Multiple Birth Offspring: The offspring in multiple pregnancies (PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE): TWINS; TRIPLETS; QUADRUPLETS; QUINTUPLETS; etc.Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Triplets: Three individuals derived from three FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Quadruplets: Four individuals derived from four FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Twins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Birth Order: The sequence in which children are born into the family.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Birth Certificates: Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Perinatal Care: The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Pregnancy Reduction, Multifetal: Selective abortion of one or more embryos or fetuses in a multiple gestation pregnancy. The usual goal is to improve the outcome for the remaining embryos or fetuses.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Live Birth: The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).

*  Characteristics of children with cerebral palsy in the ORACLE children study. - Nuffield Department of Population Health

Multiple Birth Offspring, Obstetric Labor, Premature, Poverty, Pregnancy, Premature Birth, Severity of Illness Index ... Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Birth Weight, Cerebral Palsy, Child, Educational Status, ...

*  Michael P Diamond

multiple birth offspring*peritoneal diseases*infertility*tissue adhesives*ovulation induction*clomiphene*cell hypoxia*triazoles ... Estimating rates of multiple gestation pregnancies: sample size calculation from the assessment of multiple intrauterine ... Endometrial shedding effect on conception and live birth in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Michael P Diamond. Department ... Endometrial shedding effect on conception and live birth in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Michael P Diamond. Department ...

*  Mark I Evans

multiple pregnancy*quality control*fetus*first pregnancy trimester*cultural evolution*multiple birth offspring*credentialing* ... premature birth*risk assessment*pregnancy outcome*diseases in twins*normal distribution*decision making*inborn genetic diseases ... Do reduced multiples do better?. Mark I Evans. Columbia University, Institute for Genetics and Fetal Medicine, New York, NY, ... Data on Down syndrome (DS) births for Colorado from 1989 to 2005 were used to examine the implications of a decreasing use of ...

*  Heidi Kalkwarf

multiple birth offspring*feeding methods*motor skills*vitamin d*spine*breast feeding*parathyroid hormone*pediatrics*collagen ... Comparison of feeding among multiple birth infants. Sheela R Geraghty. Division of General and Community Pediatrics, Cincinnati ... The objectives of this study were to determine and compare the rates of breast milk feeding of mothers of multiples and mothers ... Breast milk feeding rates of mothers of multiples compared to mothers of singletons. Sheela R Geraghty. Division of General and ...

*  Premature Babies | definition of Premature Babies by Medical dictionary

multiple birth the birth of two or more offspring produced in the same gestation period. ... multiple birth. the birth of two or more offspring produced in the same gestation period. ... birth order. the chronological order of births in a multiple birth. May have significance in causing stillbirths if the ... pre·ma·ture birth. birth of an infant who has achieved a gestation of at least 20 weeks or birth weight of at least 500 g, but ... Babies

*  Maternal Obesity and Risk for Birth Defects | Articles | Pediatrics

Shaw et al15 showed an increased risk for multiple congenital anomalies among offspring of obese women. We studied the relation ... In addition, infants with 2 or more unrelated major birth defects (multiple congenital anomalies) were included in the study, ... Controls were selected among births in the same time period as the cases and were limited to infants with no major birth ... Control infants were a stratified random sample of births at the 18 birth hospitals included in the Metropolitan Atlanta ...

*  Perinatal outcomes of multiple births in southwest Nigeria.

Perinatal outcomes of multiple births in southwest Nigeria. ... In total, 4,573 mothers, and their 4,718 surviving offspring in ... Multiple birth (Demographic aspects). Multiple birth (Complications and side effects). Mothers (Patient outcomes). Mothers ( ... The case definition for 'multiple gestations or births' was twins or triplets as higher-order births were not recorded during ... This method allows data for multiple births to be treated as repeated measures of the same birth. The significant trend in the ...

*  Alpha-foetoprotein in umbilical cord in relation to severe pre-eclampsia, birth weight and future breast cancer risk

Pre-eclampsia status, length of gestation, birth weight and offspring sex as determinants of α-foetoprotein in multiple linear ... Offspring birth weight was higher among multiparae than among primipara, it was positively associated with maternal pre- ... Birth weight was standardised as the ratio between the observed and expected birth weight, the latter being adjusted for sex ... Across categories of standardised birth weight (Table 4), AFP was fairly uniform for both groups, but at each level of birth ...

*  Shifting Blame: Male Infertility and ICSI

... because multiple births are dangerous for both and can cause congenital problems in the offspring." ... "During the six year period from 1997 to 2002 there has been a minor decline in twin birth rates, and triplet birth rates have ...

