Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Adult Stem Cells: Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Stem Cell Niche: A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Multipotent Stem Cells: Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.

*  Hypoxia and lineage specification of cell line-derived colorectal cancer stem cells. - Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences
In summary, hypoxia maintains the stem-like phenotype of colorectal cell line-derived CSCs and prevents differentiation of ... suggesting that enterocytes and goblet cells form from different progenitor cells. Notch inhibition by dibenzazepine (DBZ) ... Colorectal CSCs from SW1222, LS180, and CCK81 colorectal cancer-derived cell lines are able to differentiate into complex 3D ... The hypoxic phenotype is reversible, because cells from hypoxic-dense colonies are able to reform differentiated structures ...
  https://www.nds.ox.ac.uk/publications/179108
*  Cancer Stem Cell Niche in Brain Tumors - Xing Fan
... treatment-resistant neoplastic stem cells are critical for long-term tumor growth. Normal stem cells require signals from a ... treatment-resistant neoplastic stem cells are critical for long-term tumor growth. Normal stem cells require signals from a ... cancer stem cell niche) regulates glioblastoma initiating cells in order to develop a novel therapeutic strategy for this ... Cancer Stem Cell Niche in Brain Tumors Fan, Xing University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, MI, United States ...
  http://grantome.com/grant/NIH/R01-CA148621-03
*  Cancer Stem Cells
... during neoplastic progression may result in the emergence of a CSC. In this model, only the CSCs (and not other tumour cells) ... Stem cells divide asymmetrically producing two daughter cells - one is a new stem cell and the second is progenitor cell, which ... and express typical markers of stem cells. It is not clear whether cancer stem cells originate from normal stem cells in ... Cancer stem cells are in many aspects similar to the stem cells. It has been proven that tumor cells are heterogeneous ...
  http://terrymcgarty.blogspot.com/2016/04/cancer-stem-cells.html
*  Cancer Stem Cell News: January 2009
2) Prominin 1 marks intestinal stem cells that are susceptible to neoplastic transformation by Liqin Zhu and 9 co-authors, ... Stem Cell Markers and Stem cell markers]. Abstract: We disclose gene markers of stem cells, typically prostate stem cells, and ... See also: Prostate Stem Cell and Prostate stem cell]. Abstract: We describe a method for the isolation of prostate stem cells, ... typically prostate stem cells which express CD 133 antigen; stem cells and cancer stem cells isolated by the method and their ...
  http://cancerstemcellnews.blogspot.com/2009_01_01_archive.html
*  Stem Cells, Nonproliferating Cells, and Their Kinetics in Normal and Neoplastic Tissues | SpringerLink
... it seems appropriate to review critically some principal aspects of Cell. and tissue kinetics as they... ... Potmesil M., LoBue J., Goldfeder A. (1977) Stem Cells, Nonproliferating Cells, and Their Kinetics in Normal and Neoplastic ... Stem Cells, Nonproliferating Cells, and Their Kinetics in Normal and Neoplastic Tissues. ... and tissue kinetics as they relate to stem cells, to nonproliferating cells, and to Cell. recruitment into the mitotic cycle. ...
  https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-2739-4_9
*  Pancreatic cancer stem cells: emerging target for designing novel therapy.
... there have been significant advances in the research on cancer stem cells (CSCs). The emerging evidences have demonstrated that ... CSCs and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-type cells, which share molecular characteristics ... Neoplastic Stem Cells / drug effects*, metabolism, pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy*, genetics, pathology. Signal ... In the past few years, there have been significant advances in the research on cancer stem cells (CSCs). The emerging evidences ...
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Pancreatic-cancer-stem-cells-Emerging/22445908.html
*  Evaluation of cancer stem cell migration using compartmentalizing microfluidic devices and live cell imaging.
Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology*. Single-Cell Analysis / instrumentation*, methods. Tumor Cells, Cultured. ... If required after cell counting, additional stem cell medium is added to the BTSC suspension to give a cell density of 20,000 ... Cancer Stem Cells-Perspectives on Current Status and Future DirectionsAACR Workshop on Cancer Stem Cells. Cancer ResearchYear: ... BTSCs enriched in this manner demonstrate stem cell-like properties, such as expression of stem cell markers (CD133, nestin), ...
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Evaluation-cancer-stem-cell-migration/22217858.html
*  Differentiation of mammary stem cells in vivo and in vitro.
... and myoepithelial cells, are distinguished by their ultrastructure and by their accumulation of immunocytochemically detectable ... The fully differentiated cells of the rat mammary parenchyma, the ductal epithelial, alveolar, ... Neoplastic Stem Cells / cytology. Rats. Stem Cells / cytology*. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 0/Calcium-Binding Proteins ... Under different culture conditions, the epithelial stem cells differentiate along a separate pathway to myoepitheliallike cells ...
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Differentiation-mammary-stem-cells-in/2647483.html
*  2010 « Events « Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology
Normal and Neoplastic Stem Cells. May 3, 2:00pm - 3:00pm. with Irving L. Weissman, M.D. ... Mechanobiological regulation of tumor and stem cell biology in the central nervous system. Mar 18, 2:15pm - 3:15pm. with Sanjay ... Runx1 Function in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Emergence. May 24, 6:00pm - 7:00pm. with Nancy Speck, Ph.D ... Cell polarity, morphogenesis and cancer. Nov 2, 2:00pm - 3:00pm. Department of Surgery with Senthil Muthuswamy, PhD ...
  http://www.igsb.anl.gov/events/archive/2010/
*  Expression levels of stem cell genes and activation of | Open-i
Expression levels of stem cell genes and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in CD24+ cells.(A) mRNA expression levels of ... Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. *Humans. *Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism. *Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism ... To examine whether CD24+ cells have intrinsic stem cell properties, we analyzed the expression of five embryonic stem cell ... To examine whether CD24+ cells have intrinsic stem cell properties, we analyzed the expression of five embryonic stem cell ...
  https://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4067285_pone.0099412.g002&req=4
*  More than 45% of A549 and H446 cells are cancer initiating cells: evidence from cloning and tumorigenic analyses.
This study was designed to investigate the fraction of cancer stem cells in the A549 and H446 cell lines by cloning and ... Cancer stem cells have been isolated from human lung cancer and cancer cell lines. ... Cell Proliferation. Glycoproteins / analysis. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / pathology*. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Neoplastic Stem ... most A549 and H446 cells may not be stem cells, but they acquired stem cell characteristics when they were alone. Therefore, ...
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/More-than-45-A549-H446/19287999.html
*  'Double hit' makes the...
Neoplastic Stem Cells / drug effects*. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 50-99-7/Glucose; 657-24-9/Metformin ... is the use of such dual therapy to target cancer stem cells. Metformin has been shown to selectively kill cancer stem cells and ... the chemotherapy-resistant subpopulation of cancer stem cells.8,9 Cancer stem cells greatly depend on aerobic glycolysis to ... but is adequate to maintain viable cells in most of the cancer cells. Indeed, metformin blocks cell growth but can also induce ...
