Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Music Therapy: The use of music as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of neurological, mental, or behavioral disorders.MP3-Player: Portable electronics device for storing and playing audio and or media files. MP3 for MPEG-1 audio layer 3, is a digital coding format.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Pitch Perception: A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.Dancing: Rhythmic and patterned body movements which are usually performed to music.Pitch Discrimination: The ability to differentiate tones.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Aptitude: The ability to acquire general or special types of knowledge or skill.Auditory Perceptual Disorders: Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced: Hearing loss due to exposure to explosive loud noise or chronic exposure to sound level greater than 85 dB. The hearing loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.Pleasure: Sensation of enjoyment or gratification.ArtRelaxation: Activity which reduces the feelings of tension and the effects of STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL.Sound Spectrography: The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.Cochlear Implants: Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.

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*  Music Monday: 15 Minutes with Dengue Fever - Mother Jones

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*  Patent US5142961 - Method and apparatus for stimulation of acoustic musical instruments - Google Patents

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*  Music may activate genes for learning, memory | Zee News

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*  Publications | Infant and Child Studies Centre

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*  Patent US7767896 - Vehicular music replay system - Google Patents

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*  Culture and Brain Lecture: Music training and nonmusical abilities: Associations or causation? | Event | Department of...

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Music of Israel: The music of Israel is a combination of Jewish and non-Jewish music traditions that have come together over the course of a century to create a distinctive musical culture. For almost 150 years, musicians have sought original stylistic elements that would define the emerging national spirit.Music therapy for Alzheimer's disease: Music therapy (MT) has been used as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its use remains mostly uninvestigated. Results of studies investigating its effectiveness are promising, but further research is needed because these studies are of poor methodological quality.Auditory scene analysis: In psychophysics, auditory scene analysis (ASA) is a proposed model for the basis of auditory perception. This is understood as the process by which the human auditory system organizes sound into perceptually meaningful elements.Pitch spaceGeorge BalanchineLimen: In physiology, psychology, or psychophysics, a limen or a liminal point is a threshold of a physiological or psychological response.Migratory aptitude: Migratory aptitude is the relative ability of a migrating group to migrate in a rearrangement reaction. This can be affected by the leaving group (whichever gives a more stable carbocation)depends upon the electron density of the migrating group i.Amusia: Amusia is a musical disorder that appears mainly as a defect in processing pitch, but it also encompasses musical memory and recognition.Pearce, J.Noise-induced hearing loss: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is hearing impairment resulting from exposure to high decibel (loud) sound that may exhibit as loss of a narrow range of frequencies, impaired cognitive perception of sound or other impairment, including hyperacusis or tinnitus. Hearing may deteriorate gradually from chronic and repeated noise exposure, such as loud music or background noise, or suddenly, from an acute, high intensity noise incident including gunshots and airhorns.Pleasure Syndrome: 14 October 2011Saint-Florent Cathedral: Saint-Florent Cathedral or Nebbio Cathedral (Cathédrale Saint-Florent de Saint-Florent, also known as Cathédrale du Nebbio) is a former Roman Catholic cathedral and French national monument located in the town of Saint-Florent in Corsica. It is now the church of Santa Maria Assunta.

(1/850) The cerebral haemodynamics of music perception. A transcranial Doppler sonography study.