*  Gestational Glucose Intolerance Associated With Postpartum Cardiovascular Risk

... intolerance could experience several cardiovascular risk factors after delivery even as early as three months after birth. ... Mothers of Multiple Births More Susceptible To Postpartum Depression. Mothers of multiples have 43 percent increased odds of ... Puberty in Offspring Delayed by Postpartum Anxiety, Behavior Changes. A new study on laboratory mice says that maternal ... postpartum anxiety and behavior changes can lead to a delayed onset of puberty in both birth and adoptive daughters ...

*  Life Before Birth : Bonnie Steinbock : 9780195341621

Life Before Birth by Bonnie Steinbock, 9780195341621, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. ... Limits to Procreative Liberty ; Postmenopausal Mothers/ Multiple Births/ Octomom ; IV. Dispositional Problems ; Davis v. Davis/ ... Health Risks to Offspring ; II. Procreative Liberty and Its Critics ; John Robertson/ Adoption and the Right to Have ... Life Before Birth : The Moral and Legal Status of Embryos and Fetuses, Second Edition. ...

*  Raising Cattle: Delivering a Calf on the Modern Homestead - Modern Homesteading - MOTHER EARTH NEWS

Any dystocias in sheep and goats can be handled by the same principles as those applied to cattle (multiple births in these two ... Failure to consider them can cause serious crippling or death to the mother and to the offspring, even though, the delivery may ... 1) After a prolonged birth, it is sometimes helpful to hang a calf up by the hind legs for several minutes to allow most of the ... Dealing With Problems During the Birth Process. The rest of this section will deal with the various problems that might be ...

*  Effect of maternal undernutrition on vascular expression of micro and messenger RNA in newborn and aging offspring | Regulatory...

In the P1 offspring, MUN-induced changes in the expression of multiple mRNAs of genes involved in angiogenesis are consistent ... At day 1 after birth, all offspring from food-restricted and control rat dams were cross-fostered to rat dams fed ad libitum, ... namely 3-wk-old and 12-mo-old offspring, and a trend toward a decrease in the P1 offspring (Fig. 1A). One of the genes ... In the P1 offspring, miRNAs 29c and 183 were upregulated in expression in MUN, and therefore their predicted target genes would ...

*  Multiple Sclerosis Research: July 2013

In those having multiple births you are more likely to use epidurals than non MSers. In you were older you less likely use ... We found no association between increasing offspring number and MS risk.. CONCLUSIONS: The observed association between ... Prevalence of Incidental Narrowing of the Superior Segment of the Internal Jugular Vein in Patients Without Multiple Sclerosis. ... progressive relapsing multiple sclerosis (PRMS), and worsening relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). ...

*  Full text of "Navy & Marine Corps Medical News 00-14"

... offspring with spina bifida, a congenital birth defect of the spine. VA presumes that all military personnel who served in ... multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin ' s lymphoma, porphyria cutanea tarda, respiratory cancers (lung, bronchus, larynx and trachea ...

*  Blog

Female gorillas usually only produce one offspring every 4-6 years giving birth only about 3-4 times in their life. This low ... Gorillas are social apes and typically live in a harem society with multiple females and one dominant male leader. Occasionally ... Gorillas live in "harem" groups (one adult male with several females and their offspring) of around five to ten individuals in ... Adult females will travel with their offspring and recently have been found to also travel with another female and her ...


The seed contains multiple eggs that can be fertilized by multiple pollen tubes, which are the functional equivalent of sperm. ... And in turn, sibling rivalry would result in conflict between offspring and parents, since over time offspring would be ... Thus, imprinting appears to have arisen more or less coincident with the origin of live birth, before the common ancestor of ... The offspring is being selected to take a little bit extra from the mother, and the mother is selected to resist some of the ...

*  10 American Foods that are Banned in Other Countries ~ Idees And Solutions

... multiple-organ damage, massive tumors, birth defects, premature death, and near complete sterility by the third generation of ... offspring. Unfortunately, the gigantic human lab experiment is only about 10 years old, so we are likely decades away from ... Research has shown this rainbow of additives can cause behavioral problems as well as cancer, birth defects and other health ...

*  Reproductive compensation favours male-killing Wolbachia in a live-bearing host

... only five females mated to these males gave birth to nymphs. From the subset of offspring randomly selected for rearing to ... b) Assays for multiple infections in wCsc1 and wCsc2 lines. Within each C. scorpioides Wolbachia strain, wsp and MLST sequences ... With the number of early-stage embryos included as a covariate (F1,51 = 21.35, p , 0.001), treated dams gave birth to a least- ... Based on a survey of the broods of 153 field-collected C. scorpioides females (n , 3000 offspring), Zeh et al. (2005) reported ...

