Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Nursing Research: Research carried out by nurses, generally in clinical settings, in the areas of clinical practice, evaluation, nursing education, nursing administration, and methodology.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Translational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.Genetic Research: Research into the cause, transmission, amelioration, elimination, or enhancement of inherited disorders and traits.Clinical Nursing Research: Research carried out by nurses in the clinical setting and designed to provide information that will help improve patient care. Other professional staff may also participate in the research.Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Community-Based Participatory Research: Collaborative process of research involving researchers and community representatives.Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)United StatesHuman Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Empirical Research: The study, based on direct observation, use of statistical records, interviews, or experimental methods, of actual practices or the actual impact of practices or policies.Embryo Research: Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus during the prenatal stage of development that is characterized by rapid morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures. In humans, this includes the period from the time of fertilization to the end of the eighth week after fertilization.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Operations Research: A group of techniques developed to apply scientific methods and tools to solve the problems of DECISION MAKING in complex organizations and systems. Operations research searches for optimal solutions in situations of conflicting GOALS and makes use of mathematical models from which solutions for actual problems may be derived. (From Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE established in 1990 to "provide indexing, abstracting, translating, publishing, and other services leading to a more effective and timely dissemination of information on research, demonstration projects, and evaluations with respect to health care to public and private entities and individuals engaged in the improvement of health care delivery..." It supersedes the National Center for Health Services Research. The United States Agency for Health Care Policy and Research was renamed Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) under the Healthcare Research and Quality Act of 1999.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Researcher-Subject Relations: Interaction between research personnel and research subjects.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Biological Specimen Banks: Facilities that collect, store, and distribute tissues, e.g., cell lines, microorganisms, blood, sperm, milk, breast tissue, for use by others. Other uses may include transplantation and comparison of diseased tissues in the identification of cancer.Animal Experimentation: The use of animals as investigational subjects.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation: Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed. Phase I drug studies (CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I AS TOPIC) and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Great BritainGuidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Epidemiologic Research Design: The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.Conflict of Interest: A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Awards and PrizesAnimals, LaboratoryRandomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Therapeutic Human Experimentation: Human experimentation that is intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Scientific Misconduct: Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.Nursing Methodology Research: Research carried out by nurses concerning techniques and methods to implement projects and to document information, including methods of interviewing patients, collecting data, and forming inferences. The concept includes exploration of methodological issues such as human subjectivity and human experience.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Disclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Tissue Banks: Centers for acquiring, characterizing, and storing organs or tissue for future use.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Capacity Building: Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Diffusion of Innovation: The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Parental Consent: Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Bioethics: A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Evidence-Based Practice: A way of providing health care that is guided by a thoughtful integration of the best available scientific knowledge with clinical expertise. This approach allows the practitioner to critically assess research data, clinical guidelines, and other information resources in order to correctly identify the clinical problem, apply the most high-quality intervention, and re-evaluate the outcome for future improvement.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.EuropeCommunity Networks: Organizations and individuals cooperating together toward a common goal at the local or grassroots level.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Patient Participation: Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Consent Forms: Documents describing a medical treatment or research project, including proposed procedures, risks, and alternatives, that are to be signed by an individual, or the individual's proxy, to indicate his/her understanding of the document and a willingness to undergo the treatment or to participate in the research.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Databases as Topic: Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Policy: A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Review Literature as Topic: Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Bioethical Issues: Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.Fetal Research: Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, this corresponds to the period from the third month after fertilization until birth.Refusal to Participate: Refusal to take part in activities or procedures that are requested or expected of an individual. This may include refusal by HEALTH PERSONNEL to participate in specific medical procedures or refusal by PATIENTS or members of the public to take part in clinical trials or health promotion programs.Interdisciplinary Studies: Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Trust: Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Advisory Committees: Groups set up to advise governmental bodies, societies, or other institutions on policy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Databases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Biomedical Technology: The application of technology to the solution of medical problems.