Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Purine Nucleosides: Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.Peptide Nucleic Acids: DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.Pyrimidine Nucleosides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.Nucleoside Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1: A subtype of equilibrative nucleoside transporter proteins that is sensitive to inhibition by 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Adenine NucleotidesGuanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Thioinosine: Sulfhydryl analog of INOSINE that inhibits nucleoside transport across erythrocyte plasma membranes, and has immunosuppressive properties. It has been used similarly to MERCAPTOPURINE in the treatment of leukemia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p503)Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between a purine nucleoside and orthophosphate to form a free purine plus ribose-5-phosphate. EC 2.4.2.1.UridineNucleic Acid Probes: Nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)Purine Nucleotides: Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase: An enzyme that is found in mitochondria and in the soluble cytoplasm of cells. It catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside diphosphate, e.g., UDP, to form ADP and UTP. Many nucleoside diphosphates can act as acceptor, while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.6.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques: Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Guanine NucleotidesOligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cytidine: A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Ribonucleosides: Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Nucleoside-Triphosphatase: An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates. It may also catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotide triphosphates, diphosphates, thiamine diphosphates and FAD. The nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolases I and II are subtypes of the enzyme which are found mostly in viruses.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Nucleoside Q: A modified nucleoside which is present in the first position of the anticodon of tRNA-tyrosine, tRNA-histidine, tRNA-asparagine and tRNA-aspartic acid of many organisms. It is believed to play a role in the regulatory function of tRNA. Nucleoside Q can be further modified to nucleoside Q*, which has a mannose or galactose moiety linked to position 4 of its cyclopentenediol moiety.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Pyrimidine Nucleotides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Equilibrative-Nucleoside Transporter 2: A subtype of equilibrative nucleoside transporter proteins that is insensitive to inhibition by 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Formycins: Pyrazolopyrimidine ribonucleosides isolated from Nocardia interforma. They are antineoplastic antibiotics with cytostatic properties.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Thymine Nucleotides: Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Deoxyribonucleosides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to DEOXYRIBOSE.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.GuanineNM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases: A family of nucleotide diphosphate kinases that play a role in a variety of cellular signaling pathways that effect CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL PROLIFERATION; and APOPTOSIS. They are considered multifunctional proteins that interact with a variety of cellular proteins and have functions that are unrelated to their enzyme activity.Deoxyadenosines: Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.Nucleotides, CyclicDNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Equilibrative Nucleoside Transport Proteins: A class of sodium-independent nucleoside transporters that mediate the facilitative transport of NUCLEOSIDES.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Ribonucleotides: Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.ThymidineSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cytosine NucleotidesCell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Deoxyguanine Nucleotides: Guanine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Tubercidin: An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Dilazep: Coronary vasodilator with some antiarrhythmic activity.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Deoxyribonucleotides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.Deoxyuridine: 2'-Deoxyuridine. An antimetabolite that is converted to deoxyuridine triphosphate during DNA synthesis. Laboratory suppression of deoxyuridine is used to diagnose megaloblastic anemias due to vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.Dideoxynucleosides: Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5'-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Arabinonucleosides: Nucleosides containing arabinose as their sugar moiety.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Ribose: A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.Deoxycytidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of deoxycytidine with the formation of a nucleoside diphosphate and deoxycytidine monophosphate. Cytosine arabinoside can also act as an acceptor. All natural nucleoside triphosphates, except deoxycytidine triphosphate, can act as donors. The enzyme is induced by some viruses, particularly the herpes simplex virus (HERPESVIRUS HOMINIS). EC 2.7.1.74.UracilHypoxanthine: A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Thionucleosides: Nucleosides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Cytidine Triphosphate: Cytidine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Deoxyadenine Nucleotides: Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Guanosine Monophosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Pyrophosphatases: A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Pyrimidine Phosphorylases: Pentosyltransferases that catalyze the reaction between a pyrimidine nucleoside and orthophosphate to form a free pyrimidine and ribose-5-phosphate.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Self-Sustained Sequence Replication: An isothermal in-vitro nucleotide amplification process. The process involves the concomitant action of a RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE, a ribonuclease (RIBONUCLEASES), and DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASES to synthesize large quantities of sequence-specific RNA and DNA molecules.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Acid Anhydride Hydrolases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds in compounds such as nucleoside di- and tri-phosphates, and sulfonyl-containing anhydrides such as adenylylsulfate. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.6.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Uridine Triphosphate: Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Uridine Phosphorylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of ribose from uridine to orthophosphate, forming uracil and ribose 1-phosphate.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Aptamers, Nucleotide: Nucleotide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Zalcitabine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication at low concentrations, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal toxic side effect is axonal degeneration resulting in peripheral neuropathy.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Nucleic Acid Heteroduplexes: Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.PolynucleotidesDipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Guanosine Diphosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Dideoxynucleotides: The phosphate esters of DIDEOXYNUCLEOSIDES.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Inosine NucleotidesCatalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Polyribonucleotides: A group of 13 or more ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Apyrase: A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 3.6.1.5.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Nucleoside Deaminases: Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).TritiumDNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Thiouridine: A photoactivable URIDINE analog that is used as an affinity label.Uridine Monophosphate: 5'-Uridylic acid. A uracil nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Stavudine: A dideoxynucleoside analog that inhibits reverse transcriptase and has in vitro activity against HIV.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.DNA, Catalytic: Molecules of DNA that possess enzymatic activity.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.5'-Nucleotidase: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Cytidine Monophosphate: Cytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.ThymineSpectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Dinucleoside Phosphates: A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.

