Motor Skills Disorders: Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Practice (Psychology): Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Serial Learning: Learning to make a series of responses in exact order.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Molecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Rotarod Performance Test: A performance test based on forced MOTOR ACTIVITY on a rotating rod, usually by a rodent. Parameters include the riding time (seconds) or endurance. Test is used to evaluate balance and coordination of the subjects, particular in experimental animal models for neurological disorders and drug effects.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Psychomotor Disorders: Abnormalities of motor function that are associated with organic and non-organic cognitive disorders.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.Transfer (Psychology): Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Apraxias: A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Paresis: A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Retention (Psychology): The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.Knowledge of Results (Psychology): A principle that learning is facilitated when the learner receives immediate evaluation of learning performance. The concept also hypothesizes that learning is facilitated when the learner is promptly informed whether a response is correct, and, if incorrect, of the direction of error.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)

*  Common Questions About Dyspraxia and Motor Skills Disorder | Expert Answers

Your Child and Math Skills. Find out which kinds of math your child may struggle with-or find success with! ...
https://understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/child-learning-disabilities/dyspraxia/dyspraxia-your-questions-answered

*  News Center | Page 4 | UC San Francisco

Deep Sleep Reinforces the Learning of New Motor Skills. * Research August 8, 2017 ...
https://ucsf.edu/news/collaboration-team-for-ambitious-project?title=&area=All&type_article=All&topic=669&date_filter[value]&page=3

*  News Center | Page 4 | UC San Francisco

Deep Sleep Reinforces the Learning of New Motor Skills. * Research August 8, 2017 ... Biological Basis Found for Sensory Processing Disorders in Kids. How Ketogenic Diets Curb Inflammation. ...
https://ucsf.edu/news/2010/06/5993/what-makes-ushuman-studies-chimp-and-human-dna-may-tell-us?title=&area=All&type_article=714&topic=666&date_filter[value]=&page=3

*  Pediatric Physical Therapy | Atlantic Rehabilitation

Gross motor skills. *Musculoskeletal disorders. *Neuromuscular disorders. *Orthopedic injuries. Pediatric physical therapy is ... fall and have muscle sprains or strains and those who experience delays in their developmental and gross motor skills may ...
atlantichealth.org/atlantic/our-services/physical-rehabilitation/outpatient-rehabilitation/pediatric-rehabilitation/pediatric-physical-therapy.html

*  Search Results - Mayo Clinic

or weakness; Loss of fine motor skills, such ... People with this disorder may experience personality changes or ... cells of ... of speech in children with motor speech disorders ... rate of progression of this disorder in order ... ... can help you maintain as much of your motor and muscle capacity as possible as the disorder progresses. ... Multiple system ... Search results 1-10 of 980 for Motor system disorder. * Speech and Language Disorders - Department of Neurology ... http://www. ...
mayoclinic.org/search/search-results?q=Motor system disorder

*  Nervous System Diseases/Disorders by Celia Jackson on Prezi

What it is Affects muscle tone, movement, and motor skills. Can lead to other problems with eyesight, hearing, learning ... the person may only be unable to show facial expressions but later causes people to lose their motor skills There is no cure ... The severity of the disorder starts to decline into adulthood. Appears in first 3 years of life Epilepsy is a brain disorder ... Bipolar Disorder. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2012. ,http://cureanxiety.com/tag/bipolar-disorder,. Bipolar Disorder A blockage in ...
https://prezi.com/_oxzvifqnoo1/nervous-system-diseasesdisorders/

*  What is Nonverbal Learning Disorder? (with pictures)

... is a condition in which a person has developed verbal skills but still has difficulty doing... ... Children with nonverbal learning disorders often end up feeling isolated.. * Fine and gross motor skill impairment makes ... There are many soccer leagues available that will allow a child the ability to develop their gross motor skills and make some ... However, a degree of both fine and gross motor skill impairment often makes writing very difficult. In the third or fourth ...
wisegeek.com/what-is-nonverbal-learning-disorder.htm

*  Stages of Sleep and REM Cycles - Sleep Disorders | HealthCentral

Procedural memory concerns the ability to perform skills, like performing motor tasks. It seems that slow wave sleep enhances ... In fact, the motor centers that allow us to move when awake are also very active during REM, but their function is inhibited or ... We touched on this idea when we talked about REM behavior disorder, which is a disease state that causes the normal paralysis ...
https://healthcentral.com/article/all-sleep-is-not-created-equal

*  Coexisting Disorders and Problems in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

