Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Reactive Nitrogen Species: Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins: A family of signal transducing adaptor proteins that control the METABOLISM of NITROGEN. They are primarily found in prokaryotes.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Nitrogen Mustard Compounds: A group of alkylating agents derived from mustard gas, with the sulfur replaced by nitrogen. They were formerly used as toxicants and vesicants, but now function as antineoplastic agents. These compounds are also powerful mutagens, teratogens, immunosuppressants, and carcinogens.Nitrogenase: An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.AcetylenePlant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Ammonium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that include a positively charged tetrahedral nitrogen (ammonium ion) as part of their structure. This class of compounds includes a broad variety of simple ammonium salts and derivatives.Glutamate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 2 molecules of glutamate from glutamine plus alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of NADPH. EC Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Allantoin: A urea hydantoin that is found in URINE and PLANTS and is used in dermatological preparations.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Nitrate Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.Denitrification: Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Glutamate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).Sinorhizobium meliloti: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of sweet clover, MEDICAGO SATIVA, and fenugreek.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Nitrification: A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Parenteral Nutrition, Total: The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Nitrate Reductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Glutamate Synthase (NADH): A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme for AMMONIA assimilation in BACTERIA, microorganisms and PLANTS. It catalyzes the oxidation of 2 molecules of L-GLUTAMATE to generate L-GLUTAMINE and 2-oxoglutarate in the presence of NAD+.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Parenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Azotobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs or irregular clumps, and sometimes in chains of varying lengths.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Glutamate Dehydrogenase (NADP+)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Methylhistidines: Histidine substituted in any position with one or more methyl groups.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Rhizobiaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Peroxynitrous Acid: A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Abomasum: The fourth stomach of ruminating animals. It is also called the "true" stomach. It is an elongated pear-shaped sac lying on the floor of the abdomen, on the right-hand side, and roughly between the seventh and twelfth ribs. It leads to the beginning of the small intestine. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)CreatinineAnaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Plant Root Nodulation: The formation of a nitrogen-fixing cell mass on PLANT ROOTS following symbiotic infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA.Nitrite Reductases: A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Lotus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. This genus was formerly known as Tetragonolobus. The common name of lotus is also used for NYMPHAEA and NELUMBO.Histidine Ammonia-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the first step of histidine catabolism, forming UROCANIC ACID and AMMONIA from HISTIDINE. Deficiency of this enzyme is associated with elevated levels of serum histidine and is called histidinemia (AMINO ACID METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Potassium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.Enzyme Repression: The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Waste Water: Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Urease: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC truncatula: A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Sarraceniaceae: A plant family of the order Nepenthales.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Microalgae: A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.Rhizobium leguminosarum: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is found in soil and which causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of field pea, lentil, kidney bean, and clover.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Preservation, Biological: The process of protecting various samples of biological material.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Bradyrhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria usually containing granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. They characteristically invade the root hairs of leguminous plants and act as intracellular symbionts.Oxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Azotobacter vinelandii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria first isolated from soil in Vineland, New Jersey. Ammonium and nitrate are used as nitrogen sources by this bacterium. It is distinguished from other members of its genus by the ability to use rhamnose as a carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Methionine SulfoximineChlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Alanine Dehydrogenase: An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.Phaseolus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Inert Gas Narcosis: Progressive mental disturbances and unconsciousness due to breathing mixtures of oxygen and inert gases (argon, helium, xenon, krypton, and atmospheric nitrogen) at high pressure.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Aspergillus nidulans: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Leghemoglobin: A hemoglobin-like oxygen-binding hemeprotein present in the nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants. The red pigment has a molecular weight approximately 1/4 that of hemoglobin and has been suggested to act as an oxido-reduction catalyst in symbiotic nitrogen fixation.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

*  Kjeldahl Digestion System Articles on Environmental XPRT

Determination of Ammonia and Nitrogen Customer: CAE Grand Ouest, France CAE is a laboratory of the Veolia Group located in ... Nitrogen analysis of pharmaceutical excipients Customer: Butterworth Laboratories, United Kingdom Wilh nearly 40 years' ... The determination of total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) in water and waste water is a routine procedure used to ensure water quality ... Determination of TKN (Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen) in Water and Waste Water according to the Kjeldahl Method. The determination of ...

*  Leucopaxillus giganteus mycelium: effect of nitrogen source on organic acids and alkaloids.

The aim of this work was to find the most useful inorganic nitrogen source to enable Leucopaxillus giganteus to become a more ... The aim of this work was to find the most useful inorganic nitrogen source to enable Leucopaxillus giganteus to become a more ... The quantitative organic acid profile and total alkaloid content were affected by the nitrogen source and depended on the ... 0/Alkaloids; 0/Carboxylic Acids; 0/Nitrogen Compounds; 0/Phenols; 0/Phosphates; 10124-31-9/ammonium phosphate; 7632-00-0/Sodium ...

*  Is nitrogen gas flammable? |

Nitrogen gas is not flammable. It will not readily burn or support combustion. It is an inert material, and this inert quality ... How cold is liquid nitrogen?. A: Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen that has been cooled to a temperature in the range of -321 degrees ... Despite this, pure nitrogen can asphyxiate, as humans require oxygen to breathe to survive. Nitrogen will dissolve into human ... Nitrogen gas is not flammable. It will not readily burn or support combustion. It is an inert material, and this inert quality ...