The perception of music has been investigated by several neurophysiological and neuroimaging methods. Results from these studies suggest a right hemisphere dominance for non-musicians and a possible left hemisphere dominance for musicians. However, inconsistent results have been obtained, and not all variables have been controlled by the different methods. We performed a study with functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) of the middle cerebral artery to evaluate changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) during different periods of music perception. Twenty-four healthy right-handed subjects were enrolled and examined during rest and during listening to periods of music with predominant language, rhythm and harmony content. The gender, musical experience and mode of listening of the subjects were chosen as independent factors; the type of music was included as the variable in repeated measurements. We observed a significant increase of CBFV in the right hemisphere in non-musicians during harmony perception but not during rhythm perception; this effect was more pronounced in females. Language perception was lateralized to the left hemisphere in all subject groups. Musicians showed increased CBFV values in the left hemisphere which were independent of the type of stimulus, and background listeners showed increased CBFV values during harmony perception in the right hemisphere which were independent of their musical experience. The time taken to reach the peak of CBFV was significantly longer in non-musicians when compared with musicians during rhythm and harmony perception. Pulse rates were significantly decreased in non-musicians during harmony perception, probably due to a specific relaxation effect in this subgroup. The resistance index did not show any significant differences, suggesting only regional changes of small resistance vessels but not of large arteries. Our fTCD study confirms previous findings of right hemisphere lateralization for harmony perception in non-musicians. In addition, we showed that this effect is more pronounced in female subjects and in background listeners and that the lateralization is delayed in non-musicians compared with musicians for the perception of rhythm and harmony stimuli. Our data suggest that musicians and non-musicians have different strategies to lateralize musical stimuli, with a delayed but marked right hemisphere lateralization during harmony perception in non-musicians and an attentive mode of listening contributing to a left hemisphere lateralization in musicians.  (+info)

(2/850) Is integer arithmetic fundamental to mental processing?: the mind's secret arithmetic.

Unlike the ability to acquire our native language, we struggle to learn multiplication and division. It may then come as a surprise that the mental machinery for performing lightning-fast integer arithmetic calculations could be within us all even though it cannot be readily accessed, nor do we have any idea of its primary function. We are led to this provocative hypothesis by analysing the extraordinary skills of autistic savants. In our view such individuals have privileged access to lower levels of information not normally available through introspection.  (+info)

(3/850) When that tune runs through your head: a PET investigation of auditory imagery for familiar melodies.

The present study used positron emission tomography (PET) to examine the cerebral activity pattern associated with auditory imagery for familiar tunes. Subjects either imagined the continuation of nonverbal tunes cued by their first few notes, listened to a short sequence of notes as a control task, or listened and then reimagined that short sequence. Subtraction of the activation in the control task from that in the real-tune imagery task revealed primarily right-sided activation in frontal and superior temporal regions, plus supplementary motor area (SMA). Isolating retrieval of the real tunes by subtracting activation in the reimagine task from that in the real-tune imagery task revealed activation primarily in right frontal areas and right superior temporal gyrus. Subtraction of activation in the control condition from that in the reimagine condition, intended to capture imagery of unfamiliar sequences, revealed activation in SMA, plus some left frontal regions. We conclude that areas of right auditory association cortex, together with right and left frontal cortices, are implicated in imagery for familiar tunes, in accord with previous behavioral, lesion and PET data. Retrieval from musical semantic memory is mediated by structures in the right frontal lobe, in contrast to results from previous studies implicating left frontal areas for all semantic retrieval. The SMA seems to be involved specifically in image generation, implicating a motor code in this process.  (+info)

(4/850) Musical rhythms in heart period dynamics: a cross-cultural and interdisciplinary approach to cardiac rhythms.

The purpose of this study was to expand classic heart period analysis methods by techniques from ethnomusicology that explicitly take complex musical rhythm principles into consideration. The methods used are based on the theory of African music, the theory of symbolic dynamics, and combinatorial theory. Heart period tachograms from 192 24-h electrocardiograms of 96 healthy subjects were transformed into binary symbol sequences that were interpretable as elementary rhythmic (percussive) patterns, the time lines in African music. Using a hierarchical rhythm pattern scheme closely related to the Derler Rhythm Classification (from jazz theory), we calculated the predominance and stability of pattern classes. The results show that during sleep certain classes, specific to individuals, occurred in a cyclically recurrent manner and many times more often than expected. Simultaneously, other classes disappeared more or less completely. Moreover, the most frequent classes obviously originate from phase-locking processes in autonomic regulation (e.g., between respiratory and cardiac cycles). In conclusion, the new interdisciplinary method presented here demonstrates that heart period patterns, in particular those occurring during night sleep, can be interpreted as musical rhythms. This method may be of great potential use in music therapy research.  (+info)

(5/850) The perception of visual images encoded in musical form: a study in cross-modality information transfer.