*  Nutrients | Free Full-Text | The Role of Avocados in Maternal Diets during the Periconceptional Period, Pregnancy, and...

... the offspring-and a mother's dietary choices can affect both the early health status and lifelong disease risk of the offspring ... birth outcomes, and breast milk composition. During the critical window of time from conception through the initiation of ... A low-glycemic maternal diet has also been associated with offspring birth weight, birth length, adiposity, and arterial wall ... Allen, L.H. Multiple micronutrients in pregnancy and lactation: An overview. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2005, 81, 1206S-1212S. [Google ...

*  Tottori University

Birth of normal offspring from mouse eggs activated by a phospholipase Czeta protein lacking three EF-hand domains. Tomoko ... Multiple origins of OCPs that differentiate into mature osteoclasts are proposed based on the observation that osteoclasts ... These three offspring all grew to be normal adults and reproduced healthy second-generation mice... ... Putaminal lesion in multiple system atrophy: postmortem MR-pathological correlations. Eiji Matsusue. Department of ...

*  Genetics and Paternity, page 1

As I understand it, people have multiple genes that determine eye color. To give a simplified example: Mother Blue eye gene ... However, repeated observation of brown-eyed offspring from two blue-eyed parents showed this view to be wrong. Iris color is ... that this pigment developed soon after birth, and that the final quantity and distribution of the pigment was a hereditary ... Originally, iris color was thought to be a simple trait-one governed by a single gene with multiple forms, or alleles, ...

*  Update of Newborn Screening and Therapy for Congenital Hypothyroidism | FROM THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS | Pediatrics

Delayed TSH elevation is particularly common in infants with low birth weight (LBW [,2500g]) and very low birth weight (VLBW [, ... Alternatively, multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies suggest a genetic defect in the cascade leading to fetal pituitary ... Glinoer D. Potential consequences of maternal hypothyroidism on the offspring: evidence and implications. Horm Res.2001;55 :109 ... LBW-low birth weight • VLBW-very low birth weight • L-T4-levothyroxine • TRH-thyrotropin-releasing hormone. REFERENCES. *↵. ...

*  These highlights do not include all the information needed to use ONDANSETRON safely and effectively. See full prescribing...

Patients were receiving multiple concomitant perioperative and postoperative medications Adverse Reaction*,† Ondansetron ... The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the US general ... there were no significant effects of ondansetron on the maternal animals or the development of the offspring. At doses of 10 mg ... In vitro metabolism studies have shown that ondansetron is a substrate for multiple human hepatic cytochrome P-450 enzymes, ...

*  Treatment and outcome of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy

Hyperemesis gravidarum and birth outcomes-a population-based cohort study of 2.2 million births in the Norwegian Birth Registry ... Offspring -- Although long-term follow-up data are limited, nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and hyperemesis do not appear to ... An Australian study that linked data from multiple registries did not find a significant increase in major malformations (OR ... Medications used to treat nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and the risk of selected birth defects. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol ...

Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Genain quadruplets: The Genain quadruplets (born in 1930) are a set of identical quadruplet sisters. All four developed schizophrenia, suggesting a large genetic component to the cause of the disease.Birth weight: Birth weight is the body weight of a baby at its birth.Definitions from Georgia Department of Public Health.Twin reversed arterial perfusionLow birth-weight paradox: The low birth-weight paradox is an apparently paradoxical observation relating to the birth weights and mortality rate of children born to tobacco smoking mothers. Low birth-weight children born to smoking mothers have a lower infant mortality rate than the low birth weight children of non-smokers.Embryo transfer: Embryo transfer refers to a step in the process of assisted reproduction in which embryos are placed into the uterus of a female with the intent to establish a pregnancy. This technique (which is often used in connection with in vitro fertilization (IVF)), may be used in humans or in animals, in which situations the goals may vary.Gestational age: Gestational age (or menstrual age) is a measure of the age of a pregnancy where the origin is the woman's last normal menstrual period (LMP), or the corresponding age as estimated by other methods. Such methods include adding 14 days to a known duration since fertilization (as is possible in in vitro fertilization), or by obstetric ultrasonography.National Birth Defects Prevention Network: The National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN) was founded in 1997. It is a 501(c)3 not-for-profit volunteer organization whose members are involved in birth defects surveillance, prevention and research.Natural cycle in vitro fertilization: Natural Cycle IVF is in vitro fertilisation (IVF) using either of the following procedures:Selective reduction: Selective reduction (or multifetal pregnancy reduction or MFPR) is the practice of reducing the number of fetuses in a multifetal pregnancy, say quadruplets, to a twin or singleton pregnancy.

(1/76) Births: final data for 1997.