*  liquid nitrogen : NPR

Science In A Scoop: Making Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream. April 17, 2013 The days of made-to-order ice cream are far from over in ... Liquid Nitrogen Cocktails: Smoking Hot Trend Or Unnecessary Risk?. October 10, 2012 The latest victim injured by a liquid ... You don't need to have liquid nitrogen at your next cocktail party - but it's certainly a sure-fire way to impress your guests ... Smoke and mirrors: Dave Arnold plays around with liquid nitrogen in a cocktail glass during his interview with NPR's Ari ...

*  Nitrogen

Information about Nitrogen - properties, discovery, videos, states, energies, appearance and characteristics. ... The solid nitrogen allows the feeble light arriving from the sun to pass through it. Dark impurities in the nitrogen ice or in ... A proportion of nitrogen made during the CNO cycle evades further reaction. At the end of a star's life, this nitrogen may be ... What will liquid nitrogen do to an air filled balloon?. A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with nitrogen. The blue balls are ...

*  liquid nitrogen : NPR

Liquid Nitrogen Cocktails: Smoking Hot Trend Or Unnecessary Risk?. October 10, 2012 The latest victim injured by a liquid ... nitrogen cocktail had to have parts of her stomach removed. Yet some in the bar business say the substance is safe when used ...

*  What Is Nitrogen Fertilizer? | eHow

Nitrogen Fertilizer: What is it?. Nitrogen fertilizer is an "inorganic" fertilizer consisting of nitrous compounds such as ... Nitrogen is an essential nutrient needed by all plants to thrive. Although nitrogen exists in abundance in the earth's ... Nitrogen fertilizers can be used on a wide range of flora, from the household garden to commercial crops. They are currently ... High levels of nitrogen in the water can create algal blooms, large growths of algae that imbalance the delicate ecosystem to ...

*  jelias | Nitrogen, | BibSonomy

NeisseriaNitricNitrogen,OccupationalOxideOxide,Oxygen,Phylogeny,Regulation,SpecimenTechniques,meningitidis,. ...,

*  Nitrogen

Developing countries bear brunt of nitrogen.... A study in the journal Nature Geoscience said many developed nations had a sky- ... high nitrogen pollution "footprint" -- much of it left far away in the developing... ...

*  Urban Dictionary: Nitrogen Dioxide

... combustion reactions produce NO2 and other oxides of nitrogen, as some of the oxygen reacts with nitrogen in the air) and the ... Nitrogen dioxide is not to be confused with nitrous oxide, which is more commonly known as laughing gas, and has the formula ... highly toxic gas that can be produced by the oxidation of nitrogen (for example, ... nitrogen dioxide#no2#nitrous oxide#n2o#nitrogen oxide#no#nitrogen#oxygen#oxide#dioxide ... Dioxide

*  nitrogen-fixing bacteria | biology |

Microorganisms capable of transforming atmospheric nitrogen into fixed nitrogen (inorganic compounds usable by plants). More ... than 90 percent of all nitrogen fixation is effected... ... nitrogen cycle. circulation of nitrogen in various forms ... Nitrogen-fixing bacteria, microorganisms capable of transforming atmospheric nitrogen into fixed nitrogen (inorganic compounds ... nitrogen fixation. any natural or industrial process that causes free nitrogen (N 2), which is a relatively inert gas plentiful ...

*  biosphere - The nitrogen cycle |

Nitrogen is one of the elements most likely to be limiting to plant growth. Like carbon, nitrogen has its own biogeochemical ... A small amount of nitrogen is fixed by lightning, but most of the nitrogen harvested from the atmosphere is removed by nitrogen ... Nitrogen is one of the elements most likely to be limiting to plant growth. Like carbon, nitrogen has its own biogeochemical ... Although the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen is an essential part of the nitrogen cycle, ammonification and nitrification are ...

*  Nitrogen partition definition |

Definition of nitrogen partition. Provided by Stedman's medical dictionary and Includes medical terms and ... nitrogen partition. Pronunciation: ni'tro-jen par-ti'shun. Definition: Determination of the distribution of nitrogen in the ...

*  ESA Television - Keywords - Description - Nitrogen dioxide

description: Nitrogen dioxide (1 VIDEO ...

*  USGS Minerals Information: Nitrogen

Nitrogen Statistics and Information. Publications. Contact. Links. Subscribe. Nitrogen (N) is an essential element of life and ... Nitrogen (Fixed) - Ammonia *Mineral Commodity Profiles: Nitrogen. OF-2004-1290 Contact. * USGS Mineral Commodity Specialist. ... Nitrogen can be produced in several ways. Some plants, such as soybeans and other legumes, recover nitrogen directly from the ... Nitrogen is commercially recovered from the air as ammonia, which is produced by combining nitrogen in the atmosphere with ...

*  Nitrogen Fixation

Simple explanation of Nitrogen Fixation in the framework of the history of the Universe ... Nitrogen Fixation. Fixing nitrogen means splitting nitrogen molecules into atoms, and using those atoms to build other ... Two kinds of nitrogen-fixing bacteria are recognized: blue-green and other types of free-living bacteria, and symbiotic ...

*  NI - nitrogen index

What does NI stand for? Definition of NI in the acronyms and abbreviations directory.