2.2.3. Motor Function. Motor function was estimated according to the motor skills domain score of the Vineland Adaptive ... Low motor skills function was found in about a third in this study group. Motor function in children with ASD relates to the ... Motor Function. More than a third of the children who had Vineland interview data (71/194; 37%) had a motor skills function ... oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), tic disorders, developmental coordination disorder (DCD), language disorder, and ...
https://hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2013/213979/

*  Balance Disorders

motor function tests to look at fine and gross motor skills. * behavioral hearing tests. These involve careful observation of a ... Types of Balance Disorders. Although balance disorders aren't common in kids (again, probably because they're so hard to catch ... Balance Disorders. When you think about balance, the role that ears play might not come to mind. But ears are crucial to ... Balance disorders can cause vision problems, too. Kids may see images that bounce or look blurry whenever they move their heads ...
https://rchsd.org/health-articles/balance-disorders/

The Focus Foundation: The Focus Foundation, located in Davidsonville, Maryland, is a research agency that identifies and helps children who have X & Y Variations (also called X & Y chromosomal variations), dyslexia and/or developmental coordination disorder, conditions that lead to language-based disabilities, motor planning deficits, reading dysfunction, and attention and behavioral disorders. The Focus Foundation believes that through increased awareness, early identification and syndrome-specific treatment, children with these conditions can reach their full potential.Adult interaction with infants: When adults come into contact with infants, it is unlikely that they would be able to have a proper conversation, as the infant would not know enough about pop culture or general knowledge to create a stimulating conversation for the adult. Also, the adult may not understand baby-language and cannot relate to their situation properly.Renshaw cell: Renshaw cells are inhibitory interneurons found in the gray matter of the spinal cord, and are associated in two ways with an alpha motor neuron.Tower of Babel (M. C. Escher): Tower of Babel is a 1928 woodcut by M. C.Voluntary Parenthood League: The Voluntary Parenthood League (VPL) was an organization that advocated for contraception during the birth control movement in the United States. The VPL was founded in 1919 by Mary Dennett.Bipolar disorderSequence learning: In cognitive psychology, sequence learning is inherent to human ability because it is an integrated part of conscious and nonconscious learning as well as activities. Sequences of information or sequences of actions are used in various everyday tasks: "from sequencing sounds in speech, to sequencing movements in typing or playing instruments, to sequencing actions in driving an automobile.The Movement Disorder SocietyDavid Rees Griffiths: David Rees Griffiths (November 6, 1882 – December 17, 1953), also known by his bardic name of Amanwy, was a Welsh poet, and an older brother of politician Jim Griffiths.Mental disorderSocial anxiety disorderMolecular motor: Molecular motors are biological molecular machines that are the essential agents of movement in living organisms. In general terms, a motor may be defined as a device that consumes energy in one form and converts it into motion or mechanical work; for example, many protein-based molecular motors harness the chemical free energy released by the hydrolysis of ATP in order to perform mechanical work.Cerebral hemisphere: The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the medial longitudinal fissure. The brain can thus be described as being divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres.Homeostatic plasticity: In neuroscience, homeostatic plasticity refers to the capacity of neurons to regulate their own excitability relative to network activity, a compensatory adjustment that occurs over the timescale of days. Synaptic scaling has been proposed as a potential mechanism of homeostatic plasticity.I-LIMB Hand: The i-LIMB Hand is the brand name of world's first commercially available bionic hand invented by David Gow and his team at the Bioengineering Centre of the Princess Margaret Rose Hospital in Edinburgh, and manufactured by Touch Bionics. The articulating prosthetic hand has individually powered digits and thumb and has a choice of grips.Developmental Disability (California): In California, Developmental Disabilitymeans a disability that is attributable to mental retardation], [[cerebral palsy, epilepsy, autism, or disabling conditions found to be closely related to mental retardation or to require treatment similar to that required for individuals with mental retardation.Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status is a neuropsychological assessment initially introduced in 1998. It consists of ten subtests which give five scores, one for each of the five domains tested (immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, delayed memory).Neurotechnology: Neurotechnology is any technology that has a fundamental influence on how people understand the brain and various aspects of consciousness, thought, and higher order activities in the brain. It also includes technologies that are designed to improve and repair brain function and allow researchers and clinicians to visualize the brain.SchizophreniaFive Fingers GroupExplicit memory: Explicit memory is the conscious, intentional recollection of previous experiences and information. People use explicit memory throughout the day, such as remembering the time of an appointment or recollecting an event from years ago.Cognitive skill: Cognitive functioning is a term referring to a human’s ability to process to (thoughts) that should not deplete on a large scale in healthy individuals. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to learn new information, speech, understanding of written material.Language pedagogy: Language education may take place as a general school subject, in a specialized language school, or out of school with a rich selection of proprietary methods online and in books, CDs and DVDs. There are many methods of teaching languages.Aging movement control: Normal aging movement control in humans is about the changes on the muscles, motor neurons, nerves, sensory functions, gait, fatigue, visual and manual responses, in men and women as they get older but who do not have neurological, muscular (atrophy, dystrophy...) or neuromuscular disorder.Oculomotor apraxia: Oculomotor apraxia (OMA), also known as Cogan ocular motor apraxia or saccadic initiation failure (SIF) is the absence or defect of controlled, voluntary, and purposeful eye movement.Tada, M, Yokoseki, A, Sato, T, Makifuchi, T, Onodera, O.Postoperative cognitive dysfunction: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a short-term decline in cognitive function (especially in memory and executive functions) that may last from a few days to a few weeks after surgery. In rare cases, this disorder may persist for several months after major surgery.Representativeness heuristic: The representativeness heuristic is used when making judgments about the probability of an event under uncertainty. It is one of a group of heuristics (simple rules governing judgment or decision-making) proposed by psychologists Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman in the early 1970s.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingAdult attention deficit hyperactivity disorderBrexpiprazoleFocus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities: Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the field of special education. The editors-in-chief are Alisa K.

