Myopathies, Nemaline: A group of inherited congenital myopathic conditions characterized clinically by weakness, hypotonia, and prominent hypoplasia of proximal muscles including the face. Muscle biopsy reveals large numbers of rod-shaped structures beneath the muscle fiber plasma membrane. This disorder is genetically heterogeneous and may occasionally present in adults. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1453)Myositis: Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Myopathies, Structural, Congenital: A heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by the early onset of hypotonia, developmental delay of motor skills, non-progressive weakness. Each of these disorders is associated with a specific histologic muscle fiber abnormality.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Distal Myopathies: A heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by progressive MUSCULAR ATROPHY and MUSCLE WEAKNESS beginning in the hands, the legs, or the feet. Most are adult-onset autosomal dominant forms. Others are autosomal recessive.Mitochondrial Myopathies: A group of muscle diseases associated with abnormal mitochondria function.Cofilin 2: A member of the cofilin family of proteins that is expressed in MUSCLE CELLS. It has ACTIN depolymerization activity that is dependent on HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Myositis, Inclusion Body: Progressive myopathies characterized by the presence of inclusion bodies on muscle biopsy. Sporadic and hereditary forms have been described. The sporadic form is an acquired, adult-onset inflammatory vacuolar myopathy affecting proximal and distal muscles. Familial forms usually begin in childhood and lack inflammatory changes. Both forms feature intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions in muscle tissue. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1409-10)Neuromuscular Diseases: A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.Muscular Dystrophies: A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Myopathy, Central Core: An inherited congenital myopathic condition characterized by weakness and hypotonia in infancy and delayed motor development. Muscle biopsy reveals a condensation of myofibrils and myofibrillar material in the central portion of each muscle fiber. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1452)Collagen Type VI: A non-fibrillar collagen that forms a network of MICROFIBRILS within the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The alpha subunits of collagen type VI assemble into antiparallel, overlapping dimers which then align to form tetramers.Christianity: The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Muscular Dystrophies, Limb-Girdle: A heterogenous group of inherited muscular dystrophy that can be autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive. There are many forms (called LGMDs) involving genes encoding muscle membrane proteins such as the sarcoglycan (SARCOGLYCANS) complex that interacts with DYSTROPHIN. The disease is characterized by progressing wasting and weakness of the proximal muscles of arms and legs around the HIPS and SHOULDERS (the pelvic and shoulder girdles).Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Respiratory Paralysis: Complete or severe weakness of the muscles of respiration. This condition may be associated with MOTOR NEURON DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; injury to the PHRENIC NERVE; and other disorders.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Lipid Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.Hemolytic Agents: Substances that are toxic to blood in general, including the clotting mechanism; hematotoxins may refer to the hematopoietic system.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Myopathy: -, - |Exercise therapy for idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: Although they vary in particulars, polymyositis, dermatomyositis and inclusion body myositis are idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM)primarily characterized by chronic inflammation] of human [[skeletal muscle tissueLundberg I. and Y-L Chung, 2000.Congenital myopathyAcquired non-inflammatory myopathy: Acquired non-inflammatory myopathy (ANIM) is a neurological disorder primarily affecting skeletal muscle, most commonly in the limbs of humans, resulting in a weakness or dysfunction in the muscle. A myopathy refers to a problem or abnormality with the myofibrils, which compose muscle tissue.David Laing (antiquary)Myokine: A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.Bente Klarlund Pedersen , Thorbjörn C.Inclusion body myositisFields' disease: Fields' disease is considered to be one of the rarest known diseases in the world, with only two diagnosed cases in history. It is named after Welsh twins Catherine and Kirstie Fields.Tropomyosin: Tropomyosin is a two-stranded alpha-helical coiled coil protein found in cell cytoskeletons.Help Cure Muscular Dystrophy: Help Cure Muscular Dystrophy is a distributed computing project that runs on the BOINC platform. It is a joint effort of the French muscular dystrophy charity, L'Association française contre les myopathies;French Muscular Dystrophy Association and L'Institut de biologie moléculaire et cellulaire (Molecular and Cellular Biology Institute).Protein turnover: Protein turnover is the balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. More synthesis than breakdown indicates an anabolic state that builds lean tissues, more breakdown than synthesis indicates a catabolic state that