy, even though patients improved clinically. However, changes in sCD30 after 12 weeks differed significantly when 46 patients (51%) who received vitamin A were compared with those who had received a placebo. Vitamin A-supplemented children demonstrated a mean (+/- standard error of the mean) decrease in sCD30 by a factor of 0.99 +/- 0.02 over 12 weeks, whereas a factor increase of 1.05 +/- 0.02 was demonstrated in the placebo group (P = 0.02). We conclude that children with tuberculosis had high sCD30 levels, which may reflect the presence of a type 2 cytokine response. Nutritional compromise was associated with higher sCD30 levels. Vitamin A therapy resulted in modulation of sCD30 levels over time. (+info)
(3/1193) Validity and reproducibility of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire for a cohort study in Japan.
BACKGROUND: A self-administered quantitative food frequency questionnaire (Qx) was developed for a population-based cohort study on cancer in Takayama, Japan. METHODS: The Qx was tested among 58 male and 59 female volunteers. Average daily nutrient intakes for the previous year calculated from the Qx were compared with those from 3-day food records and four 24-h recalls. The Qx was also validated among 37 volunteers by comparing the nutrient intakes calculated from the Qx with 12 1-day food records during a year. We also calculated the intra-class correlation coefficients for various nutrients between the Qx and the second Qx administered by the same volunteers 1 year after the first survey. RESULTS: Pearson correlation coefficients between total energy from the Qx and 3-day records were 0.38 for men and 0.25 for women and those between the Qx and 24-h recalls were 0.19 and -0.02 for men and women, respectively. Correlations between the several nutrients from the Qx and 3-day records ranged from 0.2 to 0.5 for both men and women. These correlations after energy adjustment ranged from 0.2 to 0.6 for men and from 0.1 to 0.7 for women. In general, the correlations for various nutrients between the Qx and 12 1-day records were higher than those described above. The intra-class correlation coefficients ranged from 0.46 to 0.78 in men and from 0.36 to 0.67, except for vitamin C in women. When the information on portion size was excluded, almost all of the above indices showed somewhat lower figures. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that our food frequency questionnaire with portion size information can be used to estimate nutrient intakes of each individual. (+info)
(4/1193) Dietary fat and coronary heart disease: a comparison of approaches for adjusting for total energy intake and modeling repeated dietary measurements.
Previous cohort studies of fat intake and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been inconsistent, probably due in part to methodological differences and various limitations, including inadequate dietary assessment and incomplete adjustment for total energy intake. The authors analyzed repeated assessment of diet from the Nurses' Health Study to examine the associations between intakes of four major types of fat (saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and trans fats) and risk of CHD during 14 years of follow-up (1980-1994) by using alternative methods for energy adjustment. In particular, the authors compared four risk models for energy adjustment: the standard multivariate model, the energy-partition model, the nutrient residual model, and the multivariate nutrient density model. Within each model, the authors compared four different approaches for analyzing repeated dietary measurements: baseline diet only, the most recent diet, and two different algorithms for calculating cumulative average diets. The substantive results were consistent across all models; that is, higher intakes of saturated and trans fats were associated with increased risk of CHD, while higher intakes of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats were associated with reduced risk. When nutrients were considered as continuous variables, the four energy-adjustment methods yielded similar associationS. However, the interpretation of the relative risks differed across models. In addition, within each model, the methods using the cumulative averages in general yielded stronger associations than did those using either only baseline diet or the most recent diet. When the nutrients were categorized according to quintiles, the residual and the nutrient density models, which gave similar results, yielded statistically more significant tests for linear trend than did the standard and the partition models. (+info)
(5/1193) Taking a nutrition history: a practical approach for family physicians.
The association between nutrition and health has been clearly documented. Primary care physicians are expected to address nutrition and dietary behavior issues with their patients in the context of a brief clinical encounter. This article proposes the use of a short interview form, with specific suggestions for behavior changes that family physicians can use to help their patients meet currently accepted dietary guidelines. Answers to the questions on the interview form provide the physician with an overall sense of the patient's daily eating habits and help to identify major sources of saturated fat in the patient's diet. The patient is asked about the number of meals and snacks eaten in a 24-hour period, dining-out habits and frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, meats, poultry, fish, dairy products and desserts. Documentation of dietary changes can be accomplished using the suggested nutrition history form, and improvements in nutritional status can be measured using weight, blood pressure and laboratory test data. (+info)
(6/1193) Antioxidant intake and risk of incident age-related nuclear cataracts in the Beaver Dam Eye Study.