*  Antioxidante - Wikipedia

Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids. 27 (6): 608-19. doi:10.1080/15257770802138558 Eggebeen, Aaron T (2007). «Gout: An ... Mutagenesis and carcinogenesis caused by the oxidation of nucleic acids». Biological Chemistry. 387 (4): 373-9. PMID 16606334. ... doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1993.tb18025.x Ames B, Cathcart R, Schwiers E, Hochstein P (1981). «Uric acid provides an antioxidant ... doi:10.1161/01.CIR.100.22.2244 Teichert, J; Preiss, R (1992). «HPLC-methods for determination of lipoic acid and its reduced ...
https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antioxidante

*  Similar articles for PubMed (Select 20401381) - PubMed - NCBI

Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2004;23(1-2):509-20.. PMID:. 15043171. ...
https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?linkname=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=20401381

*  Plus it

Nucleosides, Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2008;27:755-60.. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMed. *14.↵. *Deaglio S, ...
cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/76/10/3045

*  Patent US7135010 - Method and apparatus for rapid deployment chest drainage - Google Patents

Modified nucleosides, nucleotides, and nucleic acids, and uses thereof. US9428535. Oct 3, 2012. Aug 30, 2016. Moderna ... Modified nucleosides, nucleotides, and nucleic acids, and uses thereof. US9447164. Oct 8, 2015. Sep 20, 2016. Moderna ... Modified nucleosides, nucleotides, and nucleic acids, and uses thereof. US9675668. Dec 13, 2013. Jun 13, 2017. Moderna ... Engineered nucleic acids and methods of use thereof. US20080097411 *. Sep 25, 2006. Apr 24, 2008. Jamie Glen House. Catheter ...
google.com/patents/US7135010?dq=mezick

*  Plus it

Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 30: 1018-1029, 2011.. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMed. *43.↵. *Zappitelli M, ... Japanese Society of Gout and Nucleic Acid Metabolism. Japanese guideline for the management of hyperuricemia and gout: second ... Urinary fatty acid-binding protein as a new clinical marker of the progression of chronic renal disease. J Lab Clin Med 143: 23 ... These mixtures were incubated at 37°C for 30 min, and 50 μl of 200 μmol/l [13C2,15N2]uric acid were then added as an internal ...
ajprenal.physiology.org/content/310/11/F1366