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Multicenter Studies as Topic: Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Laboratory Animal Science: The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Animal Care Committees: Institutional committees established to protect the welfare of animals used in research and education. The 1971 NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals introduced the policy that institutions using warm-blooded animals in projects supported by NIH grants either be accredited by a recognized professional laboratory animal accrediting body or establish its own committee to evaluate animal care; the Public Health Service adopted a policy in 1979 requiring such committees; and the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act mandate review and approval of federally funded research with animals by a formally designated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.National Cancer Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.Ethics: The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It seeks to improve oral, dental and craniofacial health through research, research training, and the dissemination of health information by conducting and supporting basic and clinical research. It was established in 1948 as the National Institute of Dental Research and re-named in 1998 as the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research.Mental Competency: The ability to understand the nature and effect of the act in which the individual is engaged. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed).Moral Obligations: Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Andrew Dickson WhiteScience Translational Medicine: Science Translational Medicine is an interdisciplinary medical journal established in October 2009 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science.Return of results: Return of results is a concept in research ethics which describes the extent of the duty of a researcher to reveal and explain the results of research to a research participant.International Association for Dental Research: The International Association for Dental Research (IADR) is a professional association that focuses on research in the field of dentistry. The aim of this association by constitution is to promote research in all fields of oral and related sciences, to encourage improvements in methods for the prevention and treatment of oral and dental disease, to improve the oral health of the public through research, and to facilitate cooperation among investigators and the communication of research findings and their implications throughout the world.List of psychological research methods: A wide range of research methods are used in psychology. These methods vary by the sources of information that are drawn on, how that information is sampled, and the types of instruments that are used in data collection.Essex School of discourse analysis: The Essex School constitutes a variety of discourse analysis, one that combines theoretical sophistication – mainly due to its reliance on the post-structuralist and psychoanalytic traditions and, in particular, on the work of Lacan, Foucault, Barthes, Derrida, etc. – with analytical precision, since it focuses predominantly on an in-depth analysis of political discourses in late modernity.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Human subject research legislation in the United States: Human subject research legislation in the United States can be traced to the early 20th century. Human subject research in the United States was mostly unregulated until the 20th century, as it was throughout the world, until the establishment of various governmental and professional regulations and codes of ethics.Toronto Western Research Institute: The Toronto Western Research Institute (TWRI) is a non-profit academic medical research institute located in Canada’s largest city, Toronto. The TWRI is one the principal research institutes of the University Health Network of academic teaching hospitals associated with the University of Toronto; the TWRI is also one of the largest research institutes in Canada focussing on human neurological disease from both a basic science and clinical research perspective.Dolly Parton singles discography: The singles discography of American country singer Dolly Parton includes 106 singles and 45 music videos.Document-centric collaboration: Document-centric collaboration is a new approach to working together on projects online which puts the document and its contents at the centre of the process.William M. Laffan: William MacKay Laffan (1848–1909) was the publisher and editor of the New York Sun in the final years of the 19th century and the first years of the 20th,Comment on his death in the New York Times, November 20, 1909. Accessed 29 March 2010.The Flash ChroniclesNew York Stem Cell Foundation: The New York Stem Cell Foundation (NYSCF)is an American 501(c)(3)] nonprofit organization, founded in the Spring of 2005, with the mission “accelerating cures for the major diseases of our time through [[stem cell research.” NYSCF established the first privately funded stem cell laboratory in New York City, where NYSCF researchers and scientific collaborators conduct advanced stem cell investigations.Community-based clinical trial: Community-based clinical trials are clinical trials conducted directly through doctors and clinics rather than academic research facilities. They are designed to be administered through primary care physicians, community health centers and local outpatient facilities.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Franz Edelman Award for Achievement in Operations Research and the Management Sciences: The Franz Edelman Award for Achievement in Operations Research and the Management Sciences recognizes excellence in the execution of operations research on the organizational level.Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project: The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP, pronounced "H-Cup") is a family of health care databases and related software tools and products from the United States that is developed through a Federal-State-Industry partnership and sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). What is HCUP?Journal of Aging and Health: The Journal of Aging and Health (JAH) is a medical journal covering aging published by SAGE Publications. It covers research on gerontology, including diet/nutrition, prevention, behaviors, health service utilization, longevity, and mortality.