OBJECTIVES: This report presents 1997 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal lifestyle and health characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, and tobacco and alcohol use); medical care utilization by pregnant women (prenatal care, obstetric procedures, complications of labor and/or delivery, attendant at birth, and method of delivery); and infant health characteristics (period of gestation, birthweight, Apgar score, abnormal conditions, congenital anomalies, and multiple births). Also presented are birth and fertility rates by age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, and marital status. Selected data by mother's State of residence are shown including teenage birth rates and total fertility rates, as well as data on month and day of birth, sex ratio, and age of father. Trends in fertility patterns and maternal and infant characteristics are described and interpreted. METHODS: Descriptive tabulations of data reported on the birth certificates of the 3.9 million births that occurred in 1997 are presented. RESULTS: Birth and fertility rates declined very slightly in 1997. Birth rates for teenagers fell 3 to 5 percent. Rates for women in their twenties changed very little, whereas rates for women in their thirties rose 2 percent. The number of births and the birth rate for unmarried women each declined slightly in 1997 while the percent of births that were to unmarried women was unchanged. Smoking by pregnant women overall dropped again in 1997, but continued to increase among teenagers. Improvements in prenatal care utilization continued. The cesarean delivery rate increased slightly after declining for 7 consecutive years. The proportion of multiple birth continued to rise; higher order multiple births (e.g., triplets, quadruplets) rose by 14 percent in 1997, following a 20 percent rise from 1995 to 1996. Key measures of birth outcome--the percents of low birthweight and preterm births--increased, with particularly large increases in the preterm rate. These changes are in large part the result of increases in multiple births.  (+info)

(2/76) Natural variation in the human sex ratio.

Analysis of the effect of multiple birth, birth order, age of parents and the sexes of preceding siblings on the secondary sex ratio was performed for 815 891 children, born in Denmark, 1980-1993. The proportion of males was analysed as a function of multiple birth, birth order, age of parents and the sexes of preceding siblings, using contingency tables, chi(2) tests and logistic regression analysis. The secondary sex ratio decreased with increased number of children per plural birth and with paternal age, whereas no independent effect was observed for maternal age, birth order, the sex of the preceding child, or the combination of sexes of previously born children in the family.  (+info)

(3/76) Cerebral palsy and multiple births in China.

BACKGROUND: A population-based study on prevalence of cerebral palsy in multiple births has not been carried out in China. The purpose of this paper was to determine the prevalence of cerebral palsy in multiple births and to explore the influence of multiple pregnancy on cerebral palsy after controlling for birthweight. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of cerebral palsy was carried out among 388,192 children aged <7 years in seven cities of Jiangsu province in China. Information about birthweight and plurality was obtained from routine health care records. Pediatricians at city level diagnosed all cases. All the doctors involved had taken part in a training programme held by Beijing Medical University. Stratified analysis by birthweight and its standard normal deviate was employed to compare the prevalence of cerebral palsy in multiples and singletons. RESULTS: The prevalence of cerebral palsy for children aged <7 years in multiples was 9.7 per 1000 children (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.5-14.0), which was 6.5 times that in singletons (95% CI: 4.4-9.3). The overall neonatal mortality rate was 60.9 per 1000 liveborn multiples, being highest (944.4 per 1000) in the 500-999 g birthweight groups. Most liveborn multiples weighing <1500 g at birth probably died from diseases related to very low birthweight prior to this study. The prevalence of cerebral palsy in multiple births was likely to be higher than that reported in developed countries for children weighing 1500-2499 g even though our data were from a cross-sectional study. When stratified by birthweight, the prevalence of cerebral palsy in multiples weighing <2500 g had tended to be lower than that of singletons in the same birthweight group. In contrast, in normal birthweight categories multiple births had a higher prevalence of cerebral palsy than singletons. When stratified by birthweight normal deviate, the prevalence of cerebral palsy in multiple births was uniformly higher than that in singletons in all birthweight strata and the prevalence of cerebral palsy among multiples appeared to be augmented as birthweight increased. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of cerebral palsy in multiples, 9.7 per 1000 children, is 6.5 times that in singletons. Survival of low birthweight infants is lower in China than in developed countries and survival quality of Chinese children weighing 1500-2499 g needs to be further improved. In terms of birthweight multiples and singletons may be heterogeneous. It might be difficult to directly use actual birthweight specific prevalence to compare the prevalence of cerebral palsy in multiples and singletons. Birthweight normal deviate specific prevalence of cerebral palsy suggests that multiple pregnancy is an independent risk factor for cerebral palsy in all birthweight groups. Multiples are in adverse circumstances very early in gestation and as the foetus matures the risk of cerebral palsy increases.  (+info)