*  bacterial rna

You are here: Research Topics , chemicals and drugs , and nucleosides nucleotides nucleic acids , nucleic acids , rna , ... Nucleic Acid Enzymes and Nucleic Acids Studied at the Molecular Level. Steven M Block; Fiscal Year: 2013 ... Nucleic Acid Enzymes and Nucleic Acids Studied at the Molecular Level. Steven M Block; Fiscal Year: 2013 ... fatty acids*nucleic acid hybridization*soil microbiology*water microbiology*polymerase chain reaction*escherichia coli*genetic ...
https://labome.org/topics/chemicals/and/nucleic/rna/bacterial-rna-15124.html

*  Targeting Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism in Human Apicomplexan Parasites

Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2004;23(8-9):1459-1465. [PubMed]. [39] Lopez SMR, Triana MAH, Zimmermann BH. Mol. ... Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 1999;18(11-12):2521-2532. [PubMed]. [214] Kicska GA, Tyler PC, Evans GB, Furneaux RH, ... 23] Gao WY, Johns DG, Mitsuya H. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2000;19(1-2):371-377. [PubMed] ... Other essential aspects of metabolism directed towards the production or processing of nucleotides or nucleic acids have been ...
pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2720675/

*  Aberrant Circulating Levels of Purinergic Signaling Markers Are Associated With Several Key Aspects of Peripheral...

Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2008;27:755-760. doi: 10.1080/15257770802145678.. ... Endogenous nucleotides, ATP and ADP, are released into circulation from cells under stress and injury. After release, they ...
circres.ahajournals.org/content/116/7/1206

*  Wiley: Asymmetric Synthesis of Natural Products, 2nd Edition - Ari M. P. Koskinen

Natural product classes covered include carbohydrates, amino acids, peptides, proteins, nucleosides, nucleotides, nucleic acids ... 5 Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins 145. 5.1 Amino acids 145. 5.2 Peptides and proteins 149. 5.3 Enzymes and receptors 153. ... 5.5 Biosynthesis of amino acids 156. 5.6 Asymmetric synthesis of amino acids 160. 5.6.1 α-Alkylation 162. 5.6.2 Amination of ... 7.2 Fatty acids 190. 7.2.1 Prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes 191. 7.2.2 Sphingolipids 196. 7.3 Polypropionates 200 ...
wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1119976693.html

*  Yung-Chi Cheng, PhD > Biological & Biomedical Sciences | Yale...

Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2005. PMID: 15822619 * Lee Y, Yeo H, Liu SH, Jiang Z, Savizky RM, Austin DJ, Cheng YC: ... A new class of biological active nucleoside analogs, L(-)nucleosides were discovered. Drug resistance is a critical issue in ... Reversal of TNP-470-induced endothelial cell growth arrest by guanine and guanine nucleosides. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 Sep 1 ... An integrated system for identifying the hidden assassins in traditional medicines containing aristolochic acids. Sci Rep. 2015 ...
bbs.yale.edu/people/yung-chi_cheng-2.profile

*  Richard J Johnson

Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 28:118-49. 2009. ..These reactive intermediates could possibly explain how uric acid ... Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 27:967-78. 2008. ..This study shows a potential mechanism by which UA may deplete NO and ... We propose studies to investigate the role of uric acid in pulmonary hypertension and to determine if lowering serum uric acid ... Fructose increased intracellular uric acid, and uric acid induced production of MCP-1 as well. In summary, postprandial ...
https://labome.org/expert/usa/university/johnson/richard-j-johnson-1316951.html

*  Wei Li

Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 22:203-21. 2003. ..... *. Tissue expression, protease specificity, and Kunitz domain ... nucleic acid hybridization*point mutation*polymerase chain reaction*rna*feasibility studies*complementary dna*molecular cloning ... On the basis of this biosynthetic hypothesis, the first study of the thermal and Lewis acid mediated Diels-Alder reactions of ... Use of polylactic acid/polytrimethylene carbonate blends membrane to prevent postoperative adhesions. Yuyue Qin. College of ...
https://labome.org/expert/li/wei-li-463877.html

*  PRPS1

Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 29:291-4. 2010. ..On the other hand, PRPS1 mutations cause PRPP synthetase superactivity ... Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 30:1129-39. 2011. Defects in X-linked phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase 1 (PRPS1) ... Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 23:1189-91. 2004. ..HPRT) deficient patients, or metabolites abnormally increased in HPRT ... Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 30:1272-5. 2011. Mutations of two enzyme genes, HPRT1 encoding hypoxanthine guanine ...
https://labome.org/gene/human/prps1-5631.html

