Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Neuropsychology: A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.Executive Function: A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Wechsler Scales: Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Malingering: Simulation of symptoms of illness or injury with intent to deceive in order to obtain a goal, e.g., a claim of physical illness to avoid jury duty.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Mild Cognitive Impairment: A prodromal phase of cognitive decline that may precede the emergence of ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementias. It may include impairment of cognition, such as impairments in language, visuospatial awareness, ATTENTION and MEMORY.Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Mental Status Schedule: Standardized clinical interview used to assess current psychopathology by scaling patient responses to the questions.Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders: Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.Trail Making Test: The subject's ability to connect 25 numbered and lettered circles in sequence in a specific length of time. A score of 12 or below is suggestive of organic brain damage.Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Amnesia: Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Word Association Tests: Lists of words to which individuals are asked to respond ascertaining the conceptual meaning held by the individual.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Epilepsy, Rolandic: An autosomal dominant inherited partial epilepsy syndrome with onset between age 3 and 13 years. Seizures are characterized by PARESTHESIA and tonic or clonic activity of the lower face associated with drooling and dysarthria. In most cases, affected children are neurologically and developmentally normal. (From Epilepsia 1998 39;Suppl 4:S32-S41)Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Dementia, Vascular: An imprecise term referring to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)Drive: A state of internal activity of an organism that is a necessary condition before a given stimulus will elicit a class of responses; e.g., a certain level of hunger (drive) must be present before food will elicit an eating response.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery: A series of tests designed to assess neuropsychological function. The battery is used to diagnose specific cerebral dysfunction and also to determine lateralization.Psychomotor Disorders: Abnormalities of motor function that are associated with organic and non-organic cognitive disorders.Language Tests: Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Post-Concussion Syndrome: The organic and psychogenic disturbances observed after closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED). Post-concussion syndrome includes subjective physical complaints (i.e. headache, dizziness), cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes. These disturbances can be chronic, permanent, or late emerging.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe: A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Event-Related Potentials, P300: A late-appearing component of the event-related potential. P300 stands for a positive deflection in the event-related voltage potential at 300 millisecond poststimulus. Its amplitude increases with unpredictable, unlikely, or highly significant stimuli and thereby constitutes an index of mental activity. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Practice (Psychology): Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.Psychosurgery: Treatment of chronic, severe and intractable psychiatric disorders by surgical removal or interruption of certain areas or pathways in the brain, especially in the prefrontal lobes.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Perceptual Disorders: Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Multilingualism: The ability to speak, read, or write several languages or many languages with some facility. Bilingualism is the most common form. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Apolipoprotein E4: A major and the second most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E4 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at only one residue 112 (cysteine is replaced by arginine), and exhibits a lower resistance to denaturation and greater propensity to form folded intermediates. Apo E4 is a risk factor for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Set (Psychology): Readiness to think or respond in a predetermined way when confronted with a problem or stimulus situation.Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Creatine: An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Hepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Underachievement: Performance, usually in school work, poorer than that predicted from aptitude and/or intelligence testing.ReadingDemography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Aphasia: A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Agnosia: Loss of the ability to comprehend the meaning or recognize the importance of various forms of stimulation that cannot be attributed to impairment of a primary sensory modality. Tactile agnosia is characterized by an inability to perceive the shape and nature of an object by touch alone, despite unimpaired sensation to light touch, position, and other primary sensory modalities.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Anomia: A language dysfunction characterized by the inability to name people and objects that are correctly perceived. The individual is able to describe the object in question, but cannot provide the name. This condition is associated with lesions of the dominant hemisphere involving the language areas, in particular the TEMPORAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p484)Multiple Sclerosis: An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Amnesia, Retrograde: Loss of the ability to recall information that had been previously encoded in memory prior to a specified or approximate point in time. This process may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organic forms may be associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; and a wide variety of other conditions that impair cerebral function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-9)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Apraxias: A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)Alcohol Amnestic Disorder: A mental disorder associated with chronic ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) and nutritional deficiencies characterized by short term memory loss, confabulations, and disturbances of attention. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Automobile Driver Examination: Government required written and driving test given to individuals prior to obtaining an operator's license.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Central Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Memory, Episodic: Type of declarative memory, consisting of personal memory in contrast to general knowledge.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Concept Formation: A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.Reactive Inhibition: Tendency toward a lessened strength of response due to practice or activity. It is independent of the effect of reward and is a direct function of time interval since the last response and the number of preceding responses.Amnesia, Anterograde: Loss of the ability to form new memories beyond a certain point in time. This condition may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organically induced anterograde amnesia may follow CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SEIZURES; ANOXIA; and other conditions which adversely affect neural structures associated with memory formation (e.g., the HIPPOCAMPUS; FORNIX (BRAIN); MAMMILLARY BODIES; and ANTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI). (From Memory 1997 Jan-Mar;5(1-2):49-71)Boxing: A two-person sport in which the fists are skillfully used to attack and defend.Names: Personal names, given or surname, as cultural characteristics, as ethnological or religious patterns, as indications of the geographic distribution of families and inbreeding, etc. Analysis of isonymy, the quality of having the same or similar names, is useful in the study of population genetics. NAMES is used also for the history of names or name changes of corporate bodies, such as medical societies, universities, hospitals, government agencies, etc.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Motor Skills Disorders: Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: A scale comprising 18 symptom constructs chosen to represent relatively independent dimensions of manifest psychopathology. The initial intended use was to provide more efficient assessment of treatment response in clinical psychopharmacology research; however, the scale was readily adapted to other uses. (From Hersen, M. and Bellack, A.S., Dictionary of Behavioral Assessment Techniques, p. 87)Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.