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Double-hit-makes-difference/22874594.html
*  Stem cell biology in health and disease - کتابخانه الکترونیک و دیجیتال - آذرسا
Stem cell biology in health and disease , کتابخانه الکترونیک و دیجیتال - آذرسا ... Embryonic stem cells -- Cancer stem cells Bibliographies/Indexes : Bibliography Subject : Stem Cells Neoplastic Stem Cells Stem ... Stem cell biology in health and disease , ... Stem cell biology in health and disease Publication Statement : ...
  http://azarsa.tbzmed.ac.ir/site/catalogue/7280
*  adult optic nerve glioma 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine
Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Optic Nerve Glioma / pathology. *[MeSH-minor] Adult Stem Cells / pathology. Biomarkers / ... Lasky JL 3rd, Choe M, Nakano I: Cancer stem cells in pediatric brain tumors. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther; 2009 Dec;4(4):298-305. ... The adult population presented more cases of basal cell carcinomas (18 cases), squamous cell carciomas (12 cases), meningiomas ... Cell Differentiation. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Humans. Surgical Procedures, Operative. *Genetic Alliance. consumer health ...
  http://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=adult+optic+nerve+glioma+2005:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b0
*  DI-fusion Unravelling cancer stem cell potential.
Neoplastic Stem Cells -- cytology -- drug effects -- physiology -- radiation effects -- transplantation Radiation Tolerance ... Unravelling cancer stem cell potential. par Beck, Benjamin ; Blanpain, Cédric Référence Nature reviews. Cancer, 13, 10, (page ...
  http://difusion.ulb.ac.be/vufind/Record/ULB-DIPOT:oai:dipot.ulb.ac.be:2013/155137/Details
*  Johns Hopkins University - Research Output - Johns Hopkins University
Neoplastic Stem Cells Epigenomics Musculoskeletal MRI structured evaluation: How to practically fill the reporting checklist. ... Biomarkers in neoplastic neuropathology. Rodriguez, F. & Ho, C. Y. Jan 1 2016 Springer International Publishing. 98 p.. ... An introduction to neuroscientific methods: Single-cell recordings. Stuphorn, V. & Chen, X. Jan 1 2015 Springer New York. 25 p. ...
  https://jhu.pure.elsevier.com/en/organisations/johns-hopkins-university-3/publications/?type=%2Fdk%2Fatira%2Fpure%2Fresearchoutput%2Fresearchoutputtypes%2Fbookanthology%2Fbook
*  John J Laterra - Research Output - Johns Hopkins University
Neoplastic Stem Cells Profiling the dynamics of a human phosphorylome reveals new components in HGF/c-Met signaling.. Woodard, ... Cancer stem cells: Distinct entities or dynamically regulated phenotypes?. Li, Y. & Laterra, J. Feb 1 2012 In : Cancer Research ... Regulation of glioblastoma stem cells by retinoic acid: Role for Notch pathway inhibition. Ying, M., Wang, S., Sang, Y., Sun, P ... Lipid metabolism enzyme ACSVL3 supports glioblastoma stem cell maintenance and tumorigenicity. Sun, P., Xia, S., Lal, B., Shi, ...
  https://jhu.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/john-j-laterra/publications/
*  Frontiers | Commentary: "Prom1 Function in Development, Intestinal Inflammation, and Intestinal Tumorigenesis" | Oncology
Besides progenitor cells, its expression is widespread throughout terminally differentiated cells as those found in glandular ... is related to its use as a stem and cancer stem cell marker (1). ... marks intestinal stem cells that are susceptible to neoplastic ... is related to its use as a stem and cancer stem cell marker (1). Besides progenitor cells, its expression is widespread ... Lardon J, Corbeil D, Huttner WB, Ling Z, Bouwens L. Stem cell marker prominin-1/AC133 is expressed in duct cells of the adult ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fonc.2015.00091/full
*  Cancer Stem Cell News: More about presentations at AACR10
Role of telomerase in normal and neoplastic stem cells [Presentation Abstract].. Another poster about the telomerase inhibitor ... Cancer Stem Cell News A blog of news items related to cancer stem cells, with an emphasis on recent research and articles that ... The editor is a member of the Board of Directors of the Cancer Stem Cell Consortium (CSCC), which is based in Ottawa, Canada.. ... Stem cells in cancer: do they matter? (Video of lecture by John Dick, 2014) ...
  http://cancerstemcellnews.blogspot.com/2010/05/more-about-presentations-at-aacr10.html
*  5th International Congress on Myeloproliferative Diseases and Myelodysplastic Syndromes - 5. - 7. 11. 2009, New York Marriott...
11:30 am Keynote Address: Normal and neoplastic stem cells Speaker invited. 12:15 pm Discussion / Questions. 12:30 pm Lunch. ... 2:30 pm Migration of hematopoetic stem cells and niche abnormalities Speaker invited. 3:00 pm Novel therapies and assessing ...
  https://www.linkos.cz/lekar-a-multidisciplinarni-tym/celozivotni-vzdelavani/kongresy/kongresovy-kalendar/5th-international-congress-on-myeloproliferative-diseases-and-myelodysplastic-sy/
*  Comparison of sphere-forming ability and invasion capab | Open-i
Comparison of sphere-forming ability and invasion capability of ALDH1high cells and ALDH1low cells.A Sphere-forming assay One ... Neoplastic Stem Cells/metabolism*/pathology. *Ovarian Neoplasms/diagnosis/enzymology/genetics*/pathology. *Retinal ... Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are defined as a small population of cancer cells that have high ... Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are defined as a small population of cancer cells that have high ...
  https://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3675199_pone.0065158.g002&req=4
*  Cytogenetics sub-cluster 0
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) results from the neoplastic transformation of a haematopoietic stem cell. The hallmark ... Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by the presence in leukemic stem cells of the ... CML is derived from the hematopoietic stem cells (1) with the Philadelphia chromosome resulting from of a reciprocal ... Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by increased proliferation of granulocytic cells ...
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/cluster/35/Cytogenetics/sub-0.html
*  Find Research Outputs - Johns Hopkins University
The extracellular matrix and focal adhesion kinase signaling regulate cancer stem cell function in pancreatic ductal ... Circulating tumor cells expressing markers of tumor-initiating cells predict poor survival and cancer recurrence in patients ... Circulating Epithelial Cells in Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms and Cystic Pancreatic Lesions. Poruk, K. E., Valero, V ... Circulating Tumor Cell Phenotype Predicts Recurrence and Survival in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma. Poruk, K. E., Valero, V., ...
  https://jhu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/?showAdvanced=false&allConcepts=true&inferConcepts=true&publicationYear=2008&publicationYear=2009&publicationYear=2010&publicationYear=2011&publicationYear=2012&publicationYear=2013&publicationYear=2014&publicationYear=2015&publicationYear=2016&publicationYear=2017&author=afc65c70-70a0-4ea9-add2-fb5a1581a8dc
*  Rasheed, Z. A.<...
Neoplastic Stem Cells Medicine & Life Sciences Pancreatic Neoplasms Medicine & Life Sciences Adenocarcinoma Medicine & Life ... Ki-67 is required for maintenance of cancer stem cells but not cell proliferation. Cidado, J. , Wong, H. Y. , Marc Rosen, D. , ... The extracellular matrix and focal adhesion kinase signaling regulate cancer stem cell function in pancreatic ductal ... Circulating tumor cells expressing markers of tumor-initiating cells predict poor survival and cancer recurrence in patients ...
  https://jhu.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/zeshaan-rasheed

