Netherlands Antilles: Former Netherlands overseas territory in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It had included the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, St. Eustatius, and the southern part of St. Martin. The Netherlands Antilles dissolved on October 10, 2010. Aruba, Curacao and Sint Maarten became autonomous territories of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are under the direct administration of the Netherlands. (From US Department of State, Background Note)Suriname: A republic in the north of South America, bordered on the west by GUYANA (British Guiana) and on the east by FRENCH GUIANA. Its capital is Paramaribo. It was formerly called Netherlands Guiana or Dutch Guiana or Surinam. Suriname was first settled by the English in 1651 but was ceded to the Dutch by treaty in 1667. It became an autonomous territory under the Dutch crown in 1954 and gained independence in 1975. The country was named for the Surinam River but the meaning of that name is uncertain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1167 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p526)Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
(1/40) Predictive value of cord blood hematological indices and hemoglobin Barts for the detection of heterozygous alpha-thalassemia-2 in an African-Caribbean population.
BACKGROUND: Cord blood hemoglobin Barts (HbBarts) and hemocytometric indices may be used for classification of newborns into those without alpha-thalassemia-2 (alphaalpha/alphaalpha) and with heterozygous alpha-thalassemia-2 (-alpha(3.7)/alphaalpha). We investigated by logistic regression analysis whether the combination of HbBarts and hemocytometric indices improves classification compared with classification based on a single analyte. METHODS: HbBarts percentages and hemocytometric indices were determined in cord blood of 208 consecutive newborns in Curacao (Netherlands Antilles). Of these, 157 had alphaalpha/alphaalpha and 51 had -alpha(3.7)/alphaalpha, as established by DNA analysis. RESULTS: Between-group differences were significant for erythrocytes, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), mean cell hemoglobin concentration, platelets, hemoglobin F(0) (HbF(0)), and HbBarts. The Logit equation of the logistic regression model, using MCH (pg) and HbBarts (%), was: 42.7164 + 5.7916(HbBarts) - 1.3110(MCH). A sensitivity of 100% was reached at a Logit value of -3.70. The corresponding specificity was 62.2%, and the predictive value of a positive test (PV+) was 46.3% (95% confidence interval, 37.0-55.7%). The relative information gains were as follows: 88% for the HbBarts-MCH combination, 26% for MCH (not significant), and 0% for HbBarts compared with the 24.6% -alpha(3.7)/alphaalpha prevalence. CONCLUSION: Combined use of cord blood HbBarts and MCH improves classification compared with classification based on single hemocytometric indices. (+info)
(2/40) The effect of a health promotion campaign on mortality in children.
Previous research has shown that in the Netherlands there is a certain degree of preventable mortality associated with long-distance travel, particularly among children of ethnic minority descent. In 1985 a health promotion campaign was launched in Amsterdam with the aim of reducing travel-related deaths by increasing knowledge in ethnic minority communities about the risks involved in travel. In the present study, two data sets are used to examine the possible effects of this health promotion campaign on travel-related mortality in children. The first data set, which was collected locally, indicates that the number of Amsterdam children dying abroad has dropped considerably since 1985. This is particularly true within one group which is highly likely to exhibit risky travel behavior. The second data set, which was collected nationally, shows that an upward trend in mortality among children aged 0-14 years before 1985 has in fact changed into a downward trend since 1985. A similar pattern is observed in the Netherlands as a whole, but to a significantly less pronounced degree than in Amsterdam. Although the influence of extraneous factors can never be fully dismissed, the analysis provides support for the conclusion that the health promotion campaign did in fact succeed in reducing the number of travel-related deaths. (+info)
(3/40) Immigrants in the Netherlands: equal access for equal needs?
