Motor Skills Disorders: Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Practice (Psychology): Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Serial Learning: Learning to make a series of responses in exact order.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Molecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Rotarod Performance Test: A performance test based on forced MOTOR ACTIVITY on a rotating rod, usually by a rodent. Parameters include the riding time (seconds) or endurance. Test is used to evaluate balance and coordination of the subjects, particular in experimental animal models for neurological disorders and drug effects.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Psychomotor Disorders: Abnormalities of motor function that are associated with organic and non-organic cognitive disorders.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.Transfer (Psychology): Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Apraxias: A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Paresis: A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Retention (Psychology): The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.Knowledge of Results (Psychology): A principle that learning is facilitated when the learner receives immediate evaluation of learning performance. The concept also hypothesizes that learning is facilitated when the learner is promptly informed whether a response is correct, and, if incorrect, of the direction of error.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
The Focus Foundation: The Focus Foundation, located in Davidsonville, Maryland, is a research agency that identifies and helps children who have X & Y Variations (also called X & Y chromosomal variations), dyslexia and/or developmental coordination disorder, conditions that lead to language-based disabilities, motor planning deficits, reading dysfunction, and attention and behavioral disorders. The Focus Foundation believes that through increased awareness, early identification and syndrome-specific treatment, children with these conditions can reach their full potential.Adult interaction with infants: When adults come into contact with infants, it is unlikely that they would be able to have a proper conversation, as the infant would not know enough about pop culture or general knowledge to create a stimulating conversation for the adult. Also, the adult may not understand baby-language and cannot relate to their situation properly.Renshaw cell: Renshaw cells are inhibitory interneurons found in the gray matter of the spinal cord, and are associated in two ways with an alpha motor neuron.Tower of Babel (M. C. Escher): Tower of Babel is a 1928 woodcut by M. C.Voluntary Parenthood League: The Voluntary Parenthood League (VPL) was an organization that advocated for contraception during the birth control movement in the United States. The VPL was founded in 1919 by Mary Dennett.Bipolar disorderSequence learning: In cognitive psychology, sequence learning is inherent to human ability because it is an integrated part of conscious and nonconscious learning as well as activities. Sequences of information or sequences of actions are used in various everyday tasks: "from sequencing sounds in speech, to sequencing movements in typing or playing instruments, to sequencing actions in driving an automobile.The Movement Disorder SocietyDavid Rees Griffiths: David Rees Griffiths (November 6, 1882 – December 17, 1953), also known by his bardic name of Amanwy, was a Welsh poet, and an older brother of politician Jim Griffiths.Mental disorderSocial anxiety disorderMolecular motor: Molecular motors are biological molecular machines that are the essential agents of movement in living organisms. In general terms, a motor may be defined as a device that consumes energy in one form and converts it into motion or mechanical work; for example, many protein-based molecular motors harness the chemical free energy released by the hydrolysis of ATP in order to perform mechanical work.Cerebral hemisphere: The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the medial longitudinal fissure. The brain can thus be described as being divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres.Homeostatic plasticity: In neuroscience, homeostatic plasticity refers to the capacity of neurons to regulate their own excitability relative to network activity, a compensatory adjustment that occurs over the timescale of days. Synaptic scaling has been proposed as a potential mechanism of homeostatic plasticity.I-LIMB Hand: The i-LIMB Hand is the brand name of world's first commercially available bionic hand invented by David Gow and his team at the Bioengineering Centre of the Princess Margaret Rose Hospital in Edinburgh, and manufactured by Touch Bionics. The articulating prosthetic hand has individually powered digits and thumb and has a choice of grips.Developmental Disability (California): In California, Developmental Disabilitymeans a disability that is attributable to mental retardation], [[cerebral palsy, epilepsy, autism, or disabling conditions found to be closely related to mental retardation or to require treatment similar to that required for individuals with mental retardation.Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status is a neuropsychological assessment initially introduced in 1998. It consists of ten subtests which give five scores, one for each of the five domains tested (immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, delayed memory).Neurotechnology: Neurotechnology is any technology that has a fundamental influence on how people understand the brain and various aspects of consciousness, thought, and higher order activities in the brain. It also includes technologies that are designed to improve and repair brain function and allow researchers and clinicians to visualize the brain.SchizophreniaFive Fingers GroupExplicit memory: Explicit memory is the conscious, intentional recollection of previous experiences and information. People use explicit memory throughout the day, such as remembering the time of an appointment or recollecting an event from years ago.Cognitive skill: Cognitive functioning is a term referring to a human’s ability to process to (thoughts) that should not deplete on a large scale in healthy individuals. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to learn new information, speech, understanding of written material.Language pedagogy: Language education may take place as a general school subject, in a specialized language school, or out of school with a rich selection of proprietary methods online and in books, CDs and DVDs. There are many methods of teaching languages.Aging movement control: Normal aging movement control in humans is about the changes on the muscles, motor neurons, nerves, sensory functions, gait, fatigue, visual and manual responses, in men and women as they get older but who do not have neurological, muscular (atrophy, dystrophy...) or neuromuscular disorder.Oculomotor apraxia: Oculomotor apraxia (OMA), also known as Cogan ocular motor apraxia or saccadic initiation failure (SIF) is the absence or defect of controlled, voluntary, and purposeful eye movement.Tada, M, Yokoseki, A, Sato, T, Makifuchi, T, Onodera, O.Postoperative cognitive dysfunction: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a short-term decline in cognitive function (especially in memory and executive functions) that may last from a few days to a few weeks after surgery. In rare cases, this disorder may persist for several months after major surgery.Representativeness heuristic: The representativeness heuristic is used when making judgments about the probability of an event under uncertainty. It is one of a group of heuristics (simple rules governing judgment or decision-making) proposed by psychologists Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman in the early 1970s.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingAdult attention deficit hyperactivity disorderBrexpiprazoleFocus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities: Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the field of special education. The editors-in-chief are Alisa K.
(1/306) Bradykinesia akinesia inco-ordination test (BRAIN TEST): an objective computerised assessment of upper limb motor function.
OBJECTIVES: A simple and rapid computerised keyboard test, based on the alternating finger tapping test, has been developed to quantify upper limb motor function. The test generates several variables: (1) kinesia score: the number of keystrokes in 60 seconds; (2) akinesia time: cumulative time that keys are depressed; (3) dysmetria score: a weighted index calculated using the number of incorrectly hit keys corrected for speed; (4) incoordination score: a measure of rhythmicity which corresponds to the variance of the time interval between keystrokes. METHODS: The BRAIN TEST(Copyright ) was assessed on 35 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, 12 patients with cerebellar dysfunction, and 27 normal control subjects. RESULTS: The mean kinesia scores of patients with Parkinson's disease or cerebellar dysfunction were significantly slower than normal controls (Parkinson's disease=107 (SD 28) keys/min v cerebellar dysfunction=86+/- (SD 28) v normal controls=182 (SD 26), p<0.001) and correlated with the UPDRS (r =-0.69, p<0.001). The akinesia time is very insensitive and was only abnormal in patients with severe parkinsonism. The median dysmetria (cerebellar dysfunction=13.8 v Parkinson's disease=6.1 v normal controls=4.2, p=0.002) and inco-ordination scores (cerebellar dysfunction=5.12 v Parkinson's disease=0.84 v normal controls=0.15, p=0.002) were significantly higher in patients with cerebellar dysfunction, in whom the dysmetria score correlated with a cerebellar disease rating scale (r=0.64, p=0.02). CONCLUSION: The BRAIN TEST(Copyright ) provides a simple, rapid, and objective assessment of upper limb motor function. It assesses speed, accuracy, and rhythmicity of upper limb movements regardless of their physiological basis. The results of the test correlate well with clinical rating scales in Parkinson's disease and cerebellar dysfunction. The BRAIN test will be useful in clinical studies. It can be downloaded from the Internet (). (+info)
(2/306) The coordination of bimanual prehension movements in a centrally deafferented patient.