burns lean tissues.Desmin: Desmin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DES gene. Desmin is a muscle-specific, type IIIThe Human Protein Atlas.MyofibrilBethlem myopathy: Bethlem myopathy is an autosomal dominant myopathy, classified as a congenital form of muscular dystrophy, that is caused by a mutation in one of the three genes coding for type VI collagen. These include COL6A1, COL6A2, and COL6A3.Seventh-day Adventist theology: The theology of the Seventh-day Adventist Church resembles that of Protestant Christianity, combining elements from Lutheran, Wesleyan/Arminian, and Anabaptist branches of Protestantism. Adventists believe in the infallibility of Scripture and teach that salvation comes through faith in Jesus Christ.Dysferlinopathy: Dysferlinopathy is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder caused by a deficiency of functional dysferlin protein due to mutations in the dysferlin gene. Dysferlinopathy is characterized by progressive muscle wasting and is most often clinically diagnosed as Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B) or Miyoshi muscular dystrophy 1 (MMD1; a type of distal muscular dystrophy), depending on the initial pattern of muscle involvement at diagnosis.Brain biopsySynaptogenesis: Synaptogenesis is the formation of synapses between neurons in the nervous system. Although it occurs throughout a healthy person's lifespan, an explosion of synapse formation occurs during early brain development, known as exuberant synaptogenesis.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.MyocytePedigree chart: A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next,pedigree chart Genealogy Glossary - About.com, a part of The New York Times Company.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.HypolipoproteinemiaMissense mutation: In genetics, a missense mutation (a type of nonsynonymous substitution) is a point mutation in which a single nucleotide change results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid. Another type of nonsynonymous substitution is a nonsense mutation in which a codon is changed to a premature stop codon that results in truncation of the resulting protein.Muscle contraction: Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers. In physiology, muscle contraction does not mean muscle shortening because muscle tension can be produced without changes in muscle length such as holding a heavy book or a dumbbell at the same position.
(1/76) Mutation screening of the RYR1 gene and identification of two novel mutations in Italian malignant hyperthermia families.
Point mutations in the ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene are associated with malignant hyperthermia, an autosomal dominant disorder triggered in susceptible people (MHS) by volatile anaesthetics and depolarising skeletal muscle relaxants. To date, 17 missense point mutations have been identified in the human RYR1 gene by screening of the cDNA obtained from muscle biopsies. Here we report single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) screening for nine of the most frequent RYR1 mutations using genomic DNA isolated from MHS patients. In addition, the Argl63Cys mutation was analysed by restriction enzyme digestion. We analysed 57 unrelated patients and detected seven of the known RYR1 point mutations. Furthermore, we found a new mutation, Arg2454His, segregating with the MHS phenotype in a large pedigree and a novel amino acid substitution at position 2436 in another patient, indicating a 15.8% frequency of these mutations in Italian patients. A new polymorphic site in intron 16 that causes the substitution of a G at position -7 with a C residue was identified. (+info)
(2/76) Mutations in the nebulin gene associated with autosomal recessive nemaline myopathy.
The congenital nemaline myopathies are rare hereditary muscle disorders characterized by the presence in the muscle fibers of nemaline bodies consisting of proteins derived from the Z disc and thin filament. In a single large Australian family with an autosomal dominant form of nemaline myopathy, the disease is caused by a mutation in the alpha-tropomyosin gene TPM3. The typical form of nemaline myopathy is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, the locus of which we previously assigned to chromosome 2q21.2-q22. We show here that mutations in the nebulin gene located within this region are associated with the disease. The nebulin protein is a giant protein found in the thin filaments of striated muscle. A variety of nebulin isoforms are thought to contribute to the molecular diversity of Z discs. We have studied the 3' end of the 20. 8-kb cDNA encoding the Z disc part of the 800-kDa protein and describe six disease-associated mutations in patients from five families of different ethnic origins. In two families with consanguineous parents, the patients were homozygous for point mutations. In one family with nonconsanguineous parents, the affected siblings were compound heterozygotes for two different mutations, and in two further families with one detected mutation each, haplotypes are compatible with compound heterozygosity. Immunofluorescence studies with antibodies specific to the C-terminal region of nebulin indicate that the mutations may cause protein truncation possibly associated with loss of fiber-type diversity, which may be relevant to disease pathogenesis. (+info)
(3/76) A mutation in the transmembrane/luminal domain of the ryanodine receptor is associated with abnormal Ca2+ release channel function and severe central core disease.
