Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Motor Skills Disorders: Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Practice (Psychology): Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Serial Learning: Learning to make a series of responses in exact order.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Molecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Rotarod Performance Test: A performance test based on forced MOTOR ACTIVITY on a rotating rod, usually by a rodent. Parameters include the riding time (seconds) or endurance. Test is used to evaluate balance and coordination of the subjects, particular in experimental animal models for neurological disorders and drug effects.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Transfer (Psychology): Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Psychomotor Disorders: Abnormalities of motor function that are associated with organic and non-organic cognitive disorders.Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Paresis: A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.Knowledge of Results (Psychology): A principle that learning is facilitated when the learner receives immediate evaluation of learning performance. The concept also hypothesizes that learning is facilitated when the learner is promptly informed whether a response is correct, and, if incorrect, of the direction of error.Retention (Psychology): The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Apraxias: A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Child Care: Care of CHILDREN in the home or in an institution.Imagery (Psychotherapy): The use of mental images produced by the imagination as a form of psychotherapy. It can be classified by the modality of its content: visual, verbal, auditory, olfactory, tactile, gustatory, or kinesthetic. Common themes derive from nature imagery (e.g., forests and mountains), water imagery (e.g., brooks and oceans), travel imagery, etc. Imagery is used in the