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease: The British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers six times a year in the field of Cardiovascular medicine. The journal's editors are Clifford J Bailey (Aston University), Ian Campbell (Victoria Hospital) and Christoph Schindler (Dresden University of Technology).UK Biobank: UK Biobank is a large long-term biobank study in the United Kingdom (UK) which is investigating the respective contributions of genetic predisposition and environmental exposure (including nutrition, lifestyle, medications etc.) to the development of disease.List of youth publications: __NOTOC__Antenor Orrego Private UniversityInternational Network of Prison Ministries: The International Network of Prison Ministries (INPM) is a Dallas, Texas based crime prevention and rehabilitation trans-national organization. INPM functions through a website that serves as a clearinghouse for information about various Christian prison ministries.ATC code V07: ==V07A All other non-therapeutic products==Internet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.The Republican War on Science: The Republican War on Science is a 2005 book by Chris C. Mooney, an American journalist who focuses on the politics of science policy.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.International Congress on Sleep ApneaMedix UK Limited: Medix UK Limited is a UK-based market research consultancy providing online research in healthcare.Lasker Award: The Lasker Awards have been awarded annually since 1945 to living persons who have made major contributions to medical science or who have performed public service on behalf of medicine. They are administered by the Lasker Foundation, founded by Albert Lasker and his wife Mary Woodard Lasker (later a medical research activist).Circulation plan: A circulation plan is a schematic empirical projection/model of how pedestrians and/or vehicles flow through a given area, like, for example, a neighborhood or a Central Business District (CBD). Circulation plans are used by city planners and other officials to manage and monitor traffic and pedestrian patterns in such a way that they might discover how to make future improvements to the system.AIP Conference Proceedings: AIP Conference Proceedings is a serial published by the American Institute of Physics since 1970. It publishes the proceedings from various conferences of physics societies.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingFootprints (poem): "Footprints", also known as "Footprints in the Sand", is a popular allegorical text written in prose.Scientific misconduct: Scientific misconduct is the violation of the standard codes of scholarly conduct and ethical behavior in professional scientific research. A Lancet review on Handling of Scientific Misconduct in Scandinavian countries provides the following sample definitions: (reproduced in The COPE report 1999.Standard evaluation frameworkThe Final Decision: The Final Decision is an episode from season 1 of the animated TV series X-Men Animated Series.Certified Tissue Bank Specialist: A Certified Tissue Bank Specialist (CTBS) designation is a professional certification mark for Tissue Banking Professionals conferred by the American Association of Tissue Banks (AATB). AATB oversees musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, skin and reproductive tissue banks in the United States.Canadian Organ Replacement Registry: The Canadian Organ Replacement Registry CORR is a health organisation was started by Canadian nephrologists and kidney transplant surgeons in 1985 in order to develop the care of patients with renal failure. In the early 1990s data on liver and heart transplantation were added to the registry.Chronic care: Chronic care refers to medical care which addresses pre-existing or long term illness, as opposed to acute care which is concerned with short term or severe illness of brief duration. Chronic medical conditions include asthma, diabetes, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, congestive heart disease, cirrhosis of the liver, hypertension and depression.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.Lucas paradox: In economics, the Lucas paradox or the Lucas puzzle is the observation that capital does not flow from developed countries to developing countries despite the fact that developing countries have lower levels of capital per worker.}}Ontario Genomics Institute: The Ontario Genomics Institute (OGI) is a not-for-profit organization that manages cutting-edge genomics research projects and platforms.The Ontario Genomics Institute OGI also helps scientists find paths to the marketplace for their discoveries and the products to which they lead, and it works through diverse outreach and educational activities to raise awareness and facilitate informed public dialogue about genomics and its social impacts.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Legal status of tattooing in the United States: In the United States, there is no federal law regulating the practice of tattooing. However, all 50 states and the District of Columbia have statutory laws requiring a person receiving a tattoo be 18 years of age or older.Mark Siegler: Mark Siegler (born June 20, 1941) is an American physician who specializes in internal medicine. He is the Lindy Bergman Distinguished Service Professor of Medicine and Surgery at the University of Chicago.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.NeurogeneticsIsrael and animal welfare: Israel's protection of animal welfare rests upon the Animal Welfare Law, 1994 which is composed of an Animal Protection Law and an Animal Experimentation Law. The law was originally introduced by Abraham Poraz in 1993 and passed by the Knesset on January 11, 1994.Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum: The Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum (formerly Cross-Language Evaluation Forum), or CLEF, is an organization promoting research in multilingual information access (currently focusing on European languages). Its specific functions are to maintain an underlying framework for testing information retrieval systems and to create repositories of data for researchers to use in developing comparable standards.University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics: The University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics, or JCB, is an academic research centre located on the downtown campus of the University of Toronto in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Joint Centre for Bioethics is a partnership between the University and 15 affiliated health care organizations in the Greater Toronto Area.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.