*  Agriculture: nitrogen balance - European Environment Agency

This is done by calculating the balance between nitrogen added to an agricultural system (nitrogen input can be taken as a ... The indicator accounts for all inputs to and outputs from the farm, and therefore includes nitrogen input. ... estimates the potential surplus of nitrogen on agricultural land. ... proxy indicator for the general intensity of agricultural management) and nitrogen removed from the system per hectare of ...

*  Academic: Nitrogen in agriculture Ebooks

... buy and download Nitrogen in agriculture ebooks from our Academic section for your eReader at great prices. ... Biological Nitrogen Fixation, Sustainable Agriculture and the Environmentby Yi-Ping Wang; Min Lin; Zhe-Xian Tian; Claudine ... Nitrogen Management in Crop Productionby Nand Kumar Fageria. CRC Press 2014; US$ 80.00 ... The 14th International Nitrogen Fixation Congress was held in Beijing, China from October 27th through November 1st, 2004. This ...

*  What household items contain nitrogen? |

Nitrogen is also abundant in the air on Earth and makes up... ... Household items that contain nitrogen include ammonia, indoor ... Nitrogen can come in both liquid and gas forms. In some forms, nitrogen can be lethal and cause massive explosions while in ... Nitrogen was first discovered in 1772 by Daniel Rutherford, a physician and chemist. At first, it was thought that nitrogen ... Later, it would be discovered that nitrogen actually existed inside of all living organisms. In fact, the nitrogen cycle is a ...

*  Nitrogen»historical information [WebElements Periodic Table]

This WebElements periodic table page contains historical information for the element nitrogen ... Nitrogen was discovered by Daniel Rutherford at 1772 in Scotland. Origin of name: from the Greek words "nitron genes" meaning " ... Nitrogen was discovered by Daniel Rutherford in 1772, who called it noxious air, but Scheele, Cavendish, Priestley, and others ... The symbol used by Dalton for nitrogen is shown below. [See History of Chemistry, Sir Edward Thorpe, volume 1, Watts & Co, ...

*  Nitrogen»physical properties [WebElements Periodic Table]

This WebElements periodic table page contains physical properties for the element nitrogen ...

*  NSF/ANSI 245: Nitrogen Reduction - NSF International

NSF/ANSI 245 certified nitrogen reduction wastewater treatment systems meet demands for nutrient reduction in coastal and ... Request a quote and learn more about NSF/ANSI 245 and our evaluation of nitrogen reduction wastewater treatment systems. Learn ... NSF/ANSI 245 defines total nitrogen reduction requirements to meet the growing demand for nutrient reduction in coastal areas ... Certification to NSF/ANSI 245 provides your company access to the onsite residential wastewater market in which total nitrogen ...

*  Nitrogen Oxides Articles on Environmental XPRT

Find nitrogen oxides articles on Environmental XPRT, the world's largest environmental industry marketplace and information ... Integrated science assessment for oxides of nitrogen - health criteria Oxides of nitrogen is one of six principal (or "criteria ... An environmental perspective of nitrogen cycle The nitrogen cycle represents one of the most important nutrient cycles found in ... Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for oxides of nitrogen and sulfur - Ecological Criteria Oxides of nitrogen and oxides of ...