Stem cell theory of aging: The stem cell theory of aging is a new theory which was formulated by several scientists and which postulates that the aging process is the result of the inability of various types of stem cells to continue to replenish the tissues of an organism with functional differentiated cells capable of maintaining that tissue's (or organ's) original function. Damage and error accumulation in genetic material is always a problem for systems regardless of the age.Renal stem cell: Renal stem cells are self-renewing, multipotent stem cells which are able to give rise to all the cell types of the kidney. It is involved in the homeostasis and repair of the kidney, and holds therapeutic potential for treatment of kidney failure.Myeloid: The term myeloid (myelogenous) is an adjective that can refer to a progenitor cell for granulocytes, monocytes, erythrocytes, or platelets. Myeloid can be distinguished from the lymphoid progenitor cells that give rise to B cells and T cells.Human embryonic stem cells clinical trials: ==Human Embryonic Stem Cell Clinical Trials==Pluripotency (biological compounds): The pluripotency of biological compounds describes the ability of certain substances to produce several distinct biological responses. Pluripotent is also described as something that has no fixed developmental potential, as in being able to differentiate into different cell types in the case of pluripotent stem cells.Hematopoietic stem cell transplantationGliogenesis: Gliogenesis is the generation of non-neuronal glia populations derived from multipotent neural stem cells.Stemgent: Stemgent is an American privately funded biotech company focused on providing reagents and technology developed by some of the world's leading stem cell scientists. Founded in 2008, Stemgent has two fully operational facilities in both San Diego, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts.AncestimSB-431542

(1/3999) Differential diagnostic significance of the paucity of HLA-I antigens on metastatic breast carcinoma cells in effusions.

Distinction between benign reactive mesothelial cells and metastatic breast adenocarcinoma cells in effusions from patients with a known prior history of breast cancer is not the easiest task in diagnostic pathology. Here, we report the usefulness of testing the expression of class I HLA antigens (HLA A, B, C) in this respect. Cytospins were prepared from effusions of patients without the history of breast cancer (5 cases) and from effusions of patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma (11 cases). Three effusions from cancerous patients were not malignant cytologically. The expression of HLA-A, B, C, HLA-DR and beta2-microglobulin as well as the macrophage antigen, CD14, was evaluated by immunocytochemistry. In 10 of 11 effusions the cytologically malignant cells expressed very weak or undetectable HLA-A,B,C as compared to the mesothelial cells and macrophages. The paucity of expression of HLA-A, B, C was detectable in those 3 cases where a definitive cytological diagnosis of malignancy could not be established. In contrast, mesothelial cells and macrophages from all samples were uniformly and strongly positive for both HLA-A, B, C and beta2-microglobulin. We conclude that the paucity of HLA-I antigens provides a marker helpful in distinguishing metastatic breast carcinoma cells from reactive mesothelial cells in effusions.  (+info)

(2/3999) Cytokine treatment or accessory cells are required to initiate engraftment of purified primitive human hematopoietic cells transplanted at limiting doses into NOD/SCID mice.