(1/211) Does what nurses do affect clinical outcomes for hospitalized patients? A review of the literature.
OBJECTIVE: Through a review of the literature, to identify and describe (1) empirical studies of inpatient nursing care quality that evaluate links between nursing care processes and health-related patient outcomes, (2) nursing care processes for which process-outcome links have been established, and (3) important nursing care processes that have not yet been evaluated. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Published empirical studies of inpatient nursing care quality that evaluated links between processes of nursing care and health-related patient outcomes. STUDY DESIGN/DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: This literature review used a five-step article search and review method. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 257 data-based studies of nursing care quality identified, 135 investigated a process-outcome link but only 17 met study inclusion criteria. The literature provides evidence that the quality of nursing care processes affects health-related patient outcomes during and after hospitalization. Gaps in the literature that evaluates nursing quality are identified. CONCLUSIONS: Although some nursing care processes affect health-related patient outcomes, the full extent of nursing process-outcome links is relatively understudied. Further evaluation of the interrelationships between nursing care processes and outcomes is critical. (+info)
(2/211) Describing patient problems & nursing treatment patterns using nursing minimum data sets (NMDS & NMMDS) & UHDDS repositories.
Dramatic changes in health care have intensified practitioners' efforts to access and use information to determine more efficacious approaches to patient outcomes. The overall goal of the study is to measure the influence of nursing informatics clinical reasoning decision support interventions on patient outcomes. This paper describes Phases I of the study: the methodology for establishing and testing the usefulness of large data repositories comprised of three minimum data sets, including the Nursing Minimum Data Set (NMDS), the Nursing Management Minimum Data Set (NMMDS), and the Uniform Hospital Discharge Data Set (UHDDS), and the American Nurses Association Quality Indicators to support effectiveness research. The use of generic data modeling to construct a clinical nursing repository of more than 477,000 electronic records is discussed. Patient problem and treatment profiles, patterns, and variations based on standardized analyzing classifications are described for inpatient adult samples, and nursing and medical diagnosis groups. (+info)
(3/211) Personal view: Randomized controlled trials in epilepsy specialist nursing: the seduction of content by form.
Research into the effectiveness of epilepsy specialist nursing needs to take into account a number of factors, which have not been adequately addressed in previous studies. Nursing outcome measures are different to medical ones and it is inappropriate to confuse these. Specialist nurses affect the whole culture of a service, and their impact on service quality may go beyond that of their individual patient contacts. Thus randomized studies within a service that already has specialist nurses may not give valid results. Some service users will benefit more from direct contact with a specialist nurse than others, and people who give informed consent to take part in randomized controlled trials might not be representative of those who would benefit most from specialist nurse access. The stampede for level one evidence risks failing to address the issues properly by overvaluing research process (form) against its appropriateness (content), yet there remain great opportunities for good quality research in this area. (+info)
(4/211) How can a nurse intervention help people with newly diagnosed epilepsy? A qualitative study (of patients' views).
The aim was to describe the patients' views of the challenges posed by a new diagnosis of epilepsy and their assessment of a nurse intervention. Neurologists in South-East England referred patients into the study. Following a trial of a nurse intervention a subgroup of patients were purposefully identified for in-depth interviews. Transcriptions of tape-recorded interviews were analysed using qualitative methodology. We found that younger people with epilepsy seemed to experience more trouble with driving, jobs and managing their lives in the context of new epilepsy, while older people saw epilepsy as just another illness to cope with. Patients reported difficulty in remembering what their doctors told them which they attributed partly to lack of time available in the consultation. They valued the time, and the technique of probing with explanations used by the nurse. The nurse intervention was seen as useful in making sense of symptoms, tests, risk management, and driving regulations and in helping manage their medicine taking. We conclude that people with newly diagnosed epilepsy face different challenges, some of which are related to their age at diagnosis. Patients reported help from the nurse with understanding the diagnosis, tests, risk management and taking their medication. Follow-up is necessary to measure behavioural effects on self-management in the long run. (+info)
(5/211) Polychlorinated biphenyls, cytochrome P450 1A1, and breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study.