(1/306) Bradykinesia akinesia inco-ordination test (BRAIN TEST): an objective computerised assessment of upper limb motor function.

OBJECTIVES: A simple and rapid computerised keyboard test, based on the alternating finger tapping test, has been developed to quantify upper limb motor function. The test generates several variables: (1) kinesia score: the number of keystrokes in 60 seconds; (2) akinesia time: cumulative time that keys are depressed; (3) dysmetria score: a weighted index calculated using the number of incorrectly hit keys corrected for speed; (4) incoordination score: a measure of rhythmicity which corresponds to the variance of the time interval between keystrokes. METHODS: The BRAIN TEST(Copyright ) was assessed on 35 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, 12 patients with cerebellar dysfunction, and 27 normal control subjects. RESULTS: The mean kinesia scores of patients with Parkinson's disease or cerebellar dysfunction were significantly slower than normal controls (Parkinson's disease=107 (SD 28) keys/min v cerebellar dysfunction=86+/- (SD 28) v normal controls=182 (SD 26), p<0.001) and correlated with the UPDRS (r =-0.69, p<0.001). The akinesia time is very insensitive and was only abnormal in patients with severe parkinsonism. The median dysmetria (cerebellar dysfunction=13.8 v Parkinson's disease=6.1 v normal controls=4.2, p=0.002) and inco-ordination scores (cerebellar dysfunction=5.12 v Parkinson's disease=0.84 v normal controls=0.15, p=0.002) were significantly higher in patients with cerebellar dysfunction, in whom the dysmetria score correlated with a cerebellar disease rating scale (r=0.64, p=0.02). CONCLUSION: The BRAIN TEST(Copyright ) provides a simple, rapid, and objective assessment of upper limb motor function. It assesses speed, accuracy, and rhythmicity of upper limb movements regardless of their physiological basis. The results of the test correlate well with clinical rating scales in Parkinson's disease and cerebellar dysfunction. The BRAIN test will be useful in clinical studies. It can be downloaded from the Internet ().  (+info)

(2/306) The coordination of bimanual prehension movements in a centrally deafferented patient.

Many everyday tasks require that we use our hands co-operatively, for example, when unscrewing a jar. For tasks where both hands are required to perform the same action, a common motor programme can be used. However, where each hand needs to perform a different action, some degree of independent control of each hand is required. We examined the coordination of bimanual movement kinematics in a female patient recovering from a cerebrovascular accident involving anterior regions of the parietal lobe of the right hemisphere, which resulted in a dense hemianaesthesia of her left arm. Our results indicate that unimanual movements executed by our patient using her non-sensate hand are relatively unimpaired. In contrast, during bimanual movements, reaches executed by our patient using her non-sensate hand show gross directional errors and spatiotemporal irregularities, including the inappropriate coupling of movement velocities. These data are discussed with reference to the role played by limb proprioception in the planning and control of prehension movements.  (+info)

(3/306) Cortical motor reorganization in akinetic patients with Parkinson's disease: a functional MRI study.