Little is known about the cell types or mechanisms that underlie the engraftment process. Here, we have examined parameters affecting the engraftment of purified human Lin-CD34+CD38- normal and AML cells transplanted at limiting doses into NOD/SCID recipients. Mice transplanted with 500 to 1000 Lin-CD34+CD38- cord blood (CB) or AML cells required the co-transplantation of accessory cells (ACs) or short-term in vivo cytokine treatment for engraftment, whereas transplantation of higher doses (>5000 Lin-CD34+CD38- cells) did not show these requirements suggesting that ACs are effective for both normal and leukemic stem cell engraftment in this model. Mature Lin+CD34- and primitive Lin-CD34+CD38+ cells were capable of acting as ACs even though no repopulating cells are present. Cytokine treatment of NOD/SCID mice could partially replace the requirement for co-transplantation of AC. Furthermore, no difference was seen between the percentage of engrafted mice treated with cytokines for only the first 10 days after transplant compared to those receiving cytokines for the entire time of repopulation. Surprisingly, no engraftment was detected in mice when cytokine treatment was delayed until 10 days posttransplant. Together, these studies suggest that the engraftment process requires pluripotent stem cells plus accessory cells or cytokine treatment which act early after transplantation. The NOD/SCID xenotransplant system provides the means to further clarify the processes underlying human stem cell engraftment.  (+info)

(3/3999) Autologous transplantation of chemotherapy-purged PBSC collections from high-risk leukemia patients: a pilot study.

We have recently demonstrated that the combination of the alkylating agent nitrogen mustard (NM) and etoposide (VP-16) is capable of eliminating, ex vivo, leukemic cells contaminating PBSC collections and this is associated with a significant recovery of primitive and committed hematopoietic progenitor cells. Based on these data a pilot study on autologous transplantation of NM/VP-16 purged PBSC for high-risk leukemic patients was recently initiated. Twelve patients (seven females and five males) with a median age of 46 years (range 18-57) have been treated. Two patients had acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) resistant to conventional induction treatment, four patients had secondary AML in I complete remission (CR), one patient was in II CR after failing a previous autologous BM transplantation, while two additional AML individuals were in I CR achieved after three or more cycles of induction treatment. Two patients with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in I CR and one patient with mantle cell lymphoma and leukemic dissemination were also included. Eight patients showed karyotypic abnormalities associated with a poor clinical outcome. The mobilizing regimens included cytosine arabinoside and mitoxantrone with (n = 6) or without fludarabine (n = 3) followed by subcutaneous administration of G-CSF (5 microg/kg/day until the completion of PBSC collection) and G-CSF alone (n = 3) (15 microg/kg/day). A median of two aphereses (range 1-3) allowed the collection of 7.2 x 10(8) TNC/kg (range 3.4-11.5), 5 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg (range 2.1-15.3) and 9.2 x 10(4) CFU-GM/kg (0.3-236). PBSC were treated with a constant dose of 20 microg of VP-16/ml and a median individual-adjusted dose (survival < or = 5% of steady-state BM CFU-GM) of NM of 0.7 microg/ml (range 0.25-1.25). Eleven patients were reinfused after busulfan (16 mg/kg) and Cy (120 mg/kg) conditioning with a median residual dose of 0.3 x 10(4) CFU-GM/kg (0-11.5). The median time to neutrophil engraftment (>0.5 x 10(9)/l) for evaluable patients was 25 days (range 12-59); the median time to platelet transfusion independence (>20 and >50 x 10(9)/l) was 40 days (18-95) and 69 days (29-235), respectively. Hospital discharge occurred at a median of 25 days (18-58) after stem cell reinfusion. Four individuals are alive in CR (n = 3) or with residual nodal disease (n = 1 lymphoma patient) with a follow-up of 32, 26, 3 and 14 months, respectively. Seven patients died due to disease progression or relapse (n = 5) or extrahematological transplant toxicity (n = 2). Our data suggest that pharmacological purging of leukapheresis collections of leukemic patients at high-risk of relapse is feasible and ex vivo treated cells reconstitute autologous hematopoiesis.  (+info)

(4/3999) Human immunodeficiency virus-associated Hodgkin's disease derives from post-germinal center B cells.

Human immunodeficiency virus-associated Hodgkin's disease (HIV-HD) displays several peculiarities when compared with HD of the general population. These include overrepresentation of clinically aggressive histologic types and frequent infection of Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Recently, we have reported that the histogenesis of HD of the general population may be assessed by monitoring the expression pattern of BCL-6, a transcription factor expressed in germinal center (GC) B cells, and of CD138/syndecan-1 (syn-1), a proteoglycan associated with post-GC, terminal B-cell differentiation. In this study, we have applied these two markers to the study of HIV-HD histogenesis and correlated their expression status to the virologic features of this disease. We have found that RS cells of all histologic categories of HIV-HD consistently display the BCL-6(-)/syn-1(+) phenotype and thus reflect post-GC B cells. Although BCL-6(-)/syn-1(+) RS cells of HIV-HD express CD40, they are not surrounded by CD40 ligand-positive (CD40L+) reactive T lymphocytes, which, in HD of the general population, are thought to regulate the disease phenotype through CD40/CD40L interactions. Conversely, RS cells of virtually all HIV-HD express the EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), which, being functionally homologous to CD40, may contribute, at least in part, to the modulation of the HIV-HD phenotype.  (+info)