Central core disease is a rare, nonprogressive myopathy that is characterized by hypotonia and proximal muscle weakness. In a large Mexican kindred with an unusually severe and highly penetrant form of the disorder, DNA sequencing identified an I4898T mutation in the C-terminal transmembrane/luminal region of the RyR1 protein that constitutes the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor. All previously reported RYR1 mutations are located either in the cytoplasmic N terminus or in a central cytoplasmic region of the 5,038-aa protein. The I4898T mutation was introduced into a rabbit RYR1 cDNA and expressed in HEK-293 cells. The response of the mutant RyR1 Ca2+ channel to the agonists halothane and caffeine in a Ca2+ photometry assay was completely abolished. Coexpression of normal and mutant RYR1 cDNAs in a 1:1 ratio, however, produced RyR1 channels with normal halothane and caffeine sensitivities, but maximal levels of Ca2+ release were reduced by 67%. [3H]Ryanodine binding indicated that the heterozygous channel is activated by Ca2+ concentrations 4-fold lower than normal. Single-cell analysis of cotransfected cells showed a significantly increased resting cytoplasmic Ca2+ level and a significantly reduced luminal Ca2+ level. These data are indicative of a leaky channel, possibly caused by a reduction in the Ca2+ concentration required for channel activation. Comparison with two other coexpressed mutant/normal channels suggests that the I4898T mutation produces one of the most abnormal RyR1 channels yet investigated, and this level of abnormality is reflected in the severe and penetrant phenotype of affected central core disease individuals. (+info)
(4/76) A nemaline myopathy mutation in alpha-tropomyosin causes defective regulation of striated muscle force production.
Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a rare autosomal dominant skeletal muscle myopathy characterized by severe muscle weakness and the subsequent appearance of nemaline rods within the muscle fibers. Recently, a missense mutation inTPM3, which encodes the slow skeletal alpha-tropomyosin (alphaTm), was linked to NM in a large kindred with an autosomal-dominant, childhood-onset form of the disease. We used adenoviral gene transfer to fully differentiated rat adult myocytes in vitro to determine the effects of NM mutant human alphaTm expression on striated muscle sarcomeric structure and contractile function. The mutant alphaTm was expressed and incorporated correctly into sarcomeres of adult muscle cells. The primary defect caused by expression of the mutant alphaTm was a decrease in the sensitivity of contraction to activating Ca(2+), which could help explain the hypotonia seen in NM. Interestingly, NM mutant alphaTm expression did not directly result in nemaline rod formation, which suggests that rod formation is secondary to contractile dysfunction and that load-dependent processes are likely involved in nemaline rod formation in vivo. (+info)
(5/76) A novel nemaline myopathy in the Amish caused by a mutation in troponin T1.
The nemaline myopathies are characterized by weakness and eosinophilic, rodlike (nemaline) inclusions in muscle fibers. Amish nemaline myopathy is a form of nemaline myopathy common among the Old Order Amish. In the first months of life, affected infants have tremors with hypotonia and mild contractures of the shoulders and hips. Progressive worsening of the proximal contractures, weakness, and a pectus carinatum deformity develop before the children die of respiratory insufficiency, usually in the second year. The disorder has an incidence of approximately 1 in 500 among the Amish, and it is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Using a genealogy database, automated pedigree software, and linkage analysis of DNA samples from four sibships, we identified an approximately 2-cM interval on chromosome 19q13.4 that was homozygous in all affected individuals. The gene for the sarcomeric thin-filament protein, slow skeletal muscle troponin T (TNNT1), maps to this interval and was sequenced. We identified a stop codon in exon 11, predicted to truncate the protein at amino acid 179, which segregates with the disease. We conclude that Amish nemaline myopathy is a distinct, heritable, myopathic disorder caused by a mutation in TNNT1. (+info)
(6/76) An autosomal dominant congenital myopathy with cores and rods is associated with a neomutation in the RYR1 gene encoding the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor.