*  Carl W Fuller

Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 24:401-8. 2005. ..These nucleotides have been tested as substrates for different DNA and ... Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 22:1595-8. 2003. *. Terminal phosphate-labeled nucleotides with improved substrate ... Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 24:401-8. 2005. *. Negatively charged, dye labeled-dideoxynucleotides for 'direct-load' ... Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 22:1595-8. 2003. ..These terminators were evaluated for their energy transfer efficiency ...
https://labome.org/expert/usa/university/fuller/carl-w-fuller-1525808.html

*  Synthesis of Oligodeoxynucleotides with 5′‐Caps Binding RNA Targets - Current Protocols

Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 27:376‐388.. Soukchareun, S., Tregear, G.W., and Haralambidis, J. 1995. Preparation and ... Intramolecular catalysis by the α‐carboxyl group of amino acids. J. Carbohydr. Nucleosides Nucleotides 8:519‐535. ... Nucleic Acids Res. 32:2901‐2911.. Nimse, S.B., Song, K.‐S., Kim, J., Ta, V.‐T., Nguyen, V.‐T., and Kim, T. 2011. A generalized ... Nucleic Acids Res. 18:6491‐6495.. Dogan, Z., Paulini, R., Rojas Stütz, J.A., Narayanan, S., and Richert, C. 2004. 5′‐Tethered ...
currentprotocols.com/WileyCDA/CPUnit/refId-nc0453.html?quicktabs_cp=toc

*  The protecting-group free selective 3′-functionalization of nucleosides - Chemical Science (RSC Publishing) DOI:10.1039...

E. J. Eisenberg, G. X. He and W. a. Lee, Nucleosides, Nucleotides Nucleic Acids, 2001, 20, 1091-1098 Search PubMed; F. ... The protecting-group free selective 3′-functionalization of nucleosides†. Jamie M. McCabe Dunn *a, Mikhail Reibarkh *a, Edward ... The discovery of the acid-base complex between DBU and 1a, as well as observation of a putative H-bonding interaction caused by ... 4a). Furthermore, the lowest energy conformation of the DBU acid-base complex with nucleoside 1a places DBU on top of the ...
pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2017/sc/c6sc05081f

*  Anatoliy I. Miroshnikov - IBCh RAS

Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 26 (5), 473-97 [+]. A new method to produce a set of 20 high quality trinucleotide ... Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 19 (10-12), 1967-76 [+]. The approach to large-scale solid-phase synthesis of 3'- ... Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 26 (8-9), 905-9 [+]. An enzymatic transglycosylation of purine heterocyclic bases ... The N-terminal amino acid sequence, comprising 21 amino acids, was determined to be VLVGLHGEAGSGKDGVAKLII. A comparison of this ...
ibch.ru/en/about/history/honors/11

*  Ghent University Academic Bibliography

Annemieke Madder UGent, R EHRL and R STROMBERG (2003) NUCLEOSIDES NUCLEOTIDES & NUCLEIC ACIDS. 22(5-8). p.1289-1291 Mark ... Kristof Stevens UGent and Annemieke Madder UGent (2007) NUCLEOSIDES NUCLEOTIDES & NUCLEIC ACIDS. 26(10-12). p.1359-1362 Mark ... Sara Van Poecke UGent, Davy Sinnaeve UGent, José Martins UGent, Jan Balzarini and Serge Van Calenbergh UGent (2012) NUCLEOSIDES ... iframe src="https://biblio.ugent.be/publication?limit=50&q=parent+exact+%22NUCLEOSIDES+NUCLEOTIDES+%26+NUCLEIC+ACIDS%22&embed=1 ...
https://biblio.ugent.be/publication?q=parent exact "NUCLEOSIDES NUCLEOTIDES & NUCLEIC ACIDS"&limit=50

*  VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt [PeerJ]

Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 29:471-475 *. Chi NW, Lodish HF. 2000. Tankyrase is a golgi-associated mitogen-activated ... PAR belt detection in trichloroacetic acid (TCA) - or 4% PFA -fixed cells. Merged DAPI (blue) and PAR (green) channels. (A, B) ... trichloroacetic acid (TCA; see Fig. S1), washed in fPBS, permeabilized in 0.1% Triton-X100 in fPBS, and immersed in blocking ... Nucleic Acids Research 36:6959-6976 *. Gagne JP, Pic E, Isabelle M, Krietsch J, Ethier C, Paquet E, Kelly I, Boutin M, Moon KM ...
https://peerj.com/articles/617/

*  Patent US5211960 - Stabilization of leukocytes - Google Patents

Preferred additives include heterocyclic bases which occur in nucleic acids, or nucleosides or nucleotides containing the same. ... Preferred additives include heterocyclic bases which occur in nucleic acids, or nucleosides or nucleotides containing the same. ... Preferred additives include heterocyclic bases which occur in nucleic acids, or nucleosides or nucleotides containing the same ... which occur in nucleic acids; b) nucleosides containing said bases; or c) nucleotides containing said bases. Among suitable ...
google.com/patents/US5211960?dq=5359317

*  Microarray data analysis: a practical approach for selecting differentially expressed genes | Genome Biology | Full Text

Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2001, 20: 525-531.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar. ... Nucleic Acid Preparation. Tissue from each organ was extracted from 5 individual mice and extracted separately using Qiagen ... When specifically examining fatty acid synthase (FAS), a highly expressed gene, one can quickly see that microarray fold ... Following the IVT reaction, the unincorporated nucleotides were removed using RNeasy columns (Qiagen). ...
https://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/gb-2001-2-12-preprint0009

*  Patent US8883213 - Ion exchange resin treated to control swelling - Google Patents

Suitable genetic material includes nucleic acids, nucleosides, nucleotides, and polynucleotides that can be either isolated ... Conversely, an acid drug may exist in either a free acid form or in the form of a salt made by reacting the free acid with a ... stearic acid, stearic acid salts, stearic acid derivatives, starch, hydrogenated vegetable oils, sodium benzoate, sodium ... aminosalicylic acid, hydromorphone, isoxsuprine, levorphanol, melphalan, morphine, nalidixic acid, paraaminosalicylic acid and ...
google.com.au/patents/US8883213

*  Basic Page Layout (with small static image banner) | Emmanuel College

Her research has led to publications in Journal of Bacteriology and Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids. Dr. ...
ec.edu/layout/basic-page-layout-small-static-image-banner?page=54

*  Stavudine (definition)

Thymine Nucleotides Stavudine/*analogs & derivatives. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2007;26(6-7):861-4 4'-. cyano-. 2', ... Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2004;23(4):647-54 2',3'-. didehydro-. 3'-. deoxy-. 4'-. ethynylthymidine 0 Stavudine/* ... Nucleic Acids Symp Ser (Oxf) 2004;(48):41-2 GPO-. vir 0 *Stavudine *Lamivudine *Nevirapine. J Med Assoc Thai 2006 Sep;89(9): ... Thymine Nucleotides *Dideoxynucleotides Stavudine/*analogs & derivatives. Curr Top Med Chem. 2002 Oct;2(10):1111-21; Mol ...
reference.md/files/D018/mD018119.html

*  YERSINIA PESTIS ANTIGENS, VACCINE COMPOSITIONS AND RELATED METHODS - Fraunhofer USA, Inc.

... "nucleic acid" refers to individual nucleic acid residues (e.g. nucleotides and/or nucleosides). In some embodiments, "nucleic ... The term "nucleic acid segment" is used herein to refer to a nucleic acid sequence that is a portion of a longer nucleic acid ... "unmodified nucleic acids," meaning nucleic acids (e.g. polynucleotides and residues, including nucleotides and/or nucleosides) ... an amino acid is a D. -amino acid; in some embodiments, an amino acid is an L. -amino acid. "Standard amino acid" refers to any ...
freepatentsonline.com/y2011/0027304.html

