Nobel PrizeAwards and PrizesHistory, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Professional Misconduct: Violation of laws, regulations, or professional standards.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
Rosalyn Sussman YalowLasker Award: The Lasker Awards have been awarded annually since 1945 to living persons who have made major contributions to medical science or who have performed public service on behalf of medicine. They are administered by the Lasker Foundation, founded by Albert Lasker and his wife Mary Woodard Lasker (later a medical research activist).The Flash ChroniclesNewington Green Unitarian ChurchDavid Steinman: You may also be looking for David B. Steinman, builder of bridges.Alexander Walker (physiologist): Alexander Walker (1779—1852) was a Scottish physiologist, aesthetician, encyclopaedist, translator, novelist, and journalist.
(1/112) Burnet Oration: living in the Burnet lineage.
Scientific discoveries are not made in isolation. Innovation depends on resources, both intellectual and physical. A primary requirement is the development and maintenance of appropriate institutions. Such structures do not emerge by chance, but arise from opportunity, political will and the continued efforts and commitment of many people over long periods. Suitable buildings, laboratories and state-of-the-art equipment are obviously necessary, but hardware alone is of little value in the absence of a vibrant research culture. The key characteristics of the latter are intellectual foment, open debate and a body of wisdom and knowledge about the particular subject area. Rolf Zinkernagel and 1 played a part in triggering a paradigm shift in the understanding of T cell recognition, a contribution recognized by the 1996 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. In our Nobel lectures, we both discussed briefly why it was that the John Curtin School of Medical Research (JCSMR) of 1973-75 provided a milieu that facilitated the emergence of the underlying experiments and ideas. My intention here is to discuss in more detail the scientific lineages that put this physical and intellectual environment in place, focusing particularly on the influence of Sir Frank Macfarlane (Sir Mac) Burnet as we celebrate his centenary year. (+info)
(2/112) Skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise: a century of progress.
Skeletal muscle physiology and biochemistry is an established field with Nobel Prize-winning scientists, dating back to the 1920s. Not until the mid to late 1960s did there appear a major focus on physiological and biochemical training adaptations in skeletal muscle. The study of adaptations to exercise training reveals a wide range of integrative approaches, from the systemic to the molecular level. Advances in our understanding of training adaptations have come in waves caused by the introduction of new experimental approaches. Research has revealed that exercise can be effective at preventing and/or treating some of the most common chronic diseases of the latter half of the 20th century. Endurance-trained muscle is more effective at clearing plasma triglyceride, glucose, and free fatty acids. However, at the present time, most of the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of human skeletal muscle to exercise still remain to be discovered. Little is known about the regulatory factors (e.g., trans-acting proteins or signaling pathways) directly modulating the expression of exercise-responsive genes. Because so many potential physiological and biochemical signals change during exercise, it will be an important challenge in the next century to move beyond "correlational studies" and to identify responsible mechanisms. Skeletal muscle metabolic adaptations may prove to be a critical component to preventing diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. Therefore, training studies have had an impact on setting the stage for a potential "preventive medicine reformation" in a society needing a return to a naturally active lifestyle of our ancestors. (+info)
(3/112) The noble enigma: Chagas' nominations for the Nobel prize.
Carlos Chagas, a Brazilian physician, discovered the American trypanosomiasis in 1909. Like other remarkable discoveries of those days, his work helped to articulate the insect-vector theory and other theoretical guidelines in tropical medicine. Unlike all other discoveries, all the stages of this work were accomplished in a few months and by a single man. Chagas' discovery was widely recognized at home and abroad. He was twice nominated for the Nobel Prize - in 1913 and in 1921-, but never received the award. Evidence suggests that the reasons for this failure are related to the violent opposition that Chagas faced in Brazil. The contentions towards Chagas were related to a rejection of the meritocratic procedures that gave him prominence, as well as to local petty politics. (+info)
(4/112) Nitric oxide: a unique endogenous signaling molecule in vascular biology.
The properties of nitric oxide as an endogenous cell signaling molecule in vascular biology are described. (+info)
(5/112) Portraits of science. Mosquitoes bite more than once.
Ronald Ross discovered that the plasmodium parasite--'Laveran's germ'--was transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes to human beings to cause malaria. This discovery won him a Nobel Prize in 1902, but the route to this success was by no means clear. He was an indifferent student, he liked to write novels and poems and only just managed to gain a medical qualification. Fortuitously he was mediocre enough to enter the least prestigious section of the Indian Medical Service, which put him directly in contact with the parasites that were to become his passion. Despite honours being showered on him, life after the Prize also was not straightforward, he was irrascible and his innovative mathematical and economic approaches to disease control were overlooked. (+info)
(6/112) Portrait of Science. Scientist, technologist, proto-feminist, superstar.
Although Marie Curie is known primarily for her discovery of radium, her true gift to science was her realization that radioactivity is an intrinsic atomic property of matter rather than the result of chemical processes. She was one of the few Nobel laureates to win the prize twice (physics and chemistry). During her career and as one of the first prominent women scientists, she became increasingly aware of the need for funding for research and of the scientific freedom that money can bring. By nature shy and reserved, Marie's fame, as both a scientist and as an exemplar of a liberated professional woman of the roaring twenties, grew to superstar proportions. (+info)
(7/112) From the philosophy auditorium to the neurophysiology laboratory and back: from Bergson to Damasio.
Henri Bergson (1859-1941) was probably the most influential French philosopher at the turn of the twentieth century. In 1927 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature. Far beyond the restricted academic philosophical milieu, the impact of his thinking reached personalities as diverse as Claude Debussy, Marcel Proust, George Bemard Shaw, and the impressionists. His essay The Laughter (Le Rire) is one of the most profound and original ever written on the sense of humor. Bergson's opinions, with their emphasis on life, instinct and intuition, represented a deviation from the rationalist mainstream of western philosophical tradition. In some circles he was received with skepticism and irony, as in Bertrand Russel's History of Western Philosophy. Today, unbiased by theoretical "bergsonism," neurophysiologic research--as undertaken mainly by Antonio Damasio's team at Iowa University--confirms many of his hypotheses and elucidates their mechanisms. In this new light, intuition and "recognition by the body" should not be seen as the personal fantasy of an original thinker but as fundamental cognitive tools. (+info)
(8/112) Interview with Dr Joseph Murray (by Francis L Delmonico).
The Editors asked Dr Delmonico to interview Dr Joseph Murray, winner of the Nobel prize in Medicine 1990 for performing the first successful renal transplant, to record recollections of the issues of the 1950s, when clinical transplantation was born, on Dr Murray's medical career in transplantation, and on some contemporary issues. (+info)