Diazotroph: Diazotrophs are bacteria and archaea that fix atmospheric nitrogen gas into a more usable form such as ammonia.Isotopic signature: An isotopic signature (also isotopic fingerprint) is a ratio of non-radiogenic 'stable isotopes', stable radiogenic isotopes, or unstable radioactive isotopes of particular elements in an investigated material. The ratios of isotopes in a sample material are measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry.Nitrogen trichlorideHuman impact on the nitrogen cycleRenal functionNitrotyrosineNitrogen oxide sensor: A nitrogen oxide sensor or NOx sensor is typically a high-temperature device built to detect nitrogen oxides in combustion environments such as an automobile or truck tailpipe or a smokestack.Pii nitrogen regulatory proteinsCarbon–carbon bond: A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms. The most common form is the single bond: a bond composed of two electrons, one from each of the two atoms.Ammonia transporterPeroxynitrous acidOrganic fertilizer: Organic fertilizers are fertilizers derived from animal matter, human excreta or vegetable matter. (e.Tetramethylammonium chlorideGlutamine synthetaseUrea reduction ratio: For the Scottish river see: Urr WaterIndex of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.MitozolomideVanadium nitrogenaseSymbiosis Center of Health Care: Symbiosis Center of Health Care (SCHC) is an organization under Symbiosis Society which takes care of health of symbiosis family be it student or staff.http://www.Proteinogenic amino acid: Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are precursors to proteins, and are incorporated into proteins cotranslationally — that is, during translation. There are 23 proteinogenic amino acids in prokaryotes (including N-Formylmethionine, mainly used to initiate protein synthesis and often removed afterward), but only 21 are encoded by the nuclear genes of eukaryotes.Endodermis: The endodermis is the central, innermost layer of cortex in some land plants. It is made of compact living cells surrounded by an outer ring of endodermal cells that are impregnated with hydrophobic substances (Casparian Strip) to restrict apoplastic flow of water to the inside.GlutaminePhenylacetyleneCanna Leaf Roller: Cannas are largely free of pests, but in the USA plants sometimes fall victim the Canna Leaf Roller, which can actually be two different insects. Larva of the Brazilian skipper butterfly (Calpodes ethlius), also known as the Larger Canna Leaf Roller, cut the leaves and roll them over to live inside while pupating and eating the leaf.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Allantoic acidHyponitritePhosphorus deficiency: Phosphorus deficiency is a plant disorder associated with insufficient supply of phosphorus. Phosphorus refers here to salts of phosphates (PO43−), monohydrogen phosphate (HPO42−), and dihydrogen phosphate (H2PO4−).Eagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.Coles PhillipsFNR regulon: The fnr (fumarate and nitrate reductase) gene of Escherichia coli encodes a transcriptional activator (FNR) which is required for the expression of a number of genes involved in anaerobic respiratory pathways. The FNR (Fumarate and Nitrate reductase Regulatory) protein of E.Aerobic denitrification: Aerobic denitrification or co-respiration the simultaneous use of both oxygen (O2) and nitrate (NO3−) as oxidizing agents, performed by various genera of microorganisms. This process differs from anaerobic denitrification not only in its insensitivity to the presence of oxygen, but also in that it has a higher potential to create the harmful byproduct nitrous oxide.Paddock: A paddock has two primary meanings in different parts of the English-speaking world. In Canada, the USA and UK, a paddock is a small enclosure used to keep horses.Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can be later released to fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules, such as sugars, which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek [phōs, "light", and σύνθεσις], synthesis, "putting together".Planktothrix: Planktothrix is a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria (often called blue-green algae). P.EcosystemDry matter: The dry matter (or otherwise known as dry weight) is a measurement of the mass of something when completely dried.Table of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Acetonedicarboxylic acidExogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.Lactic acid fermentationGemmatimonadetes: The Gemmatimonadetes are a family of bacteria, given their own phylum (Gemmatimonadetes). This bacterium makes up about 2% of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils; yet, there are currently only six cultured isolates.RhizobiaGlutamate dehydrogenase: Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) is an enzyme, present in most microbes and the mitochondria of eukaryotes, as are some of the other enzymes required for urea synthesis, that converts glutamate to α-ketoglutarate, and vice versa. In animals, the produced ammonia is usually used as a substrate in the urea cycle.Nod factorGlycine soja: Glycine soja, or wild soybean (previously G. ussuriensis) is an annual plant in the legume family.P-AnisidineList of countries by carbon dioxide emissionsSilent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Peat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Wujing Zongyao: The Wujing Zongyao (), or the Complete Essentials for the Military Classics, is a Chinese military compendium written from around 1040 to 1044. It contains the earliest known written formulas for gunpowder, made from saltpeter, sulphur, and charcoal, along with many added ingredients.Warner OlandAlkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Manure management: Manure management refers to capture, storage, treatment, and utilization of animal manures in an environmentally sustainable manner. It can be retained in various holding facilities.Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Lonchocarpus: Lonchocarpus is a plant genus in the legume family (Fabaceae). The species are called lancepods due to their fruit resembling an ornate lance tip or a few beads on a string.Parenteral nutrition: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is feeding a person intravenously, bypassing the usual process of eating and digestion. The person receives nutritional formulae that contain nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, lipids and added vitamins and dietary minerals.Liquid nitrogen vehicle: A liquid nitrogen vehicle is powered by liquid nitrogen, which is stored in a tank. Traditional nitrogen engine designs work by heating the liquid nitrogen in a heat exchanger, extracting heat from the ambient air and using the resulting pressurized gas to operate a piston or rotary motor.Stratosphere: The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere. It is stratified in temperature, with warmer layers higher up and cooler layers farther down.Nitrate reductase (NADPH): Nitrate reductase (NADPH) (, assimilatory nitrate reductase, assimilatory reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-nitrate reductase, NADPH-nitrate reductase, assimilatory NADPH-nitrate reductase, triphosphopyridine nucleotide-nitrate reductase, NADPH:nitrate reductase, nitrate reductase (NADPH2), NADPH2:nitrate oxidoreductase) is an enzyme with system name nitrite:NADP+ oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalises the following chemical reactionAir pollution: Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into Earth's atmosphere, causing diseases, death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, or the natural or built environment. Air pollution may come from anthropogenic or natural sources.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Volumetric heat capacity: Volumetric heat capacity (VHC), also termed volume-specific heat capacity, describes the ability of a given volume of a substance to store internal energy while undergoing a given temperature change, but without undergoing a phase transition. It is different from specific heat capacity in that the VHC is a 'per unit volume' measure of the relationship between thermal energy and temperature of a material, while the specific heat is a 'per unit mass' measure (or occasionally per molar quantity of the material).Southern corn leaf blight: Southern corn leaf blight (SCLB) is a fungal disease of maize caused by the plant pathogen Bipolaris maydis (also known as Cochliobolus heterostrophus in its teleomorph state).Essential amino acid: An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo (from scratch) by the organism, but must be supplied in its diet. The nine amino acids humans cannot synthesize are phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, and histidine (i.Panicum coloratum: Panicum coloratum is a species of grass known by the common names kleingrass, blue panicgrassPanicum coloratum. Tropical Forages.Zinc ammonium chloride: Zinc ammonium chloride, also known as diammonium tetrachlorozincate(2-) (IUPAC name), is a zinc salt commonly used as a flux in the process of hot-dip galvanizing. The CAS registry number is 14639-97-5.Arteriovenous oxygen difference: The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingGlucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family: In molecular biology, the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family (GMC oxidoreductase) is a family of enzymes with oxidoreductase activity.Nitrous oxide and oxygen: A mix of nitrous oxide 50% and oxygen 50% is a medical analgesic gas, commonly known as Entonox (a registered trademark of BOC) or Nitronox, or colloquially as "gas and air", and is frequently used in pre-hospital care, childbirth and emergency medicine situations by medical professionals such as doctors, nurses, midwives and paramedics.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Deep chlorophyll maximum: A deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) is a subsurface maximum in the concentration of chlorophyll in the ocean or a lake. A DCM is not always present--sometimes there is more chlorophyll at the surface than at any greater depth--but it is a common feature of most aquatic ecosystems.Plant breeders' rights: Plant breeders' rights (PBR), also known as plant variety rights (PVR), are rights granted to the breeder of a new variety of plant that give the breeder exclusive control over the propagating material (including seed, cuttings, divisions, tissue culture) and harvested material (cut flowers, fruit, foliage) of a new variety for a number of years.Ozone Action Day: An Ozone Action Day, which can be declared by a local municipality, county or state, is observed at certain times during the summer months, when weather conditions (such as heat, humidity, and air stagnation) run the risk of causing health problems.