OBJECTIVE: This paper examines whether equal utilisation of health care services for first generation immigrant groups has been achieved in the Netherlands. DESIGN: Survey data were linked to an insurance register concerning people aged 16-64. Ethnic differences in the use of a broad range of health care services were examined in this group, with and without adjustment for health status and socioeconomic status, using logistic regression. SETTING: Publicly insured population in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: 1422 people from the indigenous population, and 378 people from the four largest immigrant groups in the Netherlands-that is, the Surinamese, the Netherlands Antilleans, and the Turkish and Moroccan. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: General practitioner service use (past two months), prescription drug use (past three months), outpatient specialist contact (past two months), hospital admission (past year), physiotherapist contact (past two months) and contact with other paramedics (past year). MAIN RESULTS: Ethnicity was found to be associated with the use of health care after controlling for health status as an indicator for need. The use of general practitioner care and the use of prescribed drugs was increased among people from Surinam, Turkey and Morocco as compared with the indigenous population. Compared with the indigenous group with corresponding health status, the use of all other more specialised services was relatively low among Turkish and Moroccan people. Among the Surinamese population, the use of more specialised care was highly similar to that found in the Dutch population after differences in need were controlled for. Among people from the Netherlands Antilles, we observed a relatively high use of hospital services in combination with underuse of general practitioner services. The lower socioeconomic status of immigrant groups explained most of the increased use of the general practitioner and prescribed drugs, but could not account for the lower use of the more specialised services. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the utilisation of more specialised health care is lower for immigrant groups in the Netherlands, particularly for Turkish and Moroccan people and to a lesser extent, people from the Netherlands Antilles. Although underuse of more specialised services is also present among the lower socioeconomic groups in the Netherlands, the analyses indicate that this only partly explains the lower utilisation of these services among immigrant groups. This suggests that ethnic background in itself may account for patterns of consumption, potentially because of limited access. (+info)
(4/40) Risk factors associated with Campylobacter jejuni infections in Curacao, Netherlands Antilles.
A steady increase in the incidence of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) with a seasonal preponderance, almost exclusively related to Campylobacter jejuni, and a rise in the incidence of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter enteritis have been reported from Curacao, Netherlands Antilles. We therefore investigated possible risk factors associated with diarrhea due to epidemic C. jejuni. Typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis identified four epidemic clones which accounted for almost 60% of the infections. One hundred six cases were included in a case-control study. Infections with epidemic clones were more frequently observed in specific districts in Willemstad, the capital of Curacao. One of these clones caused infections during the rainy season only and was associated with the presence of a deep well around the house. Two out of three GBS-related C. jejuni isolates belonged to an epidemic clone. The observations presented point toward water as a possible source of Campylobacter infections. (+info)
(5/40) Molecular evidence for dissemination of unique Campylobacter jejuni clones in Curacao, Netherlands Antilles.
Campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 234) associated with gastroenteritis and the Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) in the island of Curacao, Netherlands Antilles, and collected from March 1999 to March 2000 were investigated by a range of molecular typing techniques. Data obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), automated ribotyping, and sequence analysis of the short variable region of the flagellin gene (flaA) were analyzed separately and in combination. Similar groupings were obtained by all methods, with the data obtained by MLST and AFLP analysis exhibiting the highest degree of congruency. MLST identified 29 sequence types, which were assigned to 10 major clonal complexes. PFGE, AFLP analysis, and ribotyping identified 10, 9, and 8 of these clonal groups, respectively; however, these three techniques permitted subdivision of the clonal groups into more different types. Members of seven clonal groups comprising 107 isolates were obtained from November 1999 to February 2000, and no distinguishing characteristics were identified for two GBS-associated strains. The sequence type 41 (ST-41), ST-508, and ST-657 clonal complexes and their corresponding AFLP types have been rare or absent in the Campylobacter data sets described to date. We conclude that several clonal complexes of C. jejuni are associated with human disease in Curacao, and some of these have not been reported elsewhere. Furthermore, given the observation that C. jejuni-associated diseases appear to be more severe from November to February, it can be speculated that this may be due to the presence of virulent clones with a limited span of circulation. (+info)
(6/40) Plasma choline and betaine and their relation to plasma homocysteine in normal pregnancy.