This study demonstrates the ability of blind (previously sighted) and blindfolded (sighted) subjects in reconstructing and identifying a number of visual targets transformed into equivalent musical representations. Visual images are deconstructed through a process which selectively segregates different features of the image into separate packages. These are then encoded in sound and presented as a polyphonic musical melody which resembles a Baroque fugue with many voices, allowing subjects to analyse the component voices selectively in combination, or separately in sequence, in a manner which allows a subject to patch together and bind the different features of the object mentally into a mental percept of a single recognizable entity. The visual targets used in this study included a variety of geometrical figures, simple high-contrast line drawings of man-made objects, natural and urban scenes, etc., translated into sound and presented to the subject in polyphonic musical form.  (+info)

(6/850) The effects of skill on the eye-hand span during musical sight-reading.

The eye-hand span (EHS) is the separation between eye position and hand position when sight-reading music. It can be measured in two ways: in notes (the number of notes between hand and eye; the 'note index'), or in time (the length of time between fixation and performance; the 'time index'). The EHSs of amateur and professional pianists were compared while they sight-read music. The professionals showed significantly larger note indexes than the amateurs (approximately four notes, compared to two notes), and all subjects showed similar variability in the note index. Surprisingly, the different groups of pianists showed almost identical mean time indexes (ca. 1 s), with no significant differences between any of the skill levels. However, professionals did show significantly less variation than the amateurs. The time index was significantly affected by the performance tempo: when fast tempos were imposed on performance, all subjects showed a reduction in the time index (to ca. 0.7 s), and slow tempos increased the time index (to ca. 1.3 s). This means that the length of time that information is stored in the buffer is related to performance tempo rather than ability, but that professionals can fit more information into their buffers.  (+info)

(7/850) Receptive amusia: evidence for cross-hemispheric neural networks underlying music processing strategies.

Perceptual musical functions were investigated in patients suffering from unilateral cerebrovascular cortical lesions. Using MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) technique, a standardized short test battery was established that covers local (analytical) as well as global perceptual mechanisms. These represent the principal cognitive strategies in melodic and temporal musical information processing (local, interval and rhythm; global, contour and metre). Of the participating brain-damaged patients, a total of 69% presented with post-lesional impairments in music perception. Left-hemisphere-damaged patients showed significant deficits in the discrimination of local as well as global structures in both melodic and temporal information processing. Right-hemisphere-damaged patients also revealed an overall impairment of music perception, reaching significance in the temporal conditions. Detailed analysis outlined a hierarchical organization, with an initial right-hemisphere recognition of contour and metre followed by identification of interval and rhythm via left-hemisphere subsystems. Patterns of dissociated and associated melodic and temporal deficits indicate autonomous, yet partially integrated neural subsystems underlying the processing of melodic and temporal stimuli. In conclusion, these data contradict a strong hemispheric specificity for music perception, but indicate cross-hemisphere, fragmented neural substrates underlying local and global musical information processing in the melodic and temporal dimensions. Due to the diverse profiles of neuropsychological deficits revealed in earlier investigations as well as in this study, individual aspects of musicality and musical behaviour very likely contribute to the definite formation of these widely distributed neural networks.  (+info)

(8/850) Intersensory redundancy guides attentional selectivity and perceptual learning in infancy.