*  Neurobehavioral Evaluation Core - Gallo Vittorio

Newer neuropsychological tests and methods allow a more in depth focus into cognitive developmental factors that include ... The next level of service involves training staff on specific neuropsychological tests or methods. Some studies may need ... in Other Languages This is clearly a challenging issue in all of research as many of the standard neuropsychological tests have ... Nevertheless, valid neuropsychological/cognitive assessment of non-English speakers remains a challenge for many IDDRC studies ...
grantome.com/grant/NIH/P30-HD040677-12-8134

*  Assessment of Malingered Neuropsychological Deficits - Glenn J. Larrabee - Oxford University Press

It discusses tools for detecting atypical patterns of performance on standard clinical tests as well as malingering on measures ... the book is a comprehensive review by experts of the procedures available to evaluate malingered neuropsychological deficits. ... 5. Identification of Malingering By Pattern Analysis on Neuropsychological Tests, Glenn J. Larrabee. 6. Motor, Sensory, and ... You are here: Home Page , Science & Mathematics , Psychology , Neuropsychology , Assessment of Malingered Neuropsychological ...
https://global.oup.com/academic/product/assessment-of-malingered-neuropsychological-deficits-9780195188462?cc=us&lang=en&%0D%0AprevNumResPerPage=20

*  HIV Levels in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Brain Function in Patients Receiving Anti-HIV Drugs - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

... levels of HIV-1 RNA in CSF correlate with increased severity of dementia and worsened performance on neuropsychological tests. ... neuropsychological examinations to measure cognitive function; and 3) lumbar punctures to obtain CSF samples, which are used to ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00001103?order=64

*  Clinical Validation of Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery in a Norwegian Epilepsy Population

Material and Methods: Patients scheduled for traditional neuropsychological testing with Category test (CT), Trail Making Test ... Our hypothesis was that memory tests from CANTAB (DMS, PAL) would correlate with visual memory tests from WMS-R and that a test ... To integrate semi-automated neuropsychological testing in the established clinical setting the tests must be validated in the ... The aim of this study was to validate Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery (CANTAB) in patients with epilepsy. ...
scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=17736

*  Neuropsychological testing of cognitive impairment in euthymic bipolar disorder: an individual patient data meta-analysis -...

TMT and WCST neuropsychological tests.. Table 4. Overall effect size of group for the 11 outcome variables. Test. Outcome ... Neuropsychological test. Cognitive domain. N (bipolar). N (control). Effect size. P * CPT, continuous performance task; CVLT, ... Performance on some neuropsychological tests appears to have deteriorated further as illness progressed (i.e. number of ... Table 1 shows the results from the four existing meta-analyses as the rank of the neuropsychological tests showing the largest ...
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/acps.12133/full

*  Alzheimer's & Dementia Weekly: Neuropsychological Test Beats MRI at Tracking Dementia

Neuropsychological tests involve non-invasive diagnostics such as interviews or paper/pen tests. Doctors commonly use them to ... The tests are not invasive and do not involve any X-rays or electronic machines.. The tests may assess the following areas: * ... Learn about the advantages of neuropsychological tests over MRI scans. Investigators at the University of Amsterdam, The ... and memory and other cognitive functions were tested with five standard neuropsychological tests.. In the group that the ...
alzheimersweekly.com/2014/02/neuropsychological-test-beats-mri-tracking-dementia.html