The relation of antioxidant nutrients to the incidence of nuclear cataracts was investigated in a cohort of adults aged 43-84 years in the Beaver Dam Eye Study (Beaver Dam, Wisconsin). Nuclear opacity was assessed on a five-point ordinal scale using lens photographs taken at baseline (1988-1990) and at follow-up (1993-1995). Of the 1,354 persons eligible, 246 developed a nuclear cataract (level 4 or 5 opacity) in at least one eye. Antioxidant intakes were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline for time points corresponding to intake during the year preceding baseline and 10 years before baseline (the distant past). Lutein-zeaxanthin was the only carotenoid, out of five examined, that was associated with nuclear cataracts. Persons in the highest quintile of lutein intake in the distant past were half as likely to have an incident cataract as persons in the lowest quintile of intake (95% confidence interval 0.3-0.8). In the overall group, nuclear cataracts were not significantly related to intake of vitamin C or vitamin E. However, vitamins C and E were inversely associated with opacities in persons who had some other risk factors for cataracts. While results of this short term follow-up study are consistent with a possible protective influence of lutein and vitamins E and C on the development of nuclear cataracts, the evidence in the present study provides weak support for these associations. (+info)
(7/1193) Strong association between malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis in chronic renal failure.
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and malnutrition are widely recognized as leading causes of the increased morbidity and mortality observed in uremic patients. C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute-phase protein, is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in nonrenal patient populations. In chronic renal failure (CRF), the prevalence of an acute-phase response has been associated with an increased mortality. METHODS: One hundred and nine predialysis patients (age 52 +/- 1 years) with terminal CRF (glomerular filtration rate 7 +/- 1 ml/min) were studied. By using noninvasive B-mode ultrasonography, the cross-sectional carotid intima-media area was calculated, and the presence or absence of carotid plaques was determined. Nutritional status was assessed by subjective global assessment (SGA), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), serum albumin, serum creatinine, serum urea, and 24-hour urine urea excretion. The presence of an inflammatory reaction was assessed by CRP, fibrinogen (N = 46), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha; N = 87). Lipid parameters, including Lp(a) and apo(a)-isoforms, as well as markers of oxidative stress (autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein and vitamin E), were also determined. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, CRF patients had an increased mean carotid intima-media area (18.3 +/- 0.6 vs. 13.2 +/- 0.7 mm2, P < 0.0001) and a higher prevalence of carotid plaques (72 vs. 32%, P = 0.001). The prevalence of malnutrition (SGA 2 to 4) was 44%, and 32% of all patients had an acute-phase response (CRP > or = 10 mg/liter). Malnourished patients had higher CRP levels (23 +/- 3 vs. 13 +/- 2 mg/liter, P < 0.01), elevated calculated intima-media area (20.2 +/- 0.8 vs. 16.9 +/- 0.7 mm2, P < 0.01) and a higher prevalence of carotid plaques (90 vs. 60%, P < 0.0001) compared with well-nourished patients. During stepwise multivariate analysis adjusting for age and gender, vitamin E (P < 0.05) and CRP (P < 0.05) remained associated with an increased intima-media area. The presence of carotid plaques was significantly associated with age (P < 0.001), log oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL; P < 0.01), and small apo(a) isoform size (P < 0.05) in a multivariate logistic regression model. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the rapidly developing atherosclerosis in advanced CRF appears to be caused by a synergism of different mechanisms, such as malnutrition, inflammation, oxidative stress, and genetic components. Apart from classic risk factors, low vitamin E levels and elevated CRP levels are associated with an increased intima-media area, whereas small molecular weight apo(a) isoforms and increased levels of oxLDL are associated with the presence of carotid plaques. (+info)
(8/1193) Evaluating epidemiologic evidence of the effects of food and nutrient exposures.
The objective of this paper is to discuss some of the issues to be considered when evaluating and interpreting epidemiologic evidence from observational studies that collect data on dietary intake. The assessment of such evidence should include consideration of the study design, sample selection, and the measurements of exposure and disease. The degree and type of error in nutrient data can lead to analytic problems and potentially be a source of bias either toward or away from the null value. Because methods of statistical correction and adjustment for error, such as energy adjustment, cannot necessarily completely compensate for sources of bias in dietary data, additional research should be conducted on sources of error in dietary data. Published research using reported dietary data should include a discussion of potential sources of error and their effect on the results. The most useful studies are likely to be those designed to address a clearly defined prior hypothesis about a specific diet-disease relation. Because of the potential for bias and confounding, observational epidemiologic studies of diet and outcome cannot generally provide decisive evidence by themselves either for or against specific hypotheses. Although randomized clinical trials of the effects of specific nutrients or dietary modifications are not always feasible, they provide more definitive results and should generally be considered more valid than observational studies using self-reported dietary intake. Well-designed observational epidemiologic studies using self-reported dietary intake can provide valuable data to support or challenge hypotheses derived from clinical or laboratory data and to suggest further directions for investigation. (+info)