This study assessed an intersensory redundancy hypothesis, which holds that in early infancy information presented redundantly and in temporal synchrony across two sense modalities selectively recruits attention and facilitates perceptual differentiation more effectively than does the same information presented unimodally. Five-month-old infants' sensitivity to the amodal property of rhythm was examined in 3 experiments. Results revealed that habituation to a bimodal (auditory and visual) rhythm resulted in discrimination of a novel rhythm, whereas habituation to the same rhythm presented unimodally (auditory or visual) resulted in no evidence of discrimination. Also, temporal synchrony between the bimodal auditory and visual information was necessary for rhythm discrimination. These findings support an intersensory redundancy hypothesis and provide further evidence for the importance of redundancy for guiding and constraining early perceptual learning.  (+info)


  • In addition to aiding Music Therapists and general Music Therapy programs, the MTR committee has funded a recording studio at BC Children's Hospital, as well as manufactured a mobile recording studio to service patients bedside in the hospital. (
  • The mobile studios, operating under the name " Band Wagon 1 ", enable Music Therapists to expand their already vital work by giving clients the ability to record the music created during their therapy sessions. (
  • Music therapists can be found in special education schools, hospitals, rehabilitative settings, prisons, practically any setting where music can help to achieve a goal, which could be social, emotional, behavioral, physical or even psychological in nature. (
  • Music therapists are typically trained in one of the schools of thought, which include humanistic music therapy, behavioral music therapy and even biomedical music therapy. (
  • It is designed to accommodate experienced musicians, music teachers and music therapists to expand and deepen their professional practice both in arts in society as in arts in therapy. (


  • The 11th annual Music Therapy Ride ("MTR") is rolling out to Harrison Hot Springs in September. (
  • Founded by members of the music industry (from artists to label representatives, agents, managers, and promoters) all motorcycle enthusiasts are invited to participate in the event that supports community-based music therapy services throughout British Columbia. (
  • Follow the Music Therapy Ride on Twitter or Facebook for more information. (
  • I have listened to the deep joy music therapy for happiness, relaxation, massage and intimacy, and I find it very soothing and calming. (
  • I think music therapy, deep breathing, yoga, meditation and poetry are all ways that enable us to enter into this reality of peace and joy, where we experience healing, inner peace and intimacy with the Divine, and where we rediscover our true self, knowing there is nothing wrong with us and knowing we are already whole, precious and beloved. (
  • In Western culture, however, as music became increasingly accepted as an art form, its therapeutic properties were mostly forgotten-rediscovered only when music therapy became an organized field in the early 1950s. (
  • But even though we know how effective music therapy can be, the investigation of its effects on recovery of function in people with neurologic impairment is new and exceedingly challenging. (
  • After he had been in traditional physical therapy for two months, and was showing little further improvement, he was referred to music therapy in the hope that he could improve his sense of his body's position and his balance. (
  • M. Kelly: Why is music therapy important? (
  • Why is music therapy important? (
  • former U.S. Astronaut and Shuttle Commander at NASA, talks about the importance of music therapy in this Curiosity video. (
  • This hub is a case study of Music Therapy in Singapore. (
  • Music therapy is one of the creative therapies popular in the West, although in Asia and in Singapore, it still struggles to be recognized. (
  • This hub explores why music therapy is marginalized in Singapore through examining how the construction of the biomedical health model impacts other institutions and affects Singaporeans' views toward complementary and alternative therapies. (
  • Specifically, I argue that constructing the biomedical model as the superior and dominant healthcare model has influenced Singaporeans' views towards treatments that do not fit into the dominant discourse, relegating Music Therapy to a fringe position. (
  • Countries like the US classify music therapy under allied healthcare, while research journals classify it as complementary or alternative treatment. (
  • Music therapy can be grouped under several categories depending on its use, but in this paper, I refer to it in general as a treatment that does not fit the biomedical model mould. (
  • In essence, music therapy is the use of music or music related activities to help others in a therapeutic setting and to promote heath. (
  • Biomedical music therapy is the closest fit to the biomedical model due to its scientific slant, where the brain is the locus of focus in the music therapy treatment process (Taylor, 2007). (
  • Music therapy is special as it capitalizes on what is so ordinary yet so powerful and core to our human expression to help clients. (
  • Another study done in the UK revealed that 25% of General Practitioners and Child Psychiatrists thought music therapy was ineffective or dangerous for mental health (Mutale, 1994). (
  • These findings are stark in light of the growing popularity of complementary treatments in the general public, and considering how music therapy is much more established as a therapeutic intervention in those countries than in Singapore. (
  • Music therapy has been used to address cognitive, sensory, and motor impairments with neurological causes. (
  • In music therapy music is used to accomplish specific clinical and therapeutic results through the application of therapy-based methodology. (
  • Based in a conservatoire the arts-based programme covers the main areas in contemporary music therapy and methods, clinical training and research. (
  • This is the first programme in the Netherlands that offers music therapy training for musicians or music educators at master's level. (
  • The curriculum is developed in close collaboration with the Music Therapy Master Programme of Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK. (
  • Master in Music Therapy together with the Master in Dance Therapy Master form Codarts' Master of Arts Therapies. (
  • This case study presents a threefold Early Interaction Music Therapy Model which is created in the child protection context. (
  • It contains mother-infant music therapy and mother's own music therapy processes. (
  • The first two parts occur in mother-infant music therapy: inviting the infant to contact by music and supporting the mother in mirroring her infant musically. (
  • The last part occurs in the mother's own music therapy where she may explore her feelings and issues which inhibit her from adequate interaction with her infant. (
  • Also the gaze, face and act contacts were measured in the beginning, in the middle and in the end of the mother-infant dyad's music therapy process. (
  • Both music therapy processes were also explored qualitatively based on the therapeutically important issues arisen. (
  • They also brought up the possibilities of music therapy in early interaction work - not only in investigating the psychodynamic background of the mother, but also in terms of the essentiality of processing actual crisis to prevent projections which inhibit adequate interaction between the mother and the infant in the present. (