(4/76) Multiple births and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Prevailing hypotheses about the causes of ovarian carcinogenesis predict that women with a history of multiple births (twins, triplets, etc.) should be at increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. However, the scant available evidence suggests that they may actually be at lower risk. To resolve this issue, we pooled data from eight studies involving 2859 parous women with epithelial ovarian cancer (case patients) and 7434 parous women without ovarian cancer (control women). In addition to assessing their history of multiple births (and the sex of the children, where available), we obtained information on age, parity, oral contraceptive use, and other reproductive factors for each woman. Details of tumor histology were available for all case patients. We estimated the relative risks of various histologic types of ovarian cancers associated with multiple births by using multivariable logistic regression analysis, adjusting for matching and confounding variables. RESULTS: Among these parous women, 73 case patients (2. 6%) and 257 control women (3.5%) had a history of multiple births. The adjusted summary odds ratio (OR) for developing all types of epithelial ovarian cancer that are associated with multiple births was 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.61-1.08). We found no evidence that risks associated with multiple births differed among women with borderline or invasive tumors and among women with same-sex and opposite-sex offspring from multiple births. The risk reductions appeared specific for nonmucinous tumors (n = 2453; summary adjusted OR = 0.71 [95% CI = 0.52-0.98]); in contrast, associations with mucinous tumors (n = 406) were heterogeneous across studies. CONCLUSIONS: Parous women with nonmucinous ovarian cancer are no more likely to have a history of multiple births than other parous women, counter to the predictions of current hypotheses for causes of ovarian cancer.  (+info)

(5/76) Contribution of assisted reproductive technology and ovulation-inducing drugs to triplet and higher-order multiple births--United States, 1980-1997.

In the United States, pregnancies associated with assisted reproductive technology (ART) or ovulation-inducing drugs are more likely to result in multiple births than spontaneously conceived pregnancies (1). In addition, triplet and higher-order multiple births are at greater risk than singleton births to be preterm (< or = 37 completed weeks' gestation), low birthweight (LBW) (i.e., < or = 2500 g), or very low birthweight (i.e., < 1500 g), resulting in higher infant morbidity and mortality (2). Because preterm and LBW infants often require costly neonatal care and long-term developmental follow-up, the continuing increase in triplet and higher-order multiple births causes concern among health-care providers and policymakers (3). This report provides estimates of the contribution of ART and ovulation-inducing drugs to these birth outcomes for 1996 and 1997, and summarizes trends during 1980-1997, which indicate that the ratio of triplet and higher-order multiple births has more than quadrupled and that a large proportion of this increase can be attributed to ART or the use of ovulation-inducing drugs.  (+info)

(6/76) Offspring risk and sibling risk for multilocus traits.

The recurrence risk of a trait in a relative of type R is the probability that an individual who is in relationship of type R to an affected proband has the trait. It is intuitively clear that closer relationships lead to higher recurrence risks. However, no exact analysis of this phenomenon has been presented for multilocus traits. We prove a theorem that shows how recurrence risks are influenced by the degree of closeness of the relationship R. For example, our theorem implies that sibling risk is always higher than offspring risk. The loci influencing the trait are assumed to be autosomal and unlinked, but arbitrary epistasis between the loci is allowed. We give a detailed proof of the theorem by using stochastic matrices. A shorter proof based on the additive and dominance genetic variances is also sketched. Additionally, we also give some empirical results and discuss generalizations of the theorem.  (+info)

(7/76) Live-birth rates and multiple-birth risk of assisted reproductive technology pregnancies conceived using thawed embryos, USA 1999-2000.

BACKGROUND: Increasing use of assisted reproductive technology treatments has been associated with the current rise in multiple births in the USA. Embryo cryopreservation and subsequent thawed embryo transfer may favourably impact the multiple-birth risk by relieving some pressure that patients and providers may feel to transfer several embryos in a single cycle. The study objective was to examine both live-birth rates and multiple-birth risk in thawed cycles. METHODS: The authors used a population-based sample of 21 555 assisted reproductive technology procedures performed in US clinics in 1999 and 2000 that used thawed embryos derived from the patient's oocytes. RESULTS: Both patient age and the number of embryos transferred were independent predictors of live birth. Even among women aged 20-29 years, the transfer of three embryos resulted in an increase in the live-birth rate compared with cycles in which one or two embryos were transferred. This increase in success was accompanied by an increased multiple-birth risk. In all age groups up to 40 years, the transfer of just two embryos resulted in a multiple-birth risk of 16-17%. The multiple-birth risk increased with the number of embryos transferred. CONCLUSIONS: Patient age and the number of embryos transferred significantly affect live-birth and multiple-birth rates among women who use thawed embryos.  (+info)

(8/76) Assisted reproductive technology surveillance--United States, 2000.