Many everyday tasks require that we use our hands co-operatively, for example, when unscrewing a jar. For tasks where both hands are required to perform the same action, a common motor programme can be used. However, where each hand needs to perform a different action, some degree of independent control of each hand is required. We examined the coordination of bimanual movement kinematics in a female patient recovering from a cerebrovascular accident involving anterior regions of the parietal lobe of the right hemisphere, which resulted in a dense hemianaesthesia of her left arm. Our results indicate that unimanual movements executed by our patient using her non-sensate hand are relatively unimpaired. In contrast, during bimanual movements, reaches executed by our patient using her non-sensate hand show gross directional errors and spatiotemporal irregularities, including the inappropriate coupling of movement velocities. These data are discussed with reference to the role played by limb proprioception in the planning and control of prehension movements. (+info)
(3/306) Cortical motor reorganization in akinetic patients with Parkinson's disease: a functional MRI study.
Using functional MRI (fMRI), we have studied the changes induced by the performance of a complex sequential motor task in the cortical areas of six akinetic patients with Parkinson's disease and six normal subjects. Compared with the normal subjects, the patients with Parkinson's disease exhibited a relatively decreased fMRI signal in the rostral part of the supplementary motor area (SMA) and in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as previously shown in PET studies. Concomitantly, the same patients exhibited a significant bilateral relative increase in fMRI signal in the primary sensorimotor cortex, lateral premotor cortex, inferior parietal cortex, caudal part of the SMA and anterior cingulate cortex. These fMRI data confirm that the frontal hypoactivation observed in patients with Parkinson's disease is restricted to the rostral part of the SMA and to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These results also show that, apart from the lateral premotor and parietal cortices, increased fMRI signals can be found in other cortical motor areas of these patients, including the posterior SMA, the anterior cingulate cortex and the primary sensorimotor cortices, which are then likely to participate in the same putative attempt by the dopamine-denervated brain to recruit parallel motor circuits in order to overcome the functional deficit of the striatocortical motor loops. (+info)
(4/306) Effects of attentional focus, self-control, and dyad training on motor learning: implications for physical rehabilitation.
In this article, the authors review recent studies on 3 factors that have been shown to affect the learning of motor skills-the performer's attentional focus, self-control, and practice in dyads-and discuss their implications for rehabilitation. Research has shown that directing learners' attention to the effects of their movements can be more beneficial for learning than directing their attention to the details of their own actions. Furthermore, giving learners some control over the training regimen has been found to enhance learning, unlike prescriptive training protocols that dictate when feedback will be delivered, how often, and the order that tasks will be practiced. Finally, not only can practice in dyads (or larger groups) reduce the costs of training, but it can also result in more effective learning than individual practice sessions. The incorporation of these factors into rehabilitation practice can potentially enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of rehabilitation. (+info)
(5/306) Reversal of neuropathology and motor dysfunction in a conditional model of Huntington's disease.
Neurodegenerative disorders like Huntington's disease (HD) are characterized by progressive and putative irreversible clinical and neuropathological symptoms, including neuronal protein aggregates. Conditional transgenic models of neurodegenerative diseases therefore could be a powerful means to explore the relationship between mutant protein expression and progression of the disease. We have created a conditional model of HD by using the tet-regulatable system. Mice expressing a mutated huntingtin fragment demonstrate neuronal inclusions, characteristic neuropathology, and progressive motor dysfunction. Blockade of expression in symptomatic mice leads to a disappearance of inclusions and an amelioration of the behavioral phenotype. We thus demonstrate that a continuous influx of the mutant protein is required to maintain inclusions and symptoms, raising the possibility that HD may be reversible. (+info)
(6/306) Childhood neuromotor dysfunction in schizophrenia patients and their unaffected siblings: a prospective cohort study.
Neuromotor dysfunction is a consistent finding in high-risk and archival studies of schizophrenia, but the sources of this dysfunction and its role in the developmental course of the disorder remain poorly understood. This study examined childhood motor predictors of adult psychiatric outcome in a birth cohort sample (72 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, 63 unaffected siblings, and 7,941 nonpsychiatric controls), evaluated prospectively with neurologic examinations at 8 months, 4 years, and 7 years of age. Deviance on motor coordination measures at 7 years was associated with both adult schizophrenia and unaffected sibling status, suggesting that a cofamilial (and perhaps genetic) factor underlies motor coordination deficits in schizophrenia. Unusual movements at ages 4 and 7 predicted adult schizophrenia but not unaffected sibling status, indicating that these deficits may be specific to those who will develop the clinical phenotype. None of the motor precursors were confined to patients with an early age at first treatment contact. Fetal hypoxia predicted unusual movements at 4 but not 7 years among the preschizophrenia subjects, suggesting neurodevelopmental dependence of its functional effects. Neither prenatal complications nor birth weight were associated with motor dysfunction in preschizophrenia subjects or their unaffected siblings at any age. Finally, preschizophrenia children did not show the expected developmental decline in unusual movements, perhaps reflecting aberrant functional maturation of cortical-subcortical pathways. (+info)
(7/306) Upper limb motor function at 5000 metres: determinants of performance and residual sequelae.
Little is known about the effects of age and symptoms of acute mountain sickness and the potential benefit of short term acclimatisation on fine motor performance at altitude. There is uncertainty about whether time spent at altitude results in permanent neurological sequelae. Nine hole pegboard tests were performed on a group of trekkers at sea level (n=61), after ascending to Kanchenjunga base camp (5100 m; n=46), and 20 weeks after return to sea level (n=43). Comparison of baseline and altitude times showed a mean slowing from 36.2 to 39.0 seconds, a 7. 8% deterioration in performance (p<0.0001), which was greatest in subjects aged 50 years or older (5.04 v 1.93 seconds, p=0.017), those tested within 24 hours of arrival at 5100 m (4.75 seconds, 13. 3% v 0.48 seconds, 1.3% p<0.001), and persons experiencing symptoms of acute mountain sickness (p=0.012), each of which were independent determinants of deterioration. Repeat pegboard testing at sea level after 20 weeks showed no significant change compared with baseline (p=0.68). This confirms the deleterious effects of altitude on fine motor function, emphasises the benefit of acclimatisation, and suggests that older persons and those with symptoms of acute mountain sickness are particularly susceptible. The risk of long term motor dysfunction after exposure to these relatively moderate altitudes seems to be small. (+info)
(8/306) Repetitive speech phenomena in Parkinson's disease.
OBJECTIVES: Repetitive speech phenomena are morphologically heterogeneous iterations of speech which have been described in several neurological disorders such as vascular dementia, progressive supranuclear palsy, Wilson's disease, and Parkinson's disease, and which are presently only poorly understood. The present, prospective study investigated repetitive speech phenomena in Parkinson's disease to describe their morphology, assess their prevalence, and to establish their relation with neuropsychological and clinical background data. METHODS: Twenty four patients with advanced Parkinson's disease and 29 subjects with mid-stage, stable idiopathic disease were screened for appearance, forms, and frequency of repetitive speech phenomena, and underwent a neuropsychological screening procedure comprising tests of general mental functioning, divergent thinking and memory. Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease had a significantly higher disease impairment, longer disease duration, and an unstable motor response to levodopa with frequent on-off fluctuations. Both groups were well matched as to their demographical, clinical, and cognitive background. Perceptual speech evaluation was used to count and differentiate forms of repetitive speech phenomena in different speech tasks. To compare the effect of the motor state, the appearance of repetitive speech phenomena was also assessed in a subgroup of patients with advanced Parkinson's disease during the on versus the off state. RESULTS: Speech repetitions emerged mainly in two variants, one hyperfluent, formally resembling palilalia, and one dysfluent, stuttering-like. Both forms were present in each patient producing repetitive speech phenomena. The repetitive speech phenomena appeared in 15 patients (28.3 %), 13 of whom belonged to the advanced disease group, indicating a significant preponderance of repetitive speech phenomena in patients with a long term, fluctuating disease course. Repetitive speech phenomena appeared with almost equal frequency during the on and the off state of patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. Their distribution among different variants of speech was disproportional, with effort demanding speech tasks producing a significantly higher number of repetitive speech phenomena over semiautomatic forms of speech. CONCLUSIONS: In idiopathic Parkinson's disease repetitive speech phenomena seem to emerge predominantly in a subgroup of patients with advanced disease impairment; manifest dementia is not a necessary prerequisite. They seem to represent a deficit of motor speech control; however, linguistic factors may also contribute to their generation. It is suggested that repetitions of speech in Parkinson's disease represent a distinctive speech disorder, which is caused by changes related to the progression of Parkinson's disease. (+info)