Using functional MRI (fMRI), we have studied the changes induced by the performance of a complex sequential motor task in the cortical areas of six akinetic patients with Parkinson's disease and six normal subjects. Compared with the normal subjects, the patients with Parkinson's disease exhibited a relatively decreased fMRI signal in the rostral part of the supplementary motor area (SMA) and in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as previously shown in PET studies. Concomitantly, the same patients exhibited a significant bilateral relative increase in fMRI signal in the primary sensorimotor cortex, lateral premotor cortex, inferior parietal cortex, caudal part of the SMA and anterior cingulate cortex. These fMRI data confirm that the frontal hypoactivation observed in patients with Parkinson's disease is restricted to the rostral part of the SMA and to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These results also show that, apart from the lateral premotor and parietal cortices, increased fMRI signals can be found in other cortical motor areas of these patients, including the posterior SMA, the anterior cingulate cortex and the primary sensorimotor cortices, which are then likely to participate in the same putative attempt by the dopamine-denervated brain to recruit parallel motor circuits in order to overcome the functional deficit of the striatocortical motor loops.  (+info)

(4/306) Effects of attentional focus, self-control, and dyad training on motor learning: implications for physical rehabilitation.

In this article, the authors review recent studies on 3 factors that have been shown to affect the learning of motor skills-the performer's attentional focus, self-control, and practice in dyads-and discuss their implications for rehabilitation. Research has shown that directing learners' attention to the effects of their movements can be more beneficial for learning than directing their attention to the details of their own actions. Furthermore, giving learners some control over the training regimen has been found to enhance learning, unlike prescriptive training protocols that dictate when feedback will be delivered, how often, and the order that tasks will be practiced. Finally, not only can practice in dyads (or larger groups) reduce the costs of training, but it can also result in more effective learning than individual practice sessions. The incorporation of these factors into rehabilitation practice can potentially enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of rehabilitation.  (+info)

(5/306) Reversal of neuropathology and motor dysfunction in a conditional model of Huntington's disease.

Neurodegenerative disorders like Huntington's disease (HD) are characterized by progressive and putative irreversible clinical and neuropathological symptoms, including neuronal protein aggregates. Conditional transgenic models of neurodegenerative diseases therefore could be a powerful means to explore the relationship between mutant protein expression and progression of the disease. We have created a conditional model of HD by using the tet-regulatable system. Mice expressing a mutated huntingtin fragment demonstrate neuronal inclusions, characteristic neuropathology, and progressive motor dysfunction. Blockade of expression in symptomatic mice leads to a disappearance of inclusions and an amelioration of the behavioral phenotype. We thus demonstrate that a continuous influx of the mutant protein is required to maintain inclusions and symptoms, raising the possibility that HD may be reversible.  (+info)

(6/306) Childhood neuromotor dysfunction in schizophrenia patients and their unaffected siblings: a prospective cohort study.

Neuromotor dysfunction is a consistent finding in high-risk and archival studies of schizophrenia, but the sources of this dysfunction and its role in the developmental course of the disorder remain poorly understood. This study examined childhood motor predictors of adult psychiatric outcome in a birth cohort sample (72 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, 63 unaffected siblings, and 7,941 nonpsychiatric controls), evaluated prospectively with neurologic examinations at 8 months, 4 years, and 7 years of age. Deviance on motor coordination measures at 7 years was associated with both adult schizophrenia and unaffected sibling status, suggesting that a cofamilial (and perhaps genetic) factor underlies motor coordination deficits in schizophrenia. Unusual movements at ages 4 and 7 predicted adult schizophrenia but not unaffected sibling status, indicating that these deficits may be specific to those who will develop the clinical phenotype. None of the motor precursors were confined to patients with an early age at first treatment contact. Fetal hypoxia predicted unusual movements at 4 but not 7 years among the preschizophrenia subjects, suggesting neurodevelopmental dependence of its functional effects. Neither prenatal complications nor birth weight were associated with motor dysfunction in preschizophrenia subjects or their unaffected siblings at any age. Finally, preschizophrenia children did not show the expected developmental decline in unusual movements, perhaps reflecting aberrant functional maturation of cortical-subcortical pathways.  (+info)

(7/306) Upper limb motor function at 5000 metres: determinants of performance and residual sequelae.