(5/3999) An alternatively spliced form of CD79b gene may account for altered B-cell receptor expression in B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Several functional anomalies of B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells may be explained by abnormalities of the B-cell receptor (BCR), a multimeric complex formed by the sIg homodimer and the noncovalently bound heterodimer Igalpha/Igbeta (CD79a/CD79b). Because the expression of the extracellular Ig-like domain of CD79b has been reported to be absent in the cells of most CLL cases, we have investigated the molecular mechanisms that may account for this defect. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from 50 patients and two cell lines (MEC1, MEC2) obtained from the PBL of one of them were studied. MEC1, MEC2, and 75% of CLL cases did not express detectable levels of the extracellular Ig-like domain of CD79b, which was nevertheless present in greater than 80% CD19(+) cells from normal donors. In healthy subjects the expression of CD79b was equally distributed in CD5(+) and CD5(-) B-cell subsets. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of CD79b RNA from all patients and from MEC1 and MEC2 cell lines consistently yielded two fragments of different size (709 bp and 397 bp). The 709-bp band corresponds to CD79b entire transcript; the 397-bp band corresponds to an alternatively spliced form lacking exon 3 that encodes the extracellular Ig-like domain. Both fragments were also visible in normal PBL. The expression of the 397-bp fragment was increased in normal activated B cells, while no difference was seen between CD5(+) and CD5(-) B cells. To obtain a more accurate estimate of the relative proportions of the two spliced forms, a radioactive PCR was performed in 13 normal and 22 B-CLL samples and the results analyzed using a digital imager. The mean value of the CD79b to the CD79b internally deleted ratio was 0.64 +/- 0.20 SD in normal donors and 0.44 +/- 0.27 SD in B-CLL (P =.01). Direct sequencing of 397-bp RT-PCR products and of genomic DNA corresponding to exon 3 from MEC1, MEC2, their parental cells, and five fresh B-CLL samples did not show any causal mutation. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of exon 3 performed in 18 additional B-CLL cases showed a single abnormal shift corresponding to a TGT --> TGC polymorphic change at amino acid 122. We propose a role for the alternative splicing of CD79b gene in causing the reduced expression of BCR on the surface of B-CLL cells. As normal B cells also present this variant, the mechanism of CD79b posttranscriptional regulation might reflect the activation stage of the normal B cell from which B-CLL derives.  (+info)

(6/3999) Feasibility of immunotherapy of relapsed leukemia with ex vivo-generated cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for hematopoietic system-restricted minor histocompatibility antigens.

Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a common treatment of hematologic malignancies. Recurrence of the underlying malignancy is a major cause of treatment failure. Donor-derived cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) specific for patients' minor histocompatibility antigens (mHags) play an important role in both graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) reactivities. mHags HA-1 and HA-2 induce HLA-A*0201-restricted CTLs in vivo and are exclusively expressed on hematopoietic cells, including leukemic cells and leukemic precursors, but not on fibroblasts, keratinocytes, or liver cells. The chemical nature of the mHags HA-1 and HA-2 is known. We investigated the feasibility of ex vivo generation of mHag HA-1- and HA-2-specific CTLs from unprimed mHag HA-1- and/or HA-2-negative healthy blood donors. HA-1 and HA-2 synthetic peptide-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) were used as antigen-presenting cells (APC) to stimulate autologous unprimed CD8(+) T cells. The ex vivo-generated HA-1- and HA-2-specific CTLs efficiently lyse leukemic cells derived from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) patients. No lytic reactivity was detected against nonhematopoietic cells. Sufficient numbers of the CTLs can be obtained for the adoptive immunotherapy purposes. In conclusion, we present a feasible, novel therapy for the treatment for relapsed leukemia after BMT with a low risk of GVHD.  (+info)

(7/3999) Evaluation of trisomy 12 by fluorescence in situ hybridization in peripheral blood, bone marrow and lymph nodes of patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Trisomy 12 is the most common numerical chromosomal aberration in patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has improved the detection of this cytogenetic abnormality and has made detection possible in all phases of the cell cycle. The presence of the trisomy 12 positive (+12) cell population has generally been investigated in leukemic cells obtained from the peripheral blood of CLL patients. To ascertain whether trisomy 12 is expressed homogeneously in cells of different hemopoietic tissues, we applied FISH to lymph node, peripheral blood and bone marrow samples obtained simultaneously from 23 untreated B-CLL patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-three newly diagnosed patients with B-CLL, 15 in stage B and 8 in stage C, were included in the present study. Peripheral blood smears, bone marrow aspirate smears and lymph node touch imprints were collected from each patient at diagnosis. Cytologic preparations were examined by light microscopy in order to assess the lymphocyte morphology. Immunophenotyping was performed by cytofluorimetric analysis of the peripheral blood, bone marrow and lymph node mononuclear cell suspensions. The diagnosis was supported in all cases by histologic findings in bone marrow biopsy and lymph node biopsy specimens. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on smears of blood and aspirated bone-marrow and lymph node touch imprints obtained by fresh tissue apposition. RESULTS: In 6 of the 23 cases (26%) trisomy 12 was clearly present in all tissues examined. A comparative analysis of the three different hemopoietic tissues was performed. A higher percentage of leukemic CD5+CD23+ cells was detected in lymph nodes than in peripheral blood and bone marrow. A significantly higher proportion of trisomic cells was observed in lymph nodes samples than in peripheral blood or bone marrow smears of trisomy 12 positive CLL patients. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Several previous reports show that only a proportion of malignant B-CLL cells carry trisomy 12 when analyzed by interphase FISH. The higher proportion of +12 cells in lymph nodes than in peripheral blood or bone marrow of CLL patients with trisomy 12 could reflect different cell distributions in different tissues, or lymph node specific tropism, or proliferative advantage in selected tissue. At present, the role of trisomy 12 in the pathogenesis of lymphoproliferative disorders is unclear.  (+info)