*  "African American acculturation and neuropsychological test performance" by Stephan. Kennepohl

... lower levels of acculturation were associated with poorer overall neuropsychological test performance (Overall Test Battery ... Following the administration of a neuropsychological test battery and functional outcome measures, participants completed a ... analyses were performed to assess whether inclusion of cultural factors could improve the ability of neuropsychological tests ... that cultural factors may partially account for differences among various ethnic-cultural groups on neuropsychological tests. ...
scholar.uwindsor.ca/etd/911/

*  Internet Archive Search: subject:"Neuropsychological Tests--Child"

http://uf.catalog.fcla.edu/uf.jsp?st=UF022156504&ix=pm&I=0&V=D&pm=1 ...
archive.org/search.php?query=subject:"Neuropsychological Tests--Child"

*  EEG reactivity correlates with neuropsychological test scores in Down's syndrome.

We studied the reactivity of EEG and its correlation with neuropsychological test score in Down's syndrome. MATERIAL AND ... They had also significant correlations of the alpha EC/EO ratio and neuropsychological test scores which indicates that this ... We studied the reactivity of EEG and its correlation with neuropsychological test score in Down's syndrome. MATERIAL AND ... Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery*. Male. Middle Aged. Occipital Lobe / physiopathology. Temporal Lobe / ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/EEG-reactivity-correlates-with-neuropsychological/8937534.html

*  Clarendon Medical - Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests 3ed

Clarendon Medical attend and exhibit a bookstall at many conferences, seminars, workshops and exhibitions throughout Ireland. If you would like us to have a bookstand at your meeting, please contact Dermot at dermot@clarendonmedical.ie to discuss your requirements ...
clarendonmedical.com/shopexd.asp?id=401

*  Answers - The Most Trusted Place for Answering Life's Questions

How is performance on neuropsychological tests interpreted? Performance on neuropsychological tests is usually evaluated ... Is there a neuropsychological test for bipolar in children? Sorry, no there is no objective test that can be done on anyone ( ... What does a neuropsychological assessment test cost? A better question is "What does a neuropsychological assessment cost"? An ... What does neuropsychological testing mean? Tests used to evaluate patients who have experienced a traumatic brain injury, brain ...
answers.com/topic/neuropsychology

*  An Open Trial of Zidovudine (AZT) Treatment of the AIDS Dementia Complex in Patients With AIDS or Low CD4+ Lymphocyte Counts -...

Neuropsychological Tests. AIDS Dementia Complex. Zidovudine. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes. Additional relevant MeSH terms: ... and then every 4 weeks until the completion of the study for neuropsychological evaluation. This evaluation includes lumbar ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000709?order=24

*  Epilepsy - Diagnosis - Mayo Clinic

Neuropsychological tests. In these tests, doctors assess your thinking, memory and speech skills. The test results help doctors ... Electroencephalogram (EEG). This is the most common test used to diagnose epilepsy. In this test, doctors attach electrodes to ... A SPECT test uses a small amount of low-dose radioactive material that's injected into a vein to create a detailed, 3-D map of ... Blood tests. Your doctor may take a blood sample to check for signs of infections, genetic conditions or other conditions that ...
mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/epilepsy/diagnosis-treatment/diagnosis/dxc-20117234?mc_id=comlinkpilot&placement=resources

*  Rehabilitation and Outcome for Patients on LVAD Support - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Neuropsychological Tests. To Top. *For Patients and Families. *For Researchers. *For Study Record Managers ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00781807?term=nutrition&recr=Open&rank=48

*  Neuropsychometric Outcome After Carotid Endarterectomy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Preoperative neurological and neuropsychological evaluation will be performed. The neuropsychometric tests are not intended to ... These tests can be divided into four types: (1) an evaluation of language, (2) an evaluation of speed of mental processing, (3 ... Patients admitted to the Irving Clinical Research Center (CRC) will have their tests one day before, one day after surgery and ... First, all patients will be evaluated using a battery of neuropsychometric tests before and after surgery. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00597883?term=carotid endarterectomy&rank=12

*  Xenon Inhalation During Orthopaedic Surgery in Elderly Subjects. - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

... were designed to assess the feasibility of xenon sedation in terms of its effects on different neuropsycho-logical test ... Visual Verbal Learning test, Concept Shifting test, Stroop Color Word Interference test and Letter Digit Coding test. The ... Primary endpoint: -cognitive function; Visual Verbal Learning test, Concept Shifting test, Stroop Color Word Interfer. ... Undergone neuropsychological testing within the last year. *Unable to follow study procedures, illiteracy, or poor ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00192959

*  White matter lesions are related to impaired instrumental activities of daily living poststroke.