Little is known about the effects of age and symptoms of acute mountain sickness and the potential benefit of short term acclimatisation on fine motor performance at altitude. There is uncertainty about whether time spent at altitude results in permanent neurological sequelae. Nine hole pegboard tests were performed on a group of trekkers at sea level (n=61), after ascending to Kanchenjunga base camp (5100 m; n=46), and 20 weeks after return to sea level (n=43). Comparison of baseline and altitude times showed a mean slowing from 36.2 to 39.0 seconds, a 7. 8% deterioration in performance (p<0.0001), which was greatest in subjects aged 50 years or older (5.04 v 1.93 seconds, p=0.017), those tested within 24 hours of arrival at 5100 m (4.75 seconds, 13. 3% v 0.48 seconds, 1.3% p<0.001), and persons experiencing symptoms of acute mountain sickness (p=0.012), each of which were independent determinants of deterioration. Repeat pegboard testing at sea level after 20 weeks showed no significant change compared with baseline (p=0.68). This confirms the deleterious effects of altitude on fine motor function, emphasises the benefit of acclimatisation, and suggests that older persons and those with symptoms of acute mountain sickness are particularly susceptible. The risk of long term motor dysfunction after exposure to these relatively moderate altitudes seems to be small.  (+info)

(8/306) Repetitive speech phenomena in Parkinson's disease.

OBJECTIVES: Repetitive speech phenomena are morphologically heterogeneous iterations of speech which have been described in several neurological disorders such as vascular dementia, progressive supranuclear palsy, Wilson's disease, and Parkinson's disease, and which are presently only poorly understood. The present, prospective study investigated repetitive speech phenomena in Parkinson's disease to describe their morphology, assess their prevalence, and to establish their relation with neuropsychological and clinical background data. METHODS: Twenty four patients with advanced Parkinson's disease and 29 subjects with mid-stage, stable idiopathic disease were screened for appearance, forms, and frequency of repetitive speech phenomena, and underwent a neuropsychological screening procedure comprising tests of general mental functioning, divergent thinking and memory. Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease had a significantly higher disease impairment, longer disease duration, and an unstable motor response to levodopa with frequent on-off fluctuations. Both groups were well matched as to their demographical, clinical, and cognitive background. Perceptual speech evaluation was used to count and differentiate forms of repetitive speech phenomena in different speech tasks. To compare the effect of the motor state, the appearance of repetitive speech phenomena was also assessed in a subgroup of patients with advanced Parkinson's disease during the on versus the off state. RESULTS: Speech repetitions emerged mainly in two variants, one hyperfluent, formally resembling palilalia, and one dysfluent, stuttering-like. Both forms were present in each patient producing repetitive speech phenomena. The repetitive speech phenomena appeared in 15 patients (28.3 %), 13 of whom belonged to the advanced disease group, indicating a significant preponderance of repetitive speech phenomena in patients with a long term, fluctuating disease course. Repetitive speech phenomena appeared with almost equal frequency during the on and the off state of patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. Their distribution among different variants of speech was disproportional, with effort demanding speech tasks producing a significantly higher number of repetitive speech phenomena over semiautomatic forms of speech. CONCLUSIONS: In idiopathic Parkinson's disease repetitive speech phenomena seem to emerge predominantly in a subgroup of patients with advanced disease impairment; manifest dementia is not a necessary prerequisite. They seem to represent a deficit of motor speech control; however, linguistic factors may also contribute to their generation. It is suggested that repetitions of speech in Parkinson's disease represent a distinctive speech disorder, which is caused by changes related to the progression of Parkinson's disease.  (+info)



autistic disorder


  • Three ASD categories were used: (1) autistic disorder (AD), (2) autistic-like condition (ALC) or Asperger syndrome, and (3) one group with autistic symptoms/traits but not entirely all its criteria met for ASD. (hindawi.com)
  • SUMMARY OF SPECIFIC PROVISIONS: Section 1 amends Section 1.03 of the mental hygiene law by adding a new subdivision 56 to define autism to mean a pervasive developmental disorder that meets the criteria set forth in the subdivision, including Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise specified, Rhett's Disorder and Childhood Disintegrative Disorder. (nysenate.gov)