(8/3999) Time sequential chemotherapy for primary refractory or relapsed adult acute myeloid leukemia: results of the phase II Gemia protocol.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: High-dose cytarabine (HDAra-C), mitoxantrone and etoposide are the mainstay of several active regimens against relapsed or refractory acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). We designed a phase II study to assess the efficacy and side effects of a time sequential application of mitoxantrone plus intermediate-dose Ara-C followed by HDAra-C plus etoposide (GEMIA) in adult patients with refractory or relapsed AML. DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients with refractory or relapsed AML were eligible for GEMIA salvage therapy, which comprised mitoxantrone 12 mg/m2/day on days 1-3, Ara-C 500 mg/m2/day as a 24-hour continuous infusion on days 1-3, followed by HDAra-C 2 g/m2/12-hourly on days 6-8 and etoposide 100 mg/m2/12-hourly on days 6-8. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was started on day 14. In patients above the age of 55 the dose of Ara-C in the first sequence (days 1-3) was reduced to 250 mg/m2. RESULTS: Twenty patients were included, of whom 12 achieved complete remission after GEMIA (60%, 95% CI 40-80%), one was refractory and five died early from infection. Two additional patients achieved partial remission after GEMIA and complete remission after consolidation chemotherapy, for a final CR rate of 70% (95% CI 48-88%). Neutrophils recovered at a median of 27 days (range, 22-43) and platelets 46 days (range, 25-59) after the start of treatment. The median duration of remission was 133 days (range, 36-417+) whereas overall survival time lasted for a median of 153 days (range, 13-554+). Treatment-associated toxicity was comprised predominantly of infection, mucositis and diarrhea that reached World Health Organization grades III-V in 40%, 40% and 30% of patients, respectively. Despite the intention to rapidly proceed to a hematopoietic stem cell transplant in patients in remission, only five patients reached the transplant. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: The GEMIA time sequential chemotherapy regimen appears effective in obtaining remissions in refractory and relapsed adult AML. The high toxicity seen, however, suggests that its design is amenable to further improvements, especially in more elderly patients. Since remissions are short-lived, more innovative post-remission strategies are needed.  (+info)