Nucleoside analogue: Nucleoside analogues are nucleosides which contain a nucleic acid analogue and a sugar. Nucleotide analogs are nucleotides which contain a nucleic acid analogue, a sugar and one to three phosphate groups.NTP binding site: An NTP binding site is a type of binding site found in nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinases, N can be adenosine or guanosine. A P-loop is one of the structural motifs common for nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) binding sites, it interacts with the bound nucleotide's phosphoryl groups.LodenosineQ-FISH: Quantitative Fluorescent in situ hybridization (Q-FISH) is a cytogenetic technique based on the traditional FISH methodology. In Q-FISH, the technique uses labelled (Cy3 or FITC) synthetic DNA mimics called peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligonucleotides to quantify target sequences in chromosomal DNA using fluorescent microscopy and analysis software.Polyoxins: Polyoxins are a group of nucleoside antibiotics composed of heterocyclic moieties containing nitrogen. An example is Polyoxin B.Concentrative nucleoside transporter: Human concentrative nucleoside transporters include SLC28A1, SLC28A2 and SLC28A3 proteins. SLC28A2 is a purine-specific Na+-nucleoside cotransporter localised to the bile canalicular membrane.Coles PhillipsNucleic acid structure: Nucleic acid structure refers to the structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Chemically speaking, DNA and RNA are very similar.Equilibrative nucleoside transporter: The equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) family, also known as SLC29, is a group of plasmalemmal transport proteins which transport nucleoside substrates like adenosine into cells. There are four known ENTs, designated ENT1, ENT2, ENT3, and ENT4.DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Energy charge: Energy charge is an index used to measure the energy status of biological cells. It is related to ATP, ADP and AMP concentrations.Archaeosine synthase: Archaeosine synthase (, ArcS, TgtA2, MJ1022 (gene), glutamine:preQ0-tRNA amidinotransferase) is an enzyme with system name L-glutamine:7-cyano-7-carbaguanine aminotransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionPurine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiencyPolymethine: Polymethines are compounds made up from an odd number of methine groups (CH) bound together by alternating single and double bonds.Kachovski and Dekhtyar, Dyes and Pigments, 22 (1983) 83-97 Compounds made up from an even number of methine groups are known as polyenes.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.YjdF RNA motifPurine nucleotide cycle: The Purine Nucleotide Cycle is a metabolic pathway in which fumarate is generated from aspartate in order to increase the concentration of Krebs cycle intermediates.Salway, J.Nucleoside-diphosphate kinase: Nucleoside-diphosphate kinases (NDPKs, also NDP Kinase, (poly)nucleotide kinases and nucleoside diphosphokinases) are enzymes that catalyze the exchange of terminal phosphate between different nucleoside diphosphates (NDP) and triphosphates (NTP) in a reversible manner to produce nucleotide triphosphates. Many NDP serve as acceptor while NTP are donors of phosphate group.WGAViewer: WGAViewer is a bioinformatics software tool which is designed to visualize, annotate, and help interpret the results generated from a genome wide association study (GWAS). Alongside the P values of association, WGAViewer allows a researcher to visualize and consider other supporting evidence, such as the genomic context of the SNP, linkage disequilibrium (LD) with ungenotyped SNPs, gene expression database, and the evidence from other GWAS projects, when determining the potential importance of an individual SNP.Polymerase-endonuclease amplification reaction: Polymerase-endonuclease amplification reaction (PEAR) is a DNA amplification technology for the amplification of oligonucleotides. A target oligonucleotide and a tandem repeated antisense probe are subjected to repeated cycles of denaturing, annealing, elongation and cleaving, in which thermostable DNA polymerase elongation and strand slipping generate duplex tandem repeats, and thermostable endonuclease (PspGI) cleavage releases monomeric duplex oligonucleotides.Hyperchromicity: Hyperchromicity is the increase of absorbance (optical density) of a material. The most famous example is the hyperchromicity of DNA that occurs when the DNA duplex is denatured.Abscription: During normal transcription, RNA polymerase transcribes a number of short nonproductive oligonucleotides, and this process is called abortive transcription. The trapped RNAPs have been named abscriptases and the synthesis of specific length oligonucleotides called abscription.