Neuropsychological Tests. Odds Ratio. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Severity of Illness Index. Stroke / etiology, pathology*, ... completed a neuropsychological test battery and magnetic resonance imaging, and structured medical, neurological, and ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/White-matter-lesions-are-related/18035242.html

*  Attention deficits are not characteristic of schoolchildren with newly diagnosed idiopathic or cryptogenic epilepsy.

Neuropsychological Tests. Reaction Time. Reference Values. Comments/Corrections. Comment In: Epilepsia. 2003 Jan;44(1):135; ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Attention-deficits-are-not-characteristic/11906516.html

*  Temporary inactivation of the dorsal entorhinal cortex impairs acquisition and retrieval of spatial information.

Neuropsychological Tests. Rats. Rats, Long-Evans. Receptors, GABA-A / agonists, metabolism. Space Perception / drug effects, ... that received bilateral infusions of saline into the dorsal entorhinal cortex before the training trials or before the test ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Temporary-inactivation-dorsal-entorhinal-cortex/19800978.html

*  Religiosity is associated with hippocampal but not amygdala volumes in patients with refractory epilepsy.

Neuropsychological Tests. Religion and Medicine*. Religion and Psychology*. Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological / diagnosis, ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Religiosity-associated-with-hippocampal-but/15026516.html

*  What happens when we get angry? Hormonal, cardiovascular and asymmetrical brain responses.

Neuropsychological Tests. Saliva / metabolism. Task Performance and Analysis. Testosterone / metabolism*. Young Adult. ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/What-happens-when-we-get/20045413.html

*  My Family Found Me - Reece's Rainbow Down Syndrome Adoption Grant Foundation

Lily's hospital tests showed she had pulmonary hypoplasia with signs of asthma which she was taking medication for. She was ... Cole is 2 year old sunny boy, he is very sociable and loving who was prematurely born, Delayed neuro-psychological development. ...
reecesrainbow.org/category/rescued?wpfpaction=add&postid=74010

*  Behind the Mask | MetaFilter

Peer reviews, lab tests, the whole shebang.. I've seen this personality change with my own eyes in somebody who up until age 40 ... Acquired sociopathy: a neuropsychological study of executive dysfunction in violent offenders.(New South Wales)'. Neurological ... That still seems to stand the test of time.. You said:. the stuff that pre-exists before the addiction is far more important to ... A census taker once tried to test me.. posted by turgid dahlia at 7:45 PM on November 6, 2008 [2 favorites] ...
metafilter.com/76299/Behind-the-Mask

*  Comprehensive Aphasia Test (Pack) - Routledge

... is a test for people who have acquired aphasia and can be completed over one or two assessment sessions. The test includes a ... The Comprehensive Aphasia Test (CAT) is a test for people who have acquired aphasia and can be completed over one or two ... The test includes a user manual, a ring-bound cognitive screen and language battery, a ring-bound disability questionnaire and ... Neuropsychological Tests & Assessments. *Speech & Language Disorders. BISAC Subject Codes/Headings: PSY020000. PSYCHOLOGY / ...
https://routledge.com/Comprehensive-Aphasia-Test/Swinburn-Porter-Howard/p/book/9781841693798

*  Glossary | Child Mind Institute

neuropsychological testing A battery of tests designed to assess specific areas of brain function, including memory, attention ... Using structured tests to observe a person's behavior and assess the presence of illness and the level of cognitive, behavioral ...
https://childmind.org/topics-a-z/glossary/

Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status is a neuropsychological assessment initially introduced in 1998. It consists of ten subtests which give five scores, one for each of the five domains tested (immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, delayed memory).Postoperative cognitive dysfunction: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a short-term decline in cognitive function (especially in memory and executive functions) that may last from a few days to a few weeks after surgery. In rare cases, this disorder may persist for several months after major surgery.Cognitive skill: Cognitive functioning is a term referring to a human’s ability to process to (thoughts) that should not deplete on a large scale in healthy individuals. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to learn new information, speech, understanding of written material.Neuropsychology: Neuropsychology studies the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviors. It is an experimental field of psychology that aims to understand how behavior and cognition are influenced by brain functioning and is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral and cognitive effects of neurological disorders.Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function: The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), developed by Gerard Gioia, Ph.D.Explicit memory: Explicit memory is the conscious, intentional recollection of previous experiences and information. People use explicit memory throughout the day, such as remembering the time of an appointment or recollecting an event from years ago.Memory clinic: A memory clinic is a dedicated medical clinic specialising in the assessment and diagnosis of memory disorders. Memory clinics were first seen in the UK in the 1980s, mainly in academic research centres.Prevention of concussions: Prevention of mild traumatic brain injury involves taking general measures to prevent traumatic brain injury, such as wearing seat belts and using airbags in cars.Gary H. Posner: Gary H. Posner (born c.Evolution of human intelligence: The evolution of human intelligence refers to a set of theories that attempt to explain how human intelligence has evolved and are closely tied to the evolution of the human brain and to the origin of language.Personal injuryFamilial British dementia: Familial British dementia is a form of dementia. It was first reported by Cecil Charles Worster-Drought in 1933 and is therefore also known as Worster-Drought syndrome.HyperintensityPsychiatric assessment: A psychiatric assessment, or psychological screening, is a process of gathering information about a person within a psychiatric (or mental health) service, with the purpose of making a diagnosis. The assessment is usually the first stage of a treatment process, but psychiatric assessments may also be used for various legal purposes.Reduplicative paramnesia: Reduplicative paramnesia is the delusional belief that a place or location has been duplicated, existing in two or more places simultaneously, or that it has been 'relocated' to another site. It is one of the delusional misidentification syndromes and, although rare, is most commonly associated with acquired brain injury, particularly simultaneous damage to the right cerebral hemisphere and to both frontal lobes.Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is a worldwide project that provides reliable clinical data for the research of pathology principle, prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Multiple research groups contribute their findings of the biological markers to the understanding of the progression of Alzheimer’s disease in the human brain.Amnesia (Chumbawamba song): "Amnesia" is the second single from Chumbawamba's album Tubthumper, released on January 28, 1998. The song's lyrical content addresses the sense of betrayal that English leftists felt during the rise of New Labour.Testicular atrophy: Testicular atrophy is a medical condition in which the male reproductive organs (the testes, which in humans are located in the scrotum) diminish in size and may be accompanied by loss of function. This does not refer to temporary changes, such as those brought on by cold.David Budescu: David Budescu is a psychologist and academic. He is the Anne Anastasi Professor of Psychometrics and Quantitative Psychology at Fordham University.Religion and schizophrenia: == Background ==Cognitive effects of HIVMiddle frontal gyrus: The middle frontal gyrus makes up about one-third of the frontal lobe of the human brain. (A gyrus is one of the prominent "bumps" or "ridges" on the surface of the human brain.Brain injury: A brain injury is any injury occurring in the brain of a living organism. Brain injuries can be classified along several dimensions.Whately Carington: Walter Whately Carington (1892–1947) was a British parapsychologist. His name, originally Walter Whately Smith, was changed in 1933.Daniel Kane (linguist): Daniel Kane is an Australian linguist, one of the world's foremost authorities on the extinct Jurchen and Khitan languages and their scripts.Computer-aided diagnosis: In radiology, computer-aided detection (CADe), also called computer-aided diagnosis (CADx), are procedures in medicine that assist doctors in the interpretation of medical images. Imaging techniques in X-ray, MRI, and Ultrasound diagnostics yield a great deal of information, which the radiologist has to analyze and evaluate comprehensively in a short time.Rolandic epilepsyGeneralizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Spaced retrieval: Spaced retrieval, also known as expanded retrieval or uniform retrieval, is a learning technique, which requires users to rehearse information to be learned at different and increasing spaced intervals of time or a set uniform amount of time.Haslam, C.Cultural probe: Cultural probes (or design probes) is a technique used to inspire ideas in a design process. It serves as a means of gathering inspirational data about people's lives, values and thoughts.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Brodmann area 38: Brodmann area 38, also BA38 or temporopolar area 38 (H), is part of the temporal cortex in the human brain. BA 38 is at the anterior end of the temporal lobe, known as the temporal pole.Learning Disability Coalition: The Learning Disability Coalition is a group of fourteen organisations which campaigns to secure better funding for social care for people with learning disabilities in England.Coalition was formed in May 2007.Adult interaction with infants: When adults come into contact with infants, it is unlikely that they would be able to have a proper conversation, as the infant would not know enough about pop culture or general knowledge to create a stimulating conversation for the adult. Also, the adult may not understand baby-language and cannot relate to their situation properly.Regularized canonical correlation analysis: Regularized canonical correlation analysis is a way of using ridge regression to solve the singularity problem in the cross-covariance matrices of canonical correlation analysis. By converting \operatorname{cov}(X, X) and \operatorname{cov}(Y, Y) into \operatorname{cov}(X, X) + \lambda I_X and \operatorname{cov}(Y, Y) + \lambda I_Y, it ensures that the above matrices will have reliable inverses.Hypergraphia: Hypergraphia is a behavioral condition characterized by the intense desire to write. Forms of hypergraphia can vary in writing style and content.Quantitative electroencephalography: Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) is a field concerned with the numerical analysis of electroencephalography data and associated behavioral correlates.Tower of Babel (M. C. Escher): Tower of Babel is a 1928 woodcut by M. C.Psychosurgery: Psychosurgery, also called neurosurgery for mental disorder (NMD), is the neurosurgical treatment of mental disorder. Psychosurgery has always been a controversial medical field.Causes of Parkinson's disease: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Most people with PD have idiopathic Parkinson's disease (having no specific known cause).DSM-IV Codes (alphabetical): __FORCETOC__Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Hemispatial neglectNeuroscience of multilingualism: Various aspects of multilingualism have been studied in the field of neurology. These include the representation of different language systems in the brain, the effects of multilingualism on the brain's structural plasticity, aphasia in multilingual individuals, and bimodal bilinguals (people who can speak one sign language and one oral language).Cerebral hemisphere: The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the medial longitudinal fissure. The brain can thus be described as being divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres.Task switching (psychology): Task switching, or set-shifting, is an executive function and a kind of cognitive flexibility that involves the ability to shift attention between one task and another. This ability allows a person to rapidly and efficiently adapt to different situations.Tema Motorway: The Tema Motorway is a highway that links Tema to Accra—capital of Ghana. It was the only motorway in Ghana.Creatine supplements: Creatine supplements are athletic aids used to increase high-intensity athletic performance. Researchers have known of the use of creatine as an energy source by skeletal muscles since the middle of the 20th century.Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale: The Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale (BADLS) is a 20-item questionnaire designed to measure the ability of someone with dementia to carry out daily activities such as dressing, preparing food and using transport.Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorderAge adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Rating scales for depression: A depression rating scale is a psychiatric measuring instrument having descriptive words and phrases that indicate the severity of depression for a time period. When used, an observer may make judgements and rate a person at a specified scale level with respect to identified characteristics.