  • Neoplasms
  • For lymphoid neoplasms, e.g. lymphoma and leukemia, clonality is proven by the amplification of a single rearrangement of their immunoglobulin gene (for B cell lesions) or T cell receptor gene (for T cell lesions). (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • Mast/stem cell growth factor receptor (SCFR), also known as proto-oncogene c-Kit or tyrosine-protein kinase Kit or CD117, is a receptor tyrosine kinase protein that in humans is encoded by the KIT gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Considering effective therapy, relatively slowly growing tumors possessing a large fraction of "nonproliferating" cells are of substantial concern. (springer.com)
  • Atkin , N. B. , 1970, Cytogenetic studies on human tumors and premalignant lesions: The emergence of aneuploid Cell. (springer.com)
  • Clonal epithelial stem cell lines, obtained from normal rat mammary glands or benign mammary tumors, differentiate under appropriate conditions along a pathway to droplet-cell/doming cultures of primative alveolarlike cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Notably, CD24+ cells produce tumors following inoculation of as few as 500 cells in immunodeficient NOD/SCID mice. (nih.gov)
  • 45% of A549 and H446 cells formed large clones that are able to generate subclones and subsequently give rise to xenograft tumors in the BALB/C-nude mouse. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cancer cells (found within tumors or hematological cancers) that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells, specifically the ability to give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such cells are hypothesized to persist in tumors as a distinct population and cause relapse and metastasis by giving rise to new tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cancer stem cell model, also known as the Hierarchical Model proposes that tumors are hierarchically organized (CSCs lying at the apex (Fig. 3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the cancer population of the tumors there are cancer stem cells (CSC) that are tumorigenic cells and are biologically distinct from other subpopulations They have two defining features: their long-term ability to self-renew and their capacity to differentiate into progeny that is non-tumorigenic but still contributes to the growth of the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • One to two percent of cases of pancreatic cancer are neuroendocrine tumors, which arise from the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rarely there can be a metastatic neoplasm with no known site of the primary cancer and this is classed as a cancer of unknown primary origin Neoplastic tumors are often heterogeneous and contain more than one type of cell, but their initiation and continued growth is usually dependent on a single population of neoplastic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vascular tumors (formed from blood vessels) are thus looked at as being amalgams of a solid skeleton formed by sticky cells and an organic liquid filling the spaces in which cells can grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activating mutations in this gene are associated with gastrointestinal stromal tumors, testicular seminoma, mast cell disease, melanoma, acute myeloid leukemia, while inactivating mutations are associated with the genetic defect piebaldism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seminomas, a subtype of testicular germ cell tumors, frequently have activating mutations in exon 17 of CD117. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations of CD117 have also been implicated in leukemia, a cancer of hematopoietic progenitors, melanoma, mast cell disease, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • and (3) experimental approaches have usually neither allowed for any correlation between the structure of neoplastic tissues and therapeutic responses nor revealed the kinetic status of various Cell. (springer.com)
  • The term encompasses multipotent cells derived from other non-marrow tissues, such as placenta, umbilical cord blood, adipose tissue, adult muscle, corneal stroma or the dental pulp of deciduous baby teeth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell division is a physiological process that occurs in almost all tissues and under a variety of circumstances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic
  • Interestingly, variations in the genetic background influenced the progression of photoreceptor cell degeneration ( 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Essentially this theory proposes that all cells have the ability to be tumorigenic making all tumor cells equipotent with the ability to self-renew or differentiate, leading to tumor heterogeneity while others can differentiate into non-CSCs The cell's potential can be influenced by unpredicted genetic or epigenetic factors, resulting in phenotypically diverse cells in both the tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells that compose the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are presumed to be clonal - that is, they are derived from the same cell, and all carry the same genetic or epigenetic anomaly - evident of clonality. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process is characterized by changes at the cellular, genetic, and epigenetic levels and abnormal cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genomic amplification occurs when a cell gains many copies (often 20 or more) of a small chromosomal region, usually containing one or more oncogenes and adjacent genetic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clonal
  • The clonal evolution model, which occurs in both the CSC model and stochastic model, postulates that mutant tumor cells with a growth advantage outproliferate others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till first revealed the clonal nature of marrow cells in the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • There are four major histological subtypes in EOC, and serous adenocarcinoma and clear cell adenocarcinoma are high-grade malignancies. (nih.gov)
  • Immunohistochemical staining revealed that higher ALDH1 expression levels in ovary cancer cases are related to poorer prognosis in both serous adenocarcinoma cases and clear cell adenocarcinoma cases. (nih.gov)
  • CSCs
  • In the past few years, there have been significant advances in the research on cancer stem cells (CSCs). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The emerging evidences have demonstrated that CSCs and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-type cells, which share molecular characteristics with CSCs, play critical roles in drug resistance, invasion, and metastasis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Therefore, targeting pancreatic CSCs and EMT-type cells could be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of PC. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this article, we will review the current state of our knowledge on the role of pancreatic CSCs and EMT-type cells, and summarize the novel therapeutic strategies that could target pancreatic CSCs and EMT-type cells, leading to the reversal of EMT phenotype, the induction of drug sensitivity, and the inhibition of invasion and metastasis of PC, which is expected to yield better treatment outcome. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a unique sub-population of tumor cells with the ability to initiate tumor growth and sustain self-renewal. (nih.gov)
  • Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are defined as a small population of cancer cells that have high tumorigenicity. (nih.gov)
  • We isolated ovarian CSCs/CICs as an aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 high (ALDH1(high)) population from 6 EOC cell lines (3 serous adenocarcinomas and 3 clear cell adenocarcinomas) by the ALDEFLUOR assay. (nih.gov)
  • ALDH1(high) cells showed greater sphere-forming ability, higher tumorigenicity and greater invasive capability, indicating that ovarian CSCs/CICs are enriched in ALDH1(high) cells. (nih.gov)
  • Since CSCs/CICs are known to form spheres in floating culture conditions , we analyzed ALDH1high cells by a sphere-forming assay. (nih.gov)
  • Since the sphere-forming assay is not suitable for quantification of the ratios of CSCs/CICs in ALDH1high cells, we performed a single cell sphere-forming assay. (nih.gov)
  • CSCs are therefore tumorigenic (tumor-forming), perhaps in contrast to other non-tumorigenic cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As CSCs form a small proportion of the tumor, this may not necessarily select for drugs that act specifically on the stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The existence of CSCs is under debate, because many studies found no cells with their specific characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • These mutations could progressively accumulate and enhance the resistance and fitness of cells that allow them to outcompete other tumor cells, better known as the somatic evolution model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induced stem cells (iSC) are stem cells derived from somatic, reproductive, pluripotent or other cell types by deliberate epigenetic reprogramming. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induced totipotent cells can be obtained by reprogramming somatic cells with somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). (wikipedia.org)
  • The process involves sucking out the nucleus of a somatic (body) cell and injecting it into an oocyte that has had its nucleus removed Using an approach based on the protocol outlined by Tachibana et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapeutic
  • Such tumor cells, either "resting" or slowly cycling, may have an increased resistance to therapeutic agents, and some of them are probably potential stem cells. (springer.com)
  • A major obstacle for improving patient outcomes is the poor understanding of mechanisms underlying cellular migration associated with aggressive cancer cell invasion, metastasis and therapeutic resistance. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Therefore, improving therapeutic approaches for GBM require a better understanding of cancer cell migration mechanisms. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Assay
  • Comparison of sphere-forming ability and invasion capability of ALDH1high cells and ALDH1low cells.A Sphere-forming assay One thousand ALDH1high cells and ALDH1low cells were cultured in a floating condition. (nih.gov)