(1/6983) Surfactant protein A suppresses reactive nitrogen intermediates by alveolar macrophages in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis attaches to, enters, and replicates within alveolar macrophages (AMs). Our previous studies suggest that surfactant protein A (SP-A) can act as a ligand in the attachment of M. tuberculosis to AMs. Reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNIs) play a significant role in the killing of mycobacteria. We have demonstrated that RNI levels generated by AMs were significantly increased when interferon-gamma-primed AMs were incubated with M. tuberculosis. However, the RNI levels were significantly suppressed in the presence of SP-A (10 microg/ml). The specificity of SP-A's effect was demonstrated by the use of F(ab')2 fragments of anti-SP-A monoclonal antibodies and by the use of mannosyl-BSA, which blocked the suppression of RNI levels by SP-A. Furthermore, incubation of deglycosylated SP-A with M. tuberculosis failed to suppress RNI by AMs, suggesting that the oligosaccharide component of SP-A, which binds to M. tuberculosis, is necessary for this effect. These results show that SP-A-mediated binding of M. tuberculosis to AMs significantly decreased RNI levels, suggesting that this may be one mechanism by which M. tuberculosis diminishes the cytotoxic response of activated AMs.  (+info)

(2/6983) Effects of nucleoside analog incorporation on DNA binding to the DNA binding domain of the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor.

We investigate here the effects of the incorporation of the nucleoside analogs araC (1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine) and ganciclovir (9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl] guanine) into the DNA binding recognition sequence for the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor. A 10-fold decrease in binding affinity was observed for the ganciclovir-substituted DNA complex in comparison to an unmodified DNA of the same sequence composition. AraC substitution did not result in any changes in binding affinity. 1H-15N HSQC and NOESY NMR experiments revealed a number of chemical shift changes in both DNA and protein in the ganciclovir-modified DNA-protein complex when compared to the unmodified DNA-protein complex. These changes in chemical shift and binding affinity suggest a change in the binding mode of the complex when ganciclovir is incorporated into the GATA DNA binding site.  (+info)

(3/6983) Effects of the Chinese traditional medicine mao-bushi-saishin-to on therapeutic efficacy of a new benzoxazinorifamycin, KRM-1648, against Mycobacterium avium infection in mice.

The Chinese traditional medicine mao-bushi-saishin-to (MBST), which has anti-inflammatory effects and has been used to treat the common cold and nasal allergy in Japan, was examined for its effects on the therapeutic activity of a new benzoxazinorifamycin, KRM-1648 (KRM), against Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in mice. In addition, we examined the effects of MBST on the anti-MAC activity of murine peritoneal macrophages (M phi s). First, MBST significantly increased the anti-MAC therapeutic activity of KRM when given to mice in combination with KRM, although MBST alone did not exhibit such effects. Second, MBST treatment of M phi s significantly enhanced the KRM-mediated killing of MAC bacteria residing in M phi s, although MBST alone did not potentiate the M phi anti-MAC activity. MBST-treated M phi s showed decreased levels of reactive nitrogen intermediate (RNI) release, suggesting that RNIs are not decisive in the expression of the anti-MAC activity of such M phi populations. MBST partially blocked the interleukin-10 (IL-10) production of MAC-infected M phi s without affecting their transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta)-producing activity. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis of the lung tissues of MAC-infected mice at weeks 4 and 8 after infection revealed a marked increase in the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), IL-10, and TGF-beta mRNAs. KRM treatment of infected mice tended to decrease the levels of the test cytokine mRNAs, except that it increased TGF-beta mRNA expression at week 4. MBST treatment did not affect the levels of any cytokine mRNAs at week 8, while it down-regulated cytokine mRNA expression at week 4. At week 8, treatment of mice with a combination of KRM and MBST caused a marked decrease in the levels of the test cytokines mRNAs, especially IL-10 and IFN-gamma mRNAs, although such effects were obscure at week 4. These findings suggest that down-regulation of the expression of IL-10 and TGF-beta is related to the combined therapeutic effects of KRM and MBST against MAC infection.  (+info)

(4/6983) Steady-state nitrogen isotope effects of N2 and N2O production in Paracoccus denitrificans.