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".CytidineLigation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.MizoribineAdenosine receptor: The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ligand.QueuineTRNA (adenine57-N1/adenine58-N1)-methyltransferase: TRNA (adenine57-N1/adenine58-N1)-methyltransferase (, TrmI, PabTrmI, AqTrmI, MtTrmI) is an enzyme with system name S-adenosyl-L-methionine:tRNA (adenine57/adenine58-N1)-methyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionInhibitor protein: The inhibitor protein (IP) is situated in the mitochondrial matrix and protects the cell against rapid ATP hydrolysis during momentary ischaemia. In oxygen absence, the pH of the matrix drops.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.PurineArabinosyltransferase: In molecular biology, an arabinosyltransferase is a transferase enzyme acting upon arabinose."Reconstitution of functional mycobacterial arabinosyltransferase AftC proteoliposome and assessment of decaprenylphosphorylarabinose analogues as arabinofuranosyl donors.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Reaction coordinateThermal cyclerThymidine triphosphateDiscovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors: Discovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and NtRTIs) began in the 1980s when the AIDS epidemic hit Western societies. NRTIs inhibit the reverse transcriptase (RT), an enzyme that controls the replication of the genetic material of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Depurination: Depurination is a chemical reaction of purine deoxyribonucleosides, deoxyadenosine and deoxyguanosine, and ribonucleosides, adenosine or guanosine, in which the β-N-glycosidic bond is hydrolytically cleaved releasing a nucleic base, adenine or guanine, respectively. The second product of depurination of deoxyribonucleosides and ribonucleosides is sugar, 2’-deoxyribose and ribose, respectively.Specificity constant: In the field of biochemistry, the specificity constant (also called kinetic efficiency or k_{cat}/K_{M}), is a measure of how efficiently an enzyme converts substrates into products. A comparison of specificity constants can also be used as a measure of the preference of an enzyme for different substrates (i.LisH domain: In molecular biology, the LisH domain (lis homology domain) is a protein domain found in a large number of eukaryotic proteins, from metazoa, fungi and plants that have a wide range of functions. The recently solved structure of the LisH domain in the N-terminal region of LIS1 depicted it as a novel dimerisation motif, and that other structural elements are likely to play an important role in dimerisation.DeoxyadenosineCyclic nucleotideEukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.RNTP: A ribonucleoside tri-phosphate (rNTP) is a ribonucleoside with 3 phosphate groups. rNTPs are the building blocks of RNA synthesis as well as the synthesis of primers in DNA replication.CpG OligodeoxynucleotideTransfer-messenger RNA: Transfer-messenger RNA (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA and by its genetic name SsrA) is a bacterial RNA molecule with dual tRNA-like and messenger RNA-like properties. The tmRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein complex (tmRNP) together with Small Protein B (SmpB), Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu), and ribosomal protein S1.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Thymidine diphosphateTriparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.T-box leaderCS-BLASTBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Nucleotide exchange factor: Nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) are proteins that stimulate the exchange (replacement) of nucleoside diphosphates for nucleoside triphosphates bound to other proteins.Base pair: Base pairs (unit: bp), which form between specific nucleobases (also termed nitrogenous bases), are the building blocks of the DNA double helix and contribute to the folded structure of both DNA and RNA. Dictated by specific hydrogen bonding patterns, Watson-Crick base pairs (guanine-cytosine and adenine-thymine) allow the DNA helix to maintain a regular helical structure that is subtly dependent on its nucleotide sequence.Antiviral drug: Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. Like antibiotics for bacteria, specific antivirals are used for specific viruses.Deoxyguanosine triphosphateProximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Smoke DZA: New York, New York, United StatesEthyl groupSticky and blunt ends: DNA end or sticky end refers to the properties of the end of a molecule of DNA or a recombinant DNA molecule. The concept is important in molecular biology, especially in cloning or when subcloning inserts DNA into vector DNA.Elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovirDeoxyuridineAbacavirDNA demethylation: DNA demethylation is the process of removal of a methyl group from nucleotides in DNA. DNA demethylation could be passive or active.Sapacitabine