BACKGROUND: Plasma concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) decrease during pregnancy. This reduction has been investigated in relation to folate status, but no study has addressed the possible role of betaine and its precursor choline. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the courses of plasma choline and betaine during normal human pregnancy and their relations to plasma tHcy. DESIGN: Blood samples were obtained monthly; the initial samples were taken at gestational week (GW) 9, and the last samples were taken approximately 3 mo postpartum. The study population comprised 50 women of West African descent. Most of the subjects took folic acid irregularly. RESULTS: Plasma choline (geometric x; 95% reference interval) increased continuously during pregnancy, from 6.6 (4.5, 9.7) micromol/L at GW 9 to 10.8 (7.4, 15.6) micromol/L at GW 36. Plasma betaine decreased in the first half of pregnancy, from 16.3 (8.6, 30.8) micromol/L at GW 9 to 10.3 (6.6, 16.2) micromol/L at GW 20 and remained constant thereafter. We confirmed a reduction in plasma tHcy, and the lowest concentration was found in the second trimester. From GW 16 onward, an inverse relation between plasma tHcy and betaine was observed. Multiple regression analysis showed that plasma betaine was a strong predictor of plasma tHcy from GW 20 onward. CONCLUSIONS: The steady increase in choline throughout gestation may ensure choline availability for placental transfer with subsequent use by the growing fetus. Betaine becomes a strong predictor of tHcy during the course of pregnancy. Both of these findings emphasize the importance of choline and betaine status during normal human pregnancy. (+info)
(7/40) The relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles.
A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex education and machismo beliefs on gender and power relationships is addressed. The study was conducted among 346 Dutch Antilleans from a random sample of an Antillean population aged 15-50 years. The response rate was 37.8%. The results showed that condom-use intentions were primarily determined by perceived subjective norms, the perceived taboo on discussing sex, machismo attitudes, gender, age and educational background. Moreover, the respondent's opinion regarding machismo was an effect modificator for the association between condom-use intentions and subjective social norm. It is concluded that, in predicting condom-use intentions, factors specific to the culture of a population contribute significantly to the determinants drawn from the general social-cognition models. It is recommended that future research should use measurement instruments that are adapted to culture-specific beliefs, and should explore the influence of cultural factors on actual condom use. Moreover, interventions promoting condom use among migrant populations should target the cultural correlates of condom use. (+info)
(8/40) Sexual risk behaviour among Surinamese and Antillean migrants travelling to their countries of origin.
OBJECTIVES: To examine travel related sexual risk behaviour among migrants living in Amsterdam. METHODS: People originating from Surinam (n = 798) and the Netherlands Antilles (n = 227) were recruited in order to study the heterosexual spread of HIV within ethnic groups. Log binomial regression was used to study determinants for homeland travel over the past 5 years; logistic regression was used to study determinants of unprotected sex on these visits. RESULTS: Of the migrants, 38% of men and 42% of women visited their homeland. Visits were most likely among men who had lived > or =7 years in the Netherlands, were employed, had a high educational level and were/had been married. For women, visiting was associated with older age and living in the Netherlands for > or =8 years. Of migrants visiting their homeland, 47% of men and 11% of women acquired a local sexual partner. For male travellers, Surinamese origin (adjusted OR 10.66; 95% CI 1.72 to 104.48) and a history of > or =1 sexually transmitted infection (STI) (adjusted OR 12.51; 95% CI 3.75 to 46.95) were associated with having unprotected sex with local partners. For women, having >1 partner in the past 5 years (OR 13.57; 95% CI 2.57 to 250.28) was associated with unprotected sex with local partners. CONCLUSION: Migrants are at substantial risk for HIV and STIs while visiting their homeland. It is important to reach migrants, who are likely to engage in unprotected sex during visits, for pretravel health education. Additional research on risk behaviour in the homeland and the Netherlands is needed to identify migrants with high risk behaviour. (+info)