PROBLEM/CONDITION: In 1996, CDC initiated data collection regarding assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures performed in the United States to determine medical center-specific pregnancy success rates, as mandated by the Fertility Clinic Success Rate and Certification Act (FCSRCA) (Public Law 102-493, October 24, 1992). ART includes fertility treatments in which both eggs and sperm are handled in the laboratory (i.e., in vitro fertilization and related procedures). Patients who undergo ART treatments are more likely to deliver multiple-birth infants than women who conceive naturally. Multiple births are associated with increased risk for mothers and infants (e.g., pregnancy complications, premature delivery, low-birthweight infants, and long-term disability among infants). REPORTING PERIOD COVERED: 2000. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: CDC contracts with a professional society, the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART), to obtain data from fertility medical centers located in the United States. Since 1997, CDC has compiled data related to ART procedures. The Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance System was initiated by CDC in collaboration with the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology, and RESOLVE: The National Infertility Association. RESULTS: In 2000, a total of 25,228 live-birth deliveries and 35,025 infants resulting from 99,629 ART procedures were reported to CDC from 383 medical centers that performed ART in the United States and U.S. territories. Nationally, 75,516 (76%) of ART treatments were freshly fertilized embryos using the patient's eggs; 13,312 (13%) were thawed embryos using the patient's eggs; 7,919 (8%) were freshly fertilized embryos from donor eggs; and 2,882 (3%) were thawed embryos from donor eggs. The national live-birth delivery per transfer rate was 30.8%. The five states that reported the highest number of ART procedures were California (13,194), New York (11,239), Massachusetts (8,041), Illinois (7,323), and New Jersey (5,506). These five states also reported the highest number of live-birth deliveries and infants born as a result of ART. Overall, 47% of women undergoing ART-transfer procedures using freshly fertilized embryos from their own eggs were aged <35 years; 23% were aged 35-37 years; 19% were aged 38-40 years; 7% were aged 41-42 years; and 4% were aged >42 years. Among ART treatments in which freshly fertilized embryos from the patient's eggs were used, substantial variation in patient age, infertility diagnoses, history of past infertility treatment, and past births was observed. Nationally, live-birth rates were highest for women aged <35 years (38%). The risk for a multiple-birth delivery was highest for women who underwent ART-transfer procedures using freshly fertilized embryos from either donor eggs (40%) or from their own eggs (35%). Among women who underwent ART-transfer procedures using freshly fertilized embryos from their own eggs, further variation by patient age and number of embryos transferred was observed. Of the 35,025 infants born, 44% were twins, and 9% were triplet and higher order multiples, for a total multiple-infant birth rate of 53%. Patient's residing in states with the highest number of live-birth deliveries also reported the highest number of infants born in multiple-birth deliveries. INTERPRETATION: Whether an ART procedure was successful (defined as resulting in a pregnancy and live-birth delivery) varied according to different patient and treatment factors. Patient factors included the age of the woman undergoing ART, whether she had previously given birth, whether she had previously undergone ART, and the infertility diagnosis of both the female and male partners. Treatment factors included whether eggs were from the patient or a woman serving as an egg donor, whether the embryos were freshly fertilized or previously frozen and thawed, how long the embryos were kept in culture, how many embryos were transferred, and whether various specialized treatment procedures were used in conjunction with ART. ART poses a major risk for multiple births. This risk varied according to the patient's age, the type of ART procedure performed, and the number of embryos transferred. In addition, the increased risk for multiple births has a notable population impact in certain states. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS: As use of ART and ART success rates continue to increase, ART-related multiple births are an increasingly important public health problem nationally and in many states. The proportion of infants born through ART in 2000 that were multiple births (53%) was substantially higher than in the general U.S. population during the same period. Data in this report indicate a need to reduce multiple births associated with ART. Efforts should be made to limit the number of embryos transferred for patients undergoing ART. In addition, continued research and surveillance is key to understanding the effect of ART on maternal and child health.  (+info)


  • 12 Most recently, Shaw et al 15 showed an increased risk for multiple congenital anomalies among offspring of obese women. (
  • Infants with birth defects (cases) were ascertained using the population-based Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program. (


  • This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the perinatal outcomes of surviving multiples compared to singletons in southwest Nigeria based on the hypothesis that multiple births are at a higher risk of preterm delivery, low birthweight, and intrauterine growth restriction. (
  • The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that maternal undernutrition (MUN) alters offspring vascular expression of micro-RNAs (miRNAs), which, in turn, could regulate the expression of a host of genes involved with angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling. (
  • These results are consistent with the hypothesis that MUN modulation of offspring gene expression may be mediated in part by a miRNA mechanism. (