Neurological Disorders


  • National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). (prezi.com)
  • Cerebral palsy refers to a group of neurological disorders that appear in infancy or early childhood and permanently affect body movement and muscle coordination Cerebral palsy (CP) is caused by damage to or abnormalities inside the developing brain that disrupt the brain's ability to control movement and maintain posture and balance. (nih.gov)

autism spectrum


  • Communicating can be difficult for children with autism spectrum disorder, but a new study shows a link between social interaction and motor skills. (nymetroparents.com)
  • She said because autism spectrum disorder is a disability that impacts social skills so dramatically, the motor skill deficit tends to be pushed aside. (nymetroparents.com)
  • She is an expert on the movement skills of children with autism spectrum disorder. (nymetroparents.com)
  • Currently at least 1 in 100 children are diagnosed with autism or another autism spectrum disorder. (nysenate.gov)

impairment of motor


  • palsy refers to the loss or impairment of motor function. (nih.gov)
  • Dyspraxia is a developmental disorder characterized by difficulty in controlling the muscles, leading to impairment of motor skills, memory and cognition. (medindia.net)

asperger's


  • Nonverbal learning disorder is on the autism scale, although these children and adults may not suffer from autism or Asperger's. (wisegeek.com)
  • Cafe41 - I know that the asperger's disorder is difficult to understand because they child is usually very bright and often gifted but does will have a behavior disorder that will not allow him to make social connections with other children. (wisegeek.com)
  • Do people with asperger's disorder usually suffer from motor-coordination skills problems? (healthtap.com)

deficits in social


  • Within each of these categories, subjects are evaluated for toxicant-induced deficits in social, cognitive, and/or motor skills. (epa.gov)
  • He sees his research on motor skills as a window of opportunity for finding out more about the brain basis of the deficits in social and communicative skills that define autism. (dana.org)
  • He believes this research may lead to better methods for early detection and treatment of autism, as well as a better understanding of the deficits in social skills and communication seen in children with autism. (dana.org)

developmental disorders


  • The results accord with the concept of early symptomatic syndromes eliciting neurodevelopmental clinical examination (ESSENCE), and highlight the need of considering ASD in a broad perspective taking also other cooccurring developmental disorders into account. (hindawi.com)
  • Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) constitute complex and heterogeneous developmental disorders, and besides the core symptoms, children with ASD display many accompanying deficits and behavioral problems. (hindawi.com)
  • Within this framework, the hypothesis that environmental toxicants are causally involved in developmental disorders is readily tested. (epa.gov)
  • Traditionally, animal models of developmental disorders have not examined systematically each of these three possible scenarios but, instead, tend to focus on single aspects of neurobehavioral development. (epa.gov)
  • Accordingly, the objective has been to develop a new paradigm for the study of toxicant-induced developmental disorders incorporating systematic assessment of retardation, regression, and/or intrusions in the neurobehavioral development of mice. (epa.gov)

brain's


  • Cerebral palsy affects the motor area of the brain's outer layer (called the cerebral cortex), the part of the brain that directs muscle movement. (nih.gov)
  • Second, the brain's motor cortex is a well-defined region. (dana.org)
  • Mostofsky and a team of researchers recently looked at the relationship between white matter in the brain's motor cortex and motor skills in children. (dana.org)
  • To measure the volume of white matter in the brain's motor regions, the scientists used anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (aMRI). (dana.org)

Epilepsy


  • Autism Epilepsy Concussion 'Epilepsy (Seizure Disorder). (prezi.com)
  • Cooccurring disorders, such as intellectual disability, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), language impairment, epilepsy, and various types of behavioral disorders/problems, are common and will affect daily life. (hindawi.com)
  • Food allergens can also cause or aggravate seizures, epilepsy, neurologic tic disorders and Attention Deficit Disorder as well as Allergic Tension Fatigue Syndrome. (susuanakku.com)

Difficulty


  • They have difficulty with motor tasks, such as tying their shoes, riding a bike, or playing baseball. (dana.org)

behavior


  • We touched on this idea when we talked about REM behavior disorder, which is a disease state that causes the normal paralysis of REM to be lost and allows one to 'act out' dreams. (healthcentral.com)

Pervasive


  • Tourettes Pervasive developmental disorder Board, A.D.A.M. Editorial. (prezi.com)

delays


  • Children who frequently fall and have muscle sprains or strains and those who experience delays in their developmental and gross motor skills may benefit from physical therapy. (atlantichealth.org)
  • Delays in both fine and gross motor skills . (wisegeek.com)

seizures


  • All people with cerebral palsy have problems with movement and posture, and some also have some level of intellectual disability, seizures, and abnormal physical sensations or perceptions, as well as other medical disorders. (nih.gov)

diagnosed with autism


  • Researchers at Oregon State University and University of Michigan tested 233 children ages 14 to 49 months diagnosed with autism and found that children with better motor skills were more adept at socializing and communicating. (nymetroparents.com)