Nitrogen stable-isotope compositions (delta15N) can help track denitrification and N2O production in the environment, as can knowledge of the isotopic discrimination, or isotope effect, inherent to denitrification. However, the isotope effects associated with denitrification as a function of dissolved-oxygen concentration and their influence on the isotopic composition of N2O are not known. We developed a simple steady-state reactor to allow the measurement of denitrification isotope effects in Paracoccus denitrificans. With [dO2] between 0 and 1.2 microM, the N stable-isotope effects of NO3- and N2O reduction were constant at 28.6 per thousand +/- 1.9 per thousand and 12.9 per thousand +/- 2.6 per thousand, respectively (mean +/- standard error, n = 5). This estimate of the isotope effect of N2O reduction is the first in an axenic denitrifying culture and places the delta15N of denitrification-produced N2O midway between those of the nitrogenous oxide substrates and the product N2 in steady-state systems. Application of both isotope effects to N2O cycling studies is discussed.  (+info)

(5/6983) Experiment of nitrox saturation diving with trimix excursion.

Depth limitations to diving operation with air as the breathing gas are well known: air density, oxygen toxicity, nitrogen narcosis and requirement for decompression. The main objectives of our experiment were to assess the decompression, counterdiffusion and performance aspect of helium-nitrogen-oxygen excursions from nitrox saturation. The experiment was carried out in a wet diving stimulator with "igloo" attached to a 2-lock living chamber. Four subjects of two teams of 2 divers were saturated at 25 msw simulated depth in a nitrogen oxygen chamber environment for 8 days, during which period they performed 32 divers-excursions to 60 or 80 msw pressure. Excursion gas mix was trimix of 14.6% oxygen, 50% helium and 35.4% nitrogen, which gave a bottom oxygen partial pressure of 1.0 bars at 60 msw and 1.3 at 80 msw. Excursions were for 70 min at 60 msw with three 10-min work periods and 40 min at 80 msw with two 10-min work periods. Work was on a bicycle ergometer at a moderate level. We calculated the excursion decompression with M-Values based on methods of Hamilton (Hamilton et al., 1990). Staged decompression took 70 min for the 60 msw excursion and 98 min for 80 msw, with stops beginning at 34 or 43 msw respectively. After the second dive day bubbles were heard mainly in one diver but in three divers overall, to Spencer Grade III some times. No symptoms were reported. Saturation decompression using the Repex procedures began at 40 msw and was uneventful: Grade II and sometimes III bubbles persisted in 2 of the four divers until 24 hr after surfacing. We conclude that excursions with mixture rich in helium can be performed effectively to as deep as 80 msw using these procedures.  (+info)

(6/6983) Nitrogen retention by lambs fed oscillating dietary protein concentrations.

Nitrogen excreted by beef cattle can be retained in manure or lost by volatilization to the atmosphere or by runoff and percolation into surface or ground water. Increasing the retention of dietary N should decrease environmental losses. To this end, the effects of oscillating concentrations of dietary CP on nutrient retention were determined using lambs fed a 90% concentrate diet. Ten St. Croix lambs (average BW = 27 kg) were used in two 5x5 Latin square experiments. Dietary treatments were as follows: 1) 10% CP, 2) 12.5% CP, 3) 15% CP, 4) 10% and 15% CP diets oscillated at 24-h intervals, and 5) 10% and 15% CP diets oscillated at 48-h intervals. Supplemental N was provided by cottonseed meal in Trial 1 and by a 50:50 (N basis) blend of cottonseed meal and urea in Trial 2. Each period of the Latin square lasted 35 d, with excreta collection the final 8 d. Nitrogen retention increased linearly (P<.01) with increasing N intake in both trials (.77, 1.33, and 1.89 g/d for 10, 12.5, and 15% CP, respectively, in Trial 1; .94, 1.78, and 2.19 g/d for 10, 12.5, and 15% CP, respectively, in Trial 2). Compared with continuously feeding the 12.5% CP diet, oscillating the 10 and 15% CP diets on a 24-h basis did not affect N retention (P>.10) in either trial (1.62 and 1.56 g/d for Trials 1 and 2, respectively). Oscillating dietary CP at 48-h intervals did not affect N retention in Trial 2 (1.82 g/d) but increased (P<.05) N retention by 38% in Trial 1 (1.87 g/d). Phosphorus, K, and Na retention and excretion were not affected by dietary treatments in Trial 1. In Trial 2, P retention increased (linear, P<.05) with increasing dietary CP and was greater (P<.05) in lambs on the 48-h oscillation treatment than in lambs fed the 12.5% CP diet. These results suggest that oscillating the dietary CP concentrations might potentially increase the utilization of N by ruminants fed high-concentrate diets.  (+info)

(7/6983) A comparative chemical and histochemical study of the chondrodystrophoid and nonchondrodystrophoid canine intervertebral disc.