(1/12115) Disrupted temporal lobe connections in semantic dementia.

Semantic dementia refers to the variant of frontotemporal dementia in which there is progressive semantic deterioration and anomia in the face of relative preservation of other language and cognitive functions. Structural imaging and SPECT studies of such patients have suggested that the site of damage, and by inference the region critical to semantic processing, is the anterolateral temporal lobe, especially on the left. Recent functional imaging studies of normal participants have revealed a network of areas involved in semantic tasks. The present study used PET to examine the consequences of focal damage to the anterolateral temporal cortex for the operation of this semantic network. We measured PET activation associated with a semantic decision task relative to a visual decision task in four patients with semantic dementia compared with six age-matched normal controls. Normals activated a network of regions consistent with previous studies. The patients activated some areas consistently with the normals, including some regions of significant atrophy, but showed substantially reduced activity particularly in the left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (iTG) (Brodmann area 37/19). Voxel-based morphometry, used to identify the regions of structural deficit, revealed significant anterolateral temporal atrophy (especially on the left), but no significant structural damage to the posterior inferior temporal lobe. Other evidence suggests that the left posterior iTG is critically involved in lexical-phonological retrieval: the lack of activation here is consistent with the observation that these patients are all anomic. We conclude that changes in activity in regions distant from the patients' structural damage support the argument that their prominent anomia is due to disrupted temporal lobe connections.  (+info)

(2/12115) Non-motor associative learning in patients with isolated degenerative cerebellar disease.