behavioral problems


  • Researchers investigating the possible benefits of fish oil in children with developmental coordination disorder, a condition affecting approximately 5% of school age children, concluded that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may be a safe and effective treatment option for educational and behavioral problems. (disabled-world.com)
  • A reduction in behavioral problems typically associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder was also noted. (disabled-world.com)

gross and fine


  • How do gross and fine motor skills improve throughout a child's development? (healthtap.com)

researchers


  • Mostofsky says studies of motor skills and autism offer two advantages to researchers. (dana.org)
  • The researchers used a standardized test, the Physical and Neurologic Examination of Subtle Signs (PANESS), to measure the children's motor skills. (dana.org)
  • Researchers believe that helping children with autism develop motor skill will also improve their social skills. (nymetroparents.com)
  • Researchers had hoped to see improvement in motor skills after 3 months of active treatment, but there was no improvement in this area. (disabled-world.com)

cortex


  • In some cases, the cerebral motor cortex hasn't developed normally during fetal growth. (nih.gov)
  • The larger the white matter volume in the motor cortex, the better the children performed. (dana.org)
  • The white matter volume that we looked at in the motor cortex was the localized or radiate white matter," he explains. (dana.org)
  • The radiate white matter forms connections within the motor cortex itself or to nearby regions. (dana.org)

Movement


  • Pre- and post-treatment motor functions were monitored using a computerized movement analysis system (Zebris) and an established array of motor tests (e. g. (omicsonline.org)
  • Patients showed significant improvement after treatment with respect to speed, precision and smoothness of movements as shown by 3D movement analysis and clinical motor tests. (omicsonline.org)

child's


  • To provide adequate support and intervention for the child and the family, the child's total developmental profile as well as coexisting medical disorders needs to be considered. (hindawi.com)

ADHD


  • This concept highlights that many disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), tic disorders, developmental coordination disorder (DCD), language disorder, and intellectual disability (ID) may coexist in children in different combinations, and all these mentioned disorders may coexist with ASD. (hindawi.com)
  • Twenty more had been diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (dana.org)
  • Children with ADHD often also show poor motor skills. (dana.org)
  • The children with ADHD, while performing worse on motor skills tests than typically developing children, showed the same "bigger is better" white-matter pattern as the typically developing children. (dana.org)
  • None of the children had been formally diagnosed with ADHD, but their scores on assessment tests placed them within the range for a clinical diagnosis of this disorder. (disabled-world.com)

sensory


movements


  • In fact, the motor centers that allow us to move when awake are also very active during REM, but their function is inhibited or blocked by hormones in the brain that essentially paralyze the muscles, with the notable exception of the eye muscles- the rapid eye movements of REM are what give this sleep stage its name. (healthcentral.com)

speech


  • speech delay, self-service skills like eating are well developed, but dressing up and going to the bathroom is problematic, probably due to the overbearing care of adults. (reecesrainbow.org)

Stroke


  • Using musical instruments to improve motor skill recovery following a stroke. (omicsonline.org)
  • In conclusion, this innovative therapeutic strategy is an effective approach for the motor skill neurorehabilitation of stroke patients. (omicsonline.org)

behaviors


  • you learn them in the same way that you learn motor behaviors," he says. (dana.org)

coordination


  • how does low vision affect motor skill and coordination development? (healthtap.com)
  • What can I do to improve my hand-eye coordination and reflex skills? (healthtap.com)
  • Could taking painkillers like paracetamol affect judgement and coordination skills? (healthtap.com)
  • specifically motor skills and hand eye coordination? (healthtap.com)
  • Please tell me will neurofeedback help with aspergers like motor skills and hand eye coordination? (healthtap.com)

Preschool


  • To analyze cooccurring disorders and problems in a representative group of 198 preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who had had interventions at a specialized habilitation center. (hindawi.com)

symptoms


  • Balance disorders are considered uncommon in kids but might be underestimated - kids' symptoms could be misdiagnosed as something else or missed altogether. (rchsd.org)
  • Depending on the type of balance disorder and what's causing it, symptoms can vary from child to child. (rchsd.org)
  • In general, though, kids with balance disorders have symptoms of disequilibrium - an unsteady, "woozy" feeling that makes it hard to stand up, walk, turn corners, or climb the stairs without falling, bumping into things, stumbling, or tripping. (rchsd.org)