The chemical composition of the intervertebral disc of 9-month-old chondrodystrophoid and nonchondrodystrophoid dogs was studied for collagen, noncollagenous protein and glycosaminoglycan. Content of these substances differed significantly between breeds. The differences were most marked in the nucleus pulposus; the noncollagenous protein content of the nonchondrodystrophoid breed was higher than in that of the chondrodystrophoid dogs. The total nitrogen value of the nonchondrodystrophoid nuclei pulposi was less than that of the corresponding chondrodystrophoid discs mainly because of the high collagen content of the latter discs. Histochemically, it was found that the nuclei pulposi of the nonchondrodystrophoid breed contains larger amounts of glycosaminoglycan than in the discs of the chondrodystrophoid breeds.  (+info)

(8/6983) Kinetic impairment of nitrogen and muscle glutamine metabolisms in old glucocorticoid-treated rats.

Aged rats are more sensitive to injury, possibly through an impairment of nitrogen and glutamine (Gln) metabolisms mediated by glucocorticoids. We studied the metabolic kinetic response of adult and old rats during glucocorticoid treatment. The male Sprague-Dawley rats were 24 or 3 mo old. Both adult and old rats were divided into 7 groups. Groups labeled G3, G5, and G7 received, by intraperitoneal injection, 1.50 mg/kg of dexamethasone (Dex) for 3, 5, and 7 days, respectively. Groups labeled G3PF, G5PF, and G7PF were pair fed to the G3, G5, or G7 groups and were injected with an isovolumic solution of NaCl. One control group comprised healthy rats fed ad libitum. The response to aggression induced specifically by Dex (i.e., allowing for variations in pair-fed controls) appeared later in the aged rats (decrease in nitrogen balance from day 1 in adults but only from day 4 in old rats). The adult rats rapidly adapted to Dex treatment, whereas the catabolic state worsened until the end of treatment in the old rats. Gln homeostasis was not maintained in the aged rats; despite an early increase in muscular Gln synthetase activity, the Gln pool was depleted. These results suggest a kinetic impairment of both nitrogen and muscle Gln metabolisms in response to Dex with aging.  (+info)


  • More than 90 percent of all nitrogen fixation is effected by these organisms, which thus play an important role in the nitrogen cycle . (
  • This reductive process, called nitrogen fixation , is a chemical reaction in which electrons are picked up from another molecule. (
  • Although the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen is an essential part of the nitrogen cycle, ammonification and nitrification are the predominant methods by which organic nitrogen is prevented from returning to the atmosphere and is kept cycling through the biosphere. (
  • Some plants, such as soybeans and other legumes, recover nitrogen directly from the atmosphere or from the soil in a process know as 'fixation,' whereby the plant converts nitrogen into carbohydrates, essential amino acids, and proteins. (
  • The 'nitrogen balance' includes nitrogen input (fertilising, nitrogen fixation and nitrogen deposition among other things) and nitrogen output (denitrification and the emission of ammonia among other things) and thus reflects a major part of the nitrogen cycle and the impact of farm management on the hydrosphere and atmosphere. (
  • Nitrogen input (fertilising and nitrogen fixation) more directly affects the level of biodiversity in fields and grasslands. (
  • The 14th International Nitrogen Fixation Congress was held in Beijing, China from October 27th through November 1st, 2004. (


  • In some cases, industrial by-products such as pure ammonia can be used as a nitrogen fertilizer, but these should be avoided as they are toxic and pose health problems in terms of handling and exposure. (
  • Gaseous hydrogen and nitrogen react to create ammonia, which is essential for the production of fertilizers. (
  • Within the nodules the bacteria convert free nitrogen to ammonia , which the host plant utilizes for its development. (
  • As these organisms die, certain microbes such as detritivores are able to participate in the decomposition of organic nitrogen into ammonia ( ammonification ), providing a constant supply of ammonia to be used in the process of nitrification. (
  • Nitrogen is also lost from plants and soil in terrestrial environments via other routes, including erosion, runoff , volatilization of ammonia into the atmosphere, and leaching from soils into lakes and streams. (
  • Nitrogen is commercially recovered from the air as ammonia, which is produced by combining nitrogen in the atmosphere with hydrogen from natural gas. (
  • Ammonia is converted to other nitrogen compounds, the most important of which are urea (NH 2 CONH 2 ), nitric acid (HNO 3 ), ammonium nitrate (NH 4 NO 3 ), and ammonium sulfate [(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ]. (
  • Fixing nitrogen means splitting nitrogen molecules into atoms , and using those atoms to build other molecules , such as nitrates or ammonia compounds. (

atmospheric nitrogen

  • Although nitrogen exists in abundance in the earth's atmosphere, relatively few plants are able to convert atmospheric nitrogen to a form they are able to use. (
  • Nitrogen-fixing bacteria , microorganisms capable of transforming atmospheric nitrogen into fixed nitrogen (inorganic compounds usable by plants). (


  • Nitrogen fertilizer is an "inorganic" fertilizer consisting of nitrous compounds such as ammonium nitrate. (
  • Unlike carbon, which is stored primarily in sedimentary rock , most nitrogen occurs in the atmosphere as an inorganic compound (N 2 ). (

injured by a l

  • October 10, 2012 The latest victim injured by a liquid nitrogen cocktail had to have parts of her stomach removed. (


  • Among essential plant nutrients, nitrogen is one of the most important yield-limiting nutrients, mainly responsible for determining yield and yield components in cereals and legumes. (


  • Some nitrogen does return to the atmosphere, however, as denitrifying bacteria break down nitrates to obtain oxygen, thereby releasing gaseous N 2 . (