  • Because few recent studies have examined the relation between maternal prepregnancy obesity and overweight and other birth defects, we explored the relation for several birth defects and compared our findings with those of previous studies. (
  • Our study confirmed the previously established association between spina bifida and prepregnancy maternal obesity and found an association for omphalocele, heart defects, and multiple anomalies among infants of obese women. (
  • A higher risk for some birth defects is yet another adverse pregnancy outcome associated with maternal obesity. (
  • Several recent studies have shown an increased risk for neural tube defects associated with maternal obesity, 6 - 11 but the relation between maternal obesity and other birth defects is not as well defined (Table 1 ). (
  • We studied the relation between maternal obesity and overweight and several types of birth defects using the Atlanta Birth Defects Risk Factor Surveillance Study (BDRFSS), a case-control study of major birth defects during 1993-1997, and we compared our findings with those in previous studies. (
  • Compared to singletons, multiple births are associated with a substantially-higher risk of maternal and perinatal mortality worldwide. (
  • Comparisons of maternal and infant outcomes between single and multiple births were performed using multivariable logistic regression and generalized estimation equation analyses. (
  • After adjusting for maternal age, ethnicity, occupation, parity, and antenatal care, multiple gestations were associated with increased risks of hypertensive disorders and caesarean delivery. (
  • There is extensive evidence that twins and higher-order multiple births worldwide are associated with a substantially-higher risk of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity compared to singletons (1-4). (
  • While multiple births are often disproportionately represented among preterm, low birthweight or in trauterine growth-restricted infants, maternal and infant morbidities following multiple pregnancies, unlike perinatal mortality rates, have not been thoroughly described in developing countries (9-13). (
  • The phenomenon is called imprinting because the basic idea is that there is some imprint that is put on the DNA in the mother's ovary or in the father's testes which marks that DNA as being maternal or paternal, and influences its pattern of expression-what the gene does in the next generation in both male and female offspring. (
  • If my daughter passes on paternal genes to her children, even though she got the gene as a paternal gene from me it would be a maternal gene to her own offspring. (


  • Mothers who delivered an infant with and without selected birth defects in a 5-county metropolitan Atlanta area between January 1993 and August 1997 were interviewed. (
  • Mothers of multiples have 43 percent increased odds of having moderate to severe depressive symptoms nine months after giving birth compared to mothers of single-born children. (


  • Additionally, since preterm births, low birth-weight, and intrauterine growth restriction are prominent risk factors for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes worldwide, a better characterization of the perinatal consequences of multiple pregnancies should be helpful in facilitating resource allocation and closer developmental surveillance for infants at risk of developmental delays (6,14-18). (


  • To provide a rationale for continuation of efforts to improve the outcome of Assisted Reproductive Technology outcomes, thereby increasing the likelihood of the live birth of healthy neonates. (
  • 3 Obesity is associated with pregnancy complications and adverse reproductive outcomes, 4 , 5 including an increased risk for birth defects. (
  • Perinatal outcomes of multiple births in southwest Nigeria. (
  • This cross-sectional study, therefore, set out to determine the adverse perinatal outcomes that are potential markers for neurodevelopmental disabilities in infants with multiple gestations in a developing country. (
  • Overall, the results suggest that, in resource-poor settings, infants of multiple gestations are associated with a significantly-elevated risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. (
  • Since these perinatal outcomes are related to the increased risk of later neurodevelopmental disabilities, multiple-birth infants merit close developmental surveillance for timely intervention. (


  • Approximately 6 to 8 per cent of all live births in the United States are premature, and premature births are the major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. (


  • We also found an association between heart defects and multiple anomalies and being overweight before pregnancy. (
  • This surveillance system uses active case finding among records of all birth hospitals in metropolitan Atlanta to identify affected infants (live births, stillbirths, and pregnancy terminations of ≥20 weeks' gestation) and includes a clinical review of each case record. (


  • birth of an infant who has achieved a gestation of at least 20 weeks or birth weight of at least 500 g, but before 37 weeks' gestation. (
  • n a birth in which the child is delivered before it has reached the full period of gestation (37 weeks). (
  • Oestradiol and α-foetoprotein were measured from umbilical plasma, and birth weight was standardized as the ratio between the observed and expected birth weight, adjusted for differences in gestation length and offspring sex. (
  • For oestradiol, there was no difference in cord plasma levels between the severe pre-eclampsia group and controls, after adjustment for length of gestation and birth weight. (
  • The expression of miRNA and mRNA in the same aortic specimens in 1-day-old (P1) and 12-mo-old offspring aortas of dams, which had 50% food restriction from gestation day 10 to term, was determined by specific rat miRNA and DNA arrays. (