Central core disease (CCD) and nemaline myopathy (NM) are congenital myopathies for which differential diagnosis is often based on the presence either of cores or rods. Missense mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1) have been identified in some families with CCD. Mutations in the alpha-tropomyosin and alpha-actin genes have been associated with most dominant forms of NM. Analysis of the RYR1 cDNA in a French family identified a novel Y4796C mutation that lies in the C-terminal channel-forming domain of the RyR1 protein. This mutation was linked not only to a severe and penetrant form of CCD, but also to the presence of rods in the muscle fibres and to the malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) phenotype. The Y4796C mutation was introduced into a rabbit RYR1 cDNA and expressed in HEK-293 cells. Expression of the mutant RYR1 cDNA produced channels with increased caffeine sensitivity and a significantly reduced maximal level of Ca(2+) release. Single-cell Ca(2+) analysis showed that the resting cytoplasmic level was increased by 60% in cells expressing the mutant channel. These data support the view that the rate of Ca(2+) leakage is increased in the mutant channel. The resulting chronic elevation in myoplasmic concentration is likely to be responsible for the severe expression of the disease. Haplotyping analysis indicated that the mutation arose as a neomutation in the proband. This first report of a neomutation in the RYR1 gene has strong implications for genetic linkage studies of MHS or CCD, two diseases characterized by a genetic heterogeneity. (+info)
(7/76) Alteration of tropomyosin function and folding by a nemaline myopathy-causing mutation.
Mutations in the human TPM3 gene encoding gamma-tropomyosin (alpha-tropomyosin-slow) expressed in slow skeletal muscle fibers cause nemaline myopathy. Nemaline myopathy is a rare, clinically heterogeneous congenital skeletal muscle disease with associated muscle weakness, characterized by the presence of nemaline rods in muscle fibers. In one missense mutation the codon corresponding to Met-8, a highly conserved residue, is changed to Arg. Here, a rat fast alpha-tropomyosin cDNA with the Met8Arg mutation was expressed in Escherichia coli to investigate the effect of the mutation on in vitro function. The Met8Arg mutation reduces tropomyosin affinity for regulated actin 30- to 100-fold. Ca(2+)-sensitive regulatory function is retained, although activation of the actomyosin S1 ATPase in the presence of Ca(2+) is reduced. The poor activation may reflect weakened actin affinity or reduced effectiveness in switching the thin filament to the open, force-producing state. The presence of the Met8Arg mutation severely, but locally, destabilizes the tropomyosin coiled coil in a model peptide, and would be expected to impair end-to-end association between TMs on the thin filament. In muscle, the mutation may alter thin filament assembly consequent to lower actin affinity and altered binding of the N-terminus to tropomodulin at the pointed end of the filament. The mutation may also reduce force generation during activation. (+info)
(8/76) A mutation in alpha-tropomyosin(slow) affects muscle strength, maturation and hypertrophy in a mouse model for nemaline myopathy.
Nemaline myopathy is a hereditary disease of skeletal muscle defined by a distinct pathology of electron-dense accumulations within the sarcomeric units called rods, muscle weakness and, in most cases, a slow oxidative (type 1) fiber predominance. We generated a transgenic mouse model to study this disorder by expressing an autosomal dominant mutant of alpha-tropomyosin(slow) previously identified in a human cohort. Rods were found in all muscles, but to varying extents which did not correlate with the amount of mutant protein present. In addition, a pathological feature not commonly associated with this disorder, cytoplasmic bodies, was found in the mouse and subsequently identified in human samples. Muscle weakness is a major feature of this disease and was examined with respect to fiber composition, degree of rod-containing fibers, fiber mechanics and fiber diameter. Hypertrophy of fast, glycolytic (type 2B) fibers was apparent at 2 months of age. Muscle weakness was apparent in mice at 5-6 months of age, mimicking the late onset observed in humans with this mutation. The late onset did not correlate with observed changes in fiber type and rod pathology. Rather, the onset of muscle weakness correlates with an age-related decrease in fiber diameter and suggests that early onset is prevented by hypertrophy of fast, glycolytic fibers. We suggest that the clinical phenotype is precipitated by a failure of the hypertrophy to persist and therefore compensate for muscle weakness. (+info)