  • The symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria invade the root hairs of host plants, where they multiply and stimulate formation of root nodules, enlargements of plant cells and bacteria in intimate association. (
  • In this symbiotic association, the bacteria become encased in nodules that grow on the roots of plants, through which nitrogen that has been fixed by the resident bacteria is obtained. (


  • Although 78 percent by volume of the atmosphere is nitrogen gas, this abundant reservoir exists in a form unusable by most organisms. (
  • A small amount of nitrogen is fixed by lightning, but most of the nitrogen harvested from the atmosphere is removed by nitrogen-fixing bacteria and cyanobacteria (formerly called blue-green algae ). (
  • Nitrogen comprises approximately 78 percent of the Earth's atmosphere. (


  • Other microorganisms perform important tasks that propel the nitrogen cycle along. (
  • As is true in the nitrogen cycle, the activities of microorganisms are crucial in the global cycling of this nutrient. (


  • Nitrogen, a component of proteins and nucleic acids, is essential to life on Earth. (
  • Once nitrogen has been assimilated by plants, it can be converted to organic forms, such as amino acids and proteins. (
  • Nitrogen (N) is an essential element of life and a part of all plant and animal proteins. (


  • Oxygen is removed from air by burning phosphorus, to leave a much higher concentration of nitrogen. (
  • Nitrogen dioxide, or NO2, is a brown , highly toxic gas that can be produced by the oxidation of nitrogen (for example, combustion reactions produce NO2 and other oxides of nitrogen, as some of the oxygen reacts with nitrogen in the air) and the reaction of concentrated nitric acid with some metals (examples include copper, silver, and magnesium). (
  • Despite this, pure nitrogen can asphyxiate, as humans require oxygen to breathe to survive. (
  • The air is primarily composed of five gases: nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide and water vapor. (


  • Gross nitrogen balance' estimates the potential surplus of nitrogen on agricultural land. (
  • This is done by calculating the balance between nitrogen added to an agricultural system (nitrogen input can be taken as a proxy indicator for the general intensity of agricultural management) and nitrogen removed from the system per hectare of agricultural land. (
  • The sustainable management of agricultural ecosystems would minimise the negative effects from excess nitrogen through management of the nitrogen-balance. (


  • High levels of nitrogen in the water can create algal blooms, large growths of algae that imbalance the delicate ecosystem to the detriment of other aquatic species. (
  • Increasing nitrogen availability favours a few nitrophilous species and suppresses many other, rarer species. (


  • What Is Nitrogen Fertilizer? (
  • Nitrogen fertilizer is produced using the Haber process, a chemical reaction first developed by German chemist Fritz Haber in 1909. (
  • Unfortunately the benefits of nitrogen fertilizer are contrasted by detrimental environmental effects associated with its use. (


  • Typically, commercial fertilizers contain nitrogen as a supplement for depleted soil. (
  • Fertilizers are used to maintain the correct level of nitrogen in the soil, ensuring strong, green plants with a healthy growth rate. (
  • Where soil has become depleted of its natural nitrogen stores, fertilizers are able to make up the deficiency. (


  • Excess nitrogen not absorbed by the plants has been shown to leech into the groundwater, nearby rivers, and ultimately the ocean. (


  • Unlike carbon dioxide, however, nitrogen was insoluble in water and alkali solutions. (


  • Nitrogen dioxide is not to be confused with nitrous oxide, which is more commonly known as laughing gas, and has the formula N2O. (


  • Two kinds of nitrogen-fixing bacteria are recognized. (


  • Nitrogen is an essential nutrient needed by all plants to thrive. (
  • The use of nitrogen fertilizers helps to keep nutrient levels at an optimum level, protect against disease and control weeds, resulting in healthier crops and consistent quality and quantity of yields. (
  • The nitrogen balance is related to nutrient leaching risks: high nitrogen inputs and imbalances normally lead to high pressure on biodiversity within and outside the farmed environment. (



  • In 1790 the French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal named the element 'nitrogen' after experiments showed it to be a constituent of nitre, as potassium nitrate was called then. (


  • Nitrogen is one of the elements most likely to be limiting to plant growth. (


  • A study in the journal Nature Geoscience said many developed nations had a sky-high nitrogen pollution "footprint" -- much of it left far away in the developing. (
  • Hey Steve , wanna go get high off some nitrogen dioxide? (
  • High nitrogen inputs and losses generally coincide with high phosphorous, and pesticide inputs and losses. (


  • Liquid nitrogen condenses water vapor from the surrounding air. (


  • The chemical element nitrogen is classed as a gas and a nonmetal. (


  • Determination of the distribution of nitrogen in the urine among the various constituents. (


  • Is the nitrogen surplus from agriculture being reduced? (


  • circulation of nitrogen in various forms through nature. (


  • November 28, 2014 You don't need to have liquid nitrogen at your next cocktail party - but it's certainly a sure-fire way to impress your guests. (


  • Nitrogen will dissolve into human blood during time spent in depths of greater quantity, requiring divers and spelunkers to slowly return to a sea level altitude to avoid decompression sickness. (


  • About 100 million tons of nitrogen fertilizers are produced using this process each year. (


  • Swedish pharmacist Carl Scheele discovered nitrogen independently, calling it spent air. (