  • The therapeutic aspect of music seems to be intuitive since biblical times when King Saul ordered David to play the harp when he felt troubled (1 Samuel 16:23, New International Version). (
  • Listening to music or making music can enhance wellbeing by affecting and regulating our mood and emotions and is a powerful tool to use in music therapeutic settings. (


  • But while a component of music, such as pitch, may be processed in a specific region of the brain, the overall experience of music is a gestalt of perceptual and psychological processes occurring in synchrony and involving a spectrum of neurologic activity and brain regions. (
  • How your brain perceives and processes music also differs depending on whether or not you are a musician. (


  • We now know from clinical case studies that music can affect-in very specific ways-human neurological, psychological, and physical functioning in areas such as learning, processing language, expressing emotion, memory, and physiological and motor responses. (


  • I wondered: Could our processing of music be so different, or so basic, that abilities relating to it remained accessible in people so limited in function? (
  • Culture and Brain Lecture: Music training and nonmusical abilities: Associations or causation? (
  • My talk provides a critical overview of research that has examined associations between music training and nonmusical abilities, with a focus on the available evidence for causation. (
  • I conclude that music training is associated with many nonmusical abilities. (
  • Some kinds of music training may enhance some abilities for some individuals, and group music lessons may have social benefits. (
  • These other individual differences need to be taken into account before inferring that music training causes improvements in nonmusical abilities. (


  • Nevertheless, children who take music lessons differ from other children in multiple ways (demographic, cognitive, personality), which predict the decision to study music. (


  • Still, I had come to begin my work as a music therapist, so I sat down at the piano and started to play "Let Me Call You Sweetheart. (


  • Music predates recorded history, but its roots may lie in early human communication and rituals for healing. (


  • The effects of music raise intriguing questions about both early brain development and brain plasticity later in life. (
  • Music plays a significant role in daily life, in every society and culture and has the ability to move people. (


  • In traditional African cultures and rain forest cultures in other parts of the world, for example, music is connected with many of life's vital patterns and occasions. (


  • In 1978, little was known about music and brain function. (