  • B Single cell sphere-forming assay Sorted ALDH1high cells and ALDH1low cells were cultured in a floating condition at a single cell per well. (nih.gov)
  • C Matrigel invasion assay Images: Matrigel-invading cells derived from ALDH1high/low cells of ES-2 and TOV-21G cells. (nih.gov)
  • An ex vivo assay for examining the clonogenic potential of multipotent marrow cells was later reported in the 1970s by Friedenstein and colleagues. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this assay system, stromal cells were referred to as colony-forming unit-fibroblasts (CFU-f). (wikipedia.org)
  • When highly malignant prostate cancer cells were transfected with TIG1, decreased in vitro invasiveness was measured using an extracellular matrix migration assay over a period of 48 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • migration
  • Evaluation of cancer stem cell migration using compartmentalizing microfluidic devices and live cell imaging. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Due to a limitation in visual inspection and geometrical manipulation, conventional migration assays are restricted to quantifying overall cell populations. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The phase live images of cell morphology during migration are recorded over several days. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In accordance with the stem cell zone model proposing that, during their upward migration, CBC stem cells would only gradually lose their self-renewal capacity, it was shown in vivo that transient amplifying cells can revert to Lgr5+ CBC stem cells after damage, presumably by direct contact with Paneth cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normal
  • Role of telomerase in normal and neoplastic stem cells [ Presentation Abstract ]. (blogspot.com)
  • Cells with disabling mutations in ERCC4 are more sensitive than normal to particular DNA damaging agents, including ultraviolet radiation and to chemicals that cause crosslinking between DNA strands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) (a HDAC inhibitor) increases expression of aquaporin-3 in normal skin cells (keratinocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is found in substantial amounts in normal human epidermis and is distributed in a 1:1 ratio between living epidermal cells and stratum corneum. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapy
  • At this time of increased efforts and promising results in the therapy of malignant neoplasias, it seems appropriate to review critically some principal aspects of Cell. (springer.com)
  • Pancreatic cancer stem cells: emerging target for designing novel therapy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Stem-cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone marrow transplant is the most widely used stem-cell therapy, but some therapies derived from umbilical cord blood are also in use. (wikipedia.org)
  • this is the only form of stem-cell therapy that is widely practiced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another stem-cell therapy called Prochymal, was conditionally approved in Canada in 2012 for the management of acute graft-vs-host disease in children who are unresponsive to steroids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among several clinical trials that have reported that adult stem-cell therapy is safe and effective, powerful effects have been reported from only a few laboratories, infarcts as well as heart failure not arising from myocardial infarction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult stem cell therapy for treating heart disease was commercially available in at least five continents as of 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their atomic investigation of mutant KIT receptor which emphasized on the EAL region provided a better insight into the understanding of the sunitinib resistance mechanism of the KIT receptor and could help to discover new therapeutics for KIT-based resistant tumor cells in GIST therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Survival
  • PMS2 is a protective mediator of cell survival in p53-deficient cells and modulates protective DNA damage response pathways independently of p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • endogenous
  • Pharmacological activation of endogenous neural stem cells has been reported to induce neuroprotection and behavioral recovery in adult rat models of neurological disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-1α is also known as fibroblast-activating factor (FAF), lymphocyte-activating factor (LAF), B-cell-activating factor (BAF), leukocyte endogenous mediator (LEM), epidermal cell-derived thymocyte-activating factor (ETAF), serum amyloid A inducer or hepatocyte-stimulating factor (HSP), catabolin, hemopoetin-1 (H-1), endogenous pyrogen (EP), and proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Peptides
  • The glands and intestinal villi are covered by epithelium, which contains multiple types of cells: enterocytes (absorbing water and electrolytes), goblet cells (secreting mucus), enteroendocrine cells (secreting hormones), cup cells, tuft cells, and at the base of the gland, Paneth cells (secreting anti-microbial peptides) and stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • They showed that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family members that act as morphogens, are sufficient to induce molecular and cellular mechanisms required to organize, in vivo or in vitro, uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula animal pole into a well-developed embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • Prior to the abnormal growth of tissue, as neoplasia, cells often undergo an abnormal pattern of growth, such as metaplasia or dysplasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current English, however, both medical and non-medical, uses tumor as a synonym for a neoplasm (a solid or fluid-filled cystic lesion that may or may not be formed by an abnormal growth of neoplastic cells) that appears enlarged in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • The accumulation of type IV collagen, laminin, Thy-1, and p9Ka occurs asynchronously along the pathway to the myoepitheliallike cells in vitro. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CD24+ cells further show increased invasion ability in vitro, which correlates with enhanced expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9. (nih.gov)
  • Abstract
  • Imetelstat, a telomerase inhibitor in phase I trials in solid tumor and hematological malignancies, has broad activity against multiple types of cancer stem cells [ Presentation Abstract ]. (blogspot.com)
  • Sensitivity and resistance of non-small cell lung cancer to the telomerase inhibitor imetelstat [ Presentation Abstract ]. (blogspot.com)
  • crypts
  • However, in some of the colonic crypts all of the cells lack MT-COI and appear mostly white, with their main color being the blue-gray staining of the nuclei at the outer walls of the crypts. (wikipedia.org)
  • As seen in panel B, a portion of the stem cells of three crypts appear to have a mutation in MT-COI, so that 40% to 50% of the cells arising from those stem cells form a white segment in the cross-cut area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cheng and Leblond used autoradiography of phagosomes to track the fate of cells at the base of the crypts, and determined that slender cells interspersed among Paneth cells at the crypt base could give rise to all of the other cell types that constituted the intestinal epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the colon, crypts do not have Paneth cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nuclei of the cells (located at the outer edges of the cells lining the walls of the crypts) are stained blue-gray with haematoxylin. (wikipedia.org)
  • As seen in panels C and D, crypts are about 75 to about 110 cells long. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are 5 to 6 stem cells at the bases of the crypts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Processes
  • The researchers were able to identify the minimal conditions and factors that would be sufficient for starting the cascade of molecular and cellular processes to instruct pluripotent cells to organize the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sox2
  • A) mRNA expression levels of Sox2, Oct4, Nanog, Bmi-1 and Rex-1 in parental, CD24+ and CD24− cells from the NPC cell lines, TW02 (left) and TW04 (right), was evaluated using quantitative RT-PCR analysis. (nih.gov)
  • subpopulations
  • This model suggests that only certain subpopulations of cancer stem cells have the ability to drive the progression of cancer, meaning that there are specific (intrinsic) characteristics that can be identified and then targeted to destroy a tumor long-term without the need to battle the whole tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • In cancer cells, the increase of glycolysis induced by metformin is associated with a strong inhibition of the mTOR pathway via the AMPK. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Upon DNA damage, p53 induces cell cycle arrest through the p21/WAF pathway and initiates repair by expression of MLH1 and PMS2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aquaporin 3 is found in the basolateral cell membrane of principal collecting duct cells and provide a pathway for water to exit these cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • prostate
  • Using a selective subtractive differential gene display, Jing and colleagues discovered that TIG1 expression was absent from malignant prostate carcinoma cell lines but present in benign tumor lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • lines
  • B) Western blots analysis of phosphorylated-GSK, GSK, phosphorylated-β-catenin, β-catenin and β-actin in whole cell lysates, and of β-catenin and lamin B1 in nuclear fractions of parental, CD24+, and CD24− cells isolated from the TW02 and TW04 cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • This study was designed to investigate the fraction of cancer stem cells in the A549 and H446 cell lines by cloning and tumorigenic analyses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The human ERCC4 gene can correct the DNA repair defect in specific ultraviolet light (UV)-sensitive mutant cell lines derived from Chinese hamster ovary cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998). "Bone morphogenetic protein-6 production in human osteoblastic cell lines. (wikipedia.org)