fine


  • However, a degree of both fine and gross motor skill impairment often makes writing very difficult. (wisegeek.com)
  • Fine as well as gross motor skills were addressed by using either a MIDI-piano or electronic drum pads. (omicsonline.org)
  • He has a fine motor skills deficit. (sensory-processing-disorder.com)

tasks


  • Procedural memory concerns the ability to perform skills, like performing motor tasks. (healthcentral.com)

nervous


  • A progressive nervous system disorder Nov. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Suedfeld's studies have, over the years, shown that tank sessions can be used to treat autonomic nervous system problems like chronic pain, high blood pressure, and motion disorders. (slate.com)
  • Neurofibromatosis 1 is a multisystem disorder that primarily involves the skin and nervous system. (aappublications.org)

children


  • Nonverbal learning disorder (NLD) is often a catchall phrase used to connect a variety of learning difficulties children have. (wisegeek.com)
  • However, it can be said of most children with NLD that their exceptional verbal skills often confuses teachers, who may assess a child with nonverbal learning disorder as lazy or unmotivated when it comes to producing written work. (wisegeek.com)
  • Children with nonverbal learning disorder may be able to mask some of the aspects of the condition with excellent long-term memory skills. (wisegeek.com)
  • Children with autism had a mean of 3.2 coexisting disorders or problems, the ALC/Asperger group had a mean of 1.6, and children with autistic traits had a mean of 1.6. (hindawi.com)
  • The children with autism also had poorer motor skills on average than children in the typically developing group. (dana.org)
  • Motor skills are embedded in everything we do, and for too long they have been studied separately from social and communication skills in children with autism. (nymetroparents.com)
  • Developing motor skills is crucial for children and can also help develop better social skills. (nymetroparents.com)
  • In MacDonald's study, children who tested higher for motor skills were also better at "daily living skills," such as talking, playing, walking, and requesting things from their parents. (nymetroparents.com)
  • We know that those children can sit up, walk, play and run seem to also have better communication skills. (nymetroparents.com)
  • include a definition of autism and other autism spectrum disorders even though it refers to the terms, The Mental Hygiene law should include a definition for disorders that are referenced in the statute and which are now occurring in a significant numbers of our children. (nysenate.gov)

worse


  • The disorder isn't progressive, meaning it doesn't get worse over time. (nih.gov)

Research


  • A new study published online in the journal Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders adds to the growing evidence of the important link between autism and motor skill deficits. (nymetroparents.com)
  • Megan MacDonald, an assistant professor in the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University and lead author of the study says this new research shows how important it is to study motor skills and social skills together-because the two influence each other. (nymetroparents.com)

problems


  • Balance disorders can cause vision problems, too. (rchsd.org)

People


  • No health risks are associated with fish oil supplements, except in the case of those people who are taking prescription blood thinners or who have bleeding disorders. (disabled-world.com)

Rehabilitation


  • Abstract In previous studies, it was shown that there is a need for efficient motor rehabilitation approaches. (omicsonline.org)

development


  • Nonverbal learning disorder does not have one specific cause, but is clearly attributed to right brain development or deficits. (wisegeek.com)
  • If you think about what underlies the development of social skills, it really is a learning process similar to what underlies the acquisition of motor skills. (dana.org)
  • MacDonald says some programs run by experts in adaptive physical education focus on both the motor skill development and communicative side. (nymetroparents.com)

improve


  • There is no cure for cerebral palsy, but supportive treatments, medications, and surgery can help many individuals improve their motor skills and ability to communicate with the world. (nih.gov)

assess


  • First, motor skills are easier to observe, measure and assess than are social and communicative skills. (dana.org)

classification


  • The International Classification of Sleep Disorders was catogorizec of Food Allergy Insomnia with classification of ICSD : 780.52-2. (susuanakku.com)

activities


  • Furthermore, compared to the control subjects, motor control in everyday activities improved significantly. (omicsonline.org)

possible


  • can help you maintain as much of your motor and muscle capacity as possible as the disorder progresses. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Its just common sense that one needs good vision to develop the best possible motor skill. (healthtap.com)

system


  • So they do have some motor skills, and they kind of sneak through the system," she said. (nymetroparents.com)

often


  • When misunderstood, the child with nonverbal learning disorder faces a very rough path that often results in isolation. (wisegeek.com)

ability


  • There could be many reasons for this variation, but the majority of evidence indicates that reading ability and other literacy skills may be improved by increasing intake of omega-3 fatty acids. (disabled-world.com)

Kids


  • In contrast, though the term nonverbal learning disorder suggests otherwise, NLD kids are very verbal. (wisegeek.com)