There is concern that exposures to the environmental chemicals polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may contribute to breast cancer risk. An individual's susceptibility to the effects of PCBs may be partially determined by polymorphisms in the gene encoding the biotransformation enzyme cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1). PCB exposure induces CYP1A1 activity, and PCBs themselves or other xenobiotics can be metabolized to carcinogenic intermediates in the presence of the variant genotype. A previous case-control study provided evidence of an interaction between high exposures to PCBs and the CYP1A1-exon 7 polymorphism (the A to G transition at nucleotide 4889), leading to a significant increase in postmenopausal breast cancer risk. We examined the interaction of PCBs with the CYP1A1-MspI (the T to C transition at nucleotide 6235) and exon 7 polymorphisms among 367 breast cancer case-control pairs (293 postmenopausal pairs) in the Nurses' Health Study. Although there was no independent association of either the CYP1A1 variants or PCBs with breast cancer risk, the relative risk among the postmenopausal women with plasma PCB levels in the highest third of the distribution in the control group and at least one exon 7 variant allele compared with women who were homozygous for the wild-type allele and who had PCB levels in the lowest third was 2.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.99-7.82). The majority of studies have concluded that exposure to PCBs is unlikely to be a major cause of breast cancer, but these findings indicate that further studies of genetically susceptible populations are warranted. (+info)
(6/211) The role of oncology nursing to ensure quality care for cancer survivors: a report commissioned by the National Cancer Policy Board and Institute of Medicine.
PURPOSE: To examine the roles of oncology nurses in improving quality care for cancer survivors. DATA SOURCES: A content analysis of textbooks, journals, and key documents; surveys of graduate oncology nursing programs and the Oncology Nursing Society's Survivorship Special Interest Group; review of the nursing licensure examination and oncology nursing certification; review of undergraduate and graduate nursing standards; and review of currently funded nursing research. DATA SYNTHESIS: Ten critical content areas of cancer survivorship were used for the analysis: description of population of cancer survivors, primary care, short- and long-term complications, prevention of secondary cancer, detecting recurrent and secondary cancers, treatment of recurrent cancer, quality-of-life issues, rehabilitative services, palliative and end-of-life care, and quality of care. Although findings within each source indicated significant information related to the roles of nurses in caring for cancer survivors, deficits also were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Review of key literature and resources suggests significant contributions by oncology nursing over the past two decades to the area of cancer survivorship. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: Support is needed to expand education and research to ensure quality care for future cancer survivors. (+info)
(7/211) Contributions of qualitative research to evidence-based practice in nursing.
AIM: This article aims to identify the contributions of qualitative research to evidence-based practice in nursing. BACKGROUND: Qualitative research dates back to the 1920s and 1930s, when anthropologists and sociologists used qualitative research methods to study human phenomena in naturalistic settings and from a holistic viewpoint. Afterwards, other subject matters, including nursing, adopted qualitative methods to answer their research questions. The restructuring of health care over the past decade has brought about increased accountability in nursing research. One method for increasing this accountability is evidence-based practice. METHOD: The method used was a search in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature database from 1999-present. The search resulted in 61 citations for evidence-based practice in nursing research; however, only 5 citations focused on evidence-based practice and qualitative research. FINDINGS: The authors' findings revealed six contributions of qualitative research to evidence-based practice: generation of hypotheses; development and validation of instruments; provision of context for evaluation; development of nursing interventions; development of new research questions; and application of Qualitative Outcome Analysis. CONCLUSION: Qualitative research makes important contributions to the quality of evidence-based practice. (+info)
(8/211) Evaluation of the draft international standard for a reference terminology model for nursing actions.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the draft ISO reference terminology model (RTM) for nursing actions. Nursing RTM models attempt to include concepts that are universally represented in nursing documentation to improve the depiction of nursing practice in computerized systems. METHOD: Content analysis was used to decompose interventions into words and phrases, which were then mapped to the six model categories used to represent nursing actions in the draft ISO RTM. The decomposition of interventions was applied to nurses' documentation of pain interventions entered into a clinical information system. FINDINGS: Consistent with the ISO standard requirements, all (100.00%) of the interventions contained an