  • Of the 4,573 deliveries, there were 4,416 (96.6%) singletons and 157 (3.4%) multiples, comprising 296 twins and six triplets together (6.4% of all live 4,718 infants). (

Gestational Age


  • May have significance in causing stillbirths if the intervals between births are prolonged because of inertia. (


  • We conducted a population-based case-control study of several selected major birth defects using data from the Atlanta Birth Defects Risk Factor Surveillance Study. (
  • In multiple species ranging from fish ( 12 ) to humans ( 20 , 39 ), alterations in miRNA maturation produce significant defects in expression of VEGF and its receptors ( 45 ) and correspondingly, changes in blood vessel and capillary formation, which can be embryonically lethal ( 6 ). (
  • Mounting research now shows that animals fed genetically engineered foods, such as corn and soy, suffer a wide range of maladies, including intestinal damage, multiple-organ damage, massive tumors, birth defects, premature death, and near complete sterility by the third generation of offspring. (
  • Research has shown this rainbow of additives can cause behavioral problems as well as cancer, birth defects and other health problems in laboratory animals. (


  • Therefore, we have hypothesized that MUN influences the expression of offspring miRNAs, which then would influence processing of key developmental proteins, and this might represent a novel epigenetic mechanism for regulation of gene expression in the offspring. (



  • Gorillas are social apes and typically live in a harem society with multiple females and one dominant male leader. (


  • A prospective observational post-marketing study of natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosispatients: clinical, radiological and biological features and adverse events. (


  • Except in some uncommon conditions, the soft tissues of the dam's birth canal can be stretched to accommodate almost and size calf. (
  • Note here that any traction applied in a direction corresponding to Line A in Figure 2 only serves to force the baby through the narrowest diameter of the pelvis, while a force in the direction of Line B in Figure 2 allows full utilization of tile greatest diameter of the pelvis by allowing the calf to follow the normal curvature of the birth canal. (
  • The other mechanical factor of importance is the proper alignment of the spinal column, head and neck, and legs of the fetus so that their entry into the birth canal occurs in the correct sequence. (
  • 5) A good, slick lubricant for use on the arms and in the birth canal if necessary. (



  • The introduction of immunomodulatory treatments has transformed the management of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), but has had no consistent benefit in progressive MS. Patients with primary or secondary progressive MS, therefore, are faced with relentless functional decline that remains without treatment. (


  • If a child dies during birth, an immediate report and certification of the birth and death are required, containing a statement of the cause of death. (
  • Failure to consider them can cause serious crippling or death to the mother and to the offspring, even though, the delivery may actually be accomplished by the excessive application of force. (


  • Occasionally, unattached males will form loose coalitions, or "bachelor groups" consisting of multiple male gorillas. (


  • A novel study has pointed out that women who have gestational glucose intolerance could experience several cardiovascular risk factors after delivery even as early as three months after birth. (


  • Globally, the highest burden of multiple births has been found in sub-Saharan Africa, with an average twining rate of 20 per 1,000 deliveries compared to 10 per 1,000 deliveries in Europe or around 5-6 per 1,000 deliveries in Asia (5-7). (


  • Every effort should be made to insure that the fetus is in a natural position for birth and that any manipulations by the assistant do not contribute to the complications already present. (


  • David Haig is an evolutionary geneticist/theorist interested in conflicts and conflict resolution within the genome, with a particular interest in genomic imprinting and relations between parents and offspring. (


  • A patient taking Novartis' multiple sclerosis pill Gilenya developed a rare and potentially fatal viral disease, the Swiss drugmaker said on Tuesday, an unexpected setback as it faces growing competition from new oral treatments. (



  • The evidence related to birth weight is suggestive, but not conclusive ( Potischman and Troisi, 1999 ). (


  • BIONAT is a French multicentric phase IV study of natalizumab (NTZ)-treated relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis(MS) patients. (


  • Whether the child is born at home or at the hospital, the physician, midwife, or other attendant must report the birth to the local or state registrar. (


  • As with other genetic elements present in the cytoplasm of animal cells, these cellular endosymbionts are transmitted to offspring only through eggs, and can therefore enhance their fitness by biasing host sex ratio in favour of females ( Cosmides & Tooby 1981 ). (


  • defined as birth occurring before 37 completed weeks (295 days), counting from the first day of the last normal menstrual period. (


  • If you are raising cattle on your homestead, an understanding of the birth process will help you assist in the delivery of calves. (


  • birth certificate a written, authenticated record of the birth of a child, required by state laws throughout the United States. (


  • After a birth is registered, a birth certificate is issued which represents legal proof of parentage, age, and citizenship, and is of great personal and legal importance. (


  • Nigeria has the highest prevalence of multiple births worldwide (5,7,8). (