In recent decades it has become clear that the cerebellum is involved in associative motor learning, but its exact role in motor learning as such is still controversial. Recently, a contribution of the cerebellum to different cognitive abilities has also been considered, but it remains unclear whether the cerebellum contributes to cognitive associative learning. We compared nine patients with an isolated cerebellar degenerative disease in a cognitive associative learning task with 10 controls. Patients and controls were matched for age, sex, handedness, level of education, intelligence and capabilities of visual memory. The subjects were asked to learn the association between six pairs of colours and numerals by trial and error. Additionally, a simple reaction time and a visual scanning test were conducted in order to control for the influence of motor performance deficits in cerebellar patients. In comparison with the controls, it took the patients significantly longer to learn the correct associations between colours and numerals, and they were impaired in recognizing them later on. Two patients showed no associative learning effect at all. Neither the simple reaction time nor the visual scanning time correlated substantially with the results of associative learning. Therefore, motor-associated disabilities are unlikely to be the reason for the learning deficit in cerebellar patients. Our results suggest that the cerebellum might contribute to motor-independent processes that are generally involved in associative learning.  (+info)

(3/12115) Unilateral neglect and disambiguation of the Necker cube.

Three groups of patients (right brain-damaged patients with or without left neglect, and left brain-damaged patients) and a group of healthy subjects, matched for age and educational level to the three groups of patients, were asked to report which of the two frontal surfaces of Necker cubes oriented in four different ways looked, at first sight, nearer to the viewer. The extent to which, and the way in which, disambiguation of the apparent perspective of Necker cubes occurred was found to vary across the four orientations and to be different in left-neglect patients compared with subjects of the other three groups. With normal subjects, the disambiguating factor is suggested to be a disposition to perceive the upper surface, which is nearly orthogonal to the frontal plane, as external to the cube. This would result from a navigation of the observer's spatial attention towards its target along a particular path that is altered in patients suffering from left neglect. It is suggested that comparison of the paths followed by the attentional vectors of normal subjects and left-neglect patients is potentially fruitful for a better understanding of the brain's normal mechanisms of spatial attention and of unresolved issues concerning the perception of the Necker cube.  (+info)

(4/12115) Impairment in preattentive visual processing in patients with Parkinson's disease.

We explored the possibility of whether preattentive visual processing is impaired in Parkinson's disease. With this aim, visual discrimination thresholds for orientation texture stimuli were determined in two separate measurement sessions in 16 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The results were compared with those of 16 control subjects age-matched and 16 young healthy volunteers. Discrimination thresholds were measured in a four-alternative spatial forced-choice paradigm, in which subjects judged the location of a target embedded in a background of distractors. Four different stimulus configurations were employed: (i) a group of vertical targets among horizontal distractors ('vertical line targets'); (ii) targets with varying levels of orientation difference on a background of spatially filtered vertically oriented noise ('Gaussian filtered noise'); (iii) one 'L' among 43 '+' signs ('texton'), all of which assess preattentive visual processing; and (iv) control condition, of one 'L' among 43 'T' distractors ('non-texton' search target), which reflects attentive visual processing. In two of the preattentive tasks (filtered noise and texton), patients with Parkinson's disease required significantly greater orientation differences and longer stimulus durations, respectively. In contrast, their performance in the vertical line target and non-texton search target was comparable to that of the matched control subjects. These differences were more pronounced in the first compared with the second session. Duration of illness and age within the patient group correlated significantly with test performance. In all conditions tested, the young control subjects performed significantly better than the more elderly control group, further indicating an effect of age on this form of visual processing. The results suggest that, in addition to the well documented impairment in retinal processing, idiopathic Parkinson's disease is associated with a deficit in preattentive cortical visual processing.  (+info)

(5/12115) The role of ventral medial wall motor areas in bimanual co-ordination. A combined lesion and activation study.

Two patients with midline tumours and disturbances of bimanual co-ordination as the presenting symptoms were examined. Both reported difficulties whenever the two hands had to act together simultaneously, whereas they had no problems with unimanual dexterity or the use of both hands sequentially. In the first patient the lesion was confined to the cingulate gyrus; in the second it also invaded the corpus callosum and the supplementary motor area. Kinematic analysis of bimanual in-phase and anti-phase movements revealed an impairment of both the temporal adjustment between the hands and the independence of movements between the two hands. A functional imaging study in six volunteers, who performed the same bimanual in-phase and anti-phase tasks, showed strong activations of midline areas including the cingulate and ventral supplementary motor area. The prominent activation of the ventral medial wall motor areas in the volunteers in conjunction with the bimanual co-ordination disorder in the two patients with lesions compromising their function is evidence for their pivotal role in bimanual co-ordination.  (+info)

(6/12115) Episodic memory in transient global amnesia: encoding, storage, or retrieval deficit?

OBJECTIVES: To assess episodic memory (especially anterograde amnesia) during the acute phase of transient global amnesia to differentiate an encoding, a storage, or a retrieval deficit. METHODS: In three patients, whose amnestic episode fulfilled all current criteria for transient global amnesia, a neuropsychological protocol was administered which included a word learning task derived from the Grober and Buschke's procedure. RESULTS: In one patient, the results suggested an encoding deficit, and in two others, a storage deficit. CONCLUSIONS: The encoding/storage impairment concerning anterograde amnesia documented in our patients stands in clear contrast with the impairment in retrieval which must underly the retrograde amnesia that also characterises transient global amnesia. This dissociation in turn favours the idea of a functional independence among the cognitive mechanisms that subserve episodic memory.  (+info)

(7/12115) Pure apraxic agraphia with abnormal writing stroke sequences: report of a Japanese patient with a left superior parietal haemorrhage.

A 67 year old Japanese male patient had pure agraphia after a haemorrhage in the left superior parietal lobule. He developed difficulty in letter formation but showed no linguistic errors, consistent with the criteria of apraxic agraphia. He manifested a selective disorder of sequencing writing strokes, although he was able to orally state the correct sequences. The patient's complete recovery after 1 month, without new learning, showed that he had manifested a selective disorder of writing stroke sequences. These findings indicate that the final stage of the execution of writing according to acquired sequential memory shown as a stroke sequence can be selectively disturbed, and should be considered to be distinct from the ability of character imagery and the knowledge of the writing stroke sequence itself. This case also indicates that the left superior parietal lobule plays an important part in the execution of writing.  (+info)

(8/12115) Cognitive outcome after unilateral pallidal stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

OBJECTIVES: Chronic high frequency electrostimulation of the globus pallidus internus mimics pallidotomy and improves clinical symptoms in Parkinson's disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive consequences of unilateral deep brain stimulation. METHODS: Twenty non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease (age range 38-70 years) were neuropsychologically assessed 2 months before and 3 months after unilateral pallidal stimulation. The cognitive assessment included measures of memory, spatial behaviour, and executive and psychomotor function. In addition to group analysis of cognitive change, a cognitive impairment index (CII) was calculated for each individual patient representing the percentage of cognitive measures that fell more than 1 SD below the mean of a corresponding normative sample. RESULTS: Neurological assessment with the Hoehn and Yahr scale and the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale disclosed a significant postoperative reduction in average clinical Parkinson's disease symptomatology (p<0.001). Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (using right/left side of stimulation as a between subjects factor) showed no significant postoperative change in cognitive performance for the total patient group (main effect of operation). The side of stimulation did not show a significant differential effect on cognitive performance (main effect of lateralisation). There was no significant operation by lateralisation interaction effect. Although the patients experienced significant motor symptom relief after pallidal stimulation, they remained mildly depressed after surgery. Analysis of the individual CII changes showed a postoperative cognitive decline in 30% of the patients. These patients were significantly older and took higher preoperative doses of levodopa than patients showing no change or a postoperative cognitive improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Left or right pallidal stimulation for the relief of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease seems relatively safe, although older patients and patients needing high preoperative doses of levodopa seem to be more vulnerable for cognitive decline after deep brain stimulation.  (+info)



performance


  • African American acculturation and neuropsychological test performance" by Stephan. (uwindsor.ca)
  • African American acculturation and neuropsychological test performance following traumatic brain injury: An exploratory study. (uwindsor.ca)
  • In the first study, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the possible relationship between acculturation and neuropsychological test performance. (uwindsor.ca)

standard


  • The California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) is recognized as a standard clinical tool for assessing episodic memory difficulties in multiple sclerosis (MS), but its neural correlates have not yet been examined in detail in this patient population. (ru.nl)
  • In the second study, standard regression analyses were performed to assess whether inclusion of cultural factors could improve the ability of neuropsychological tests to predict functional outcome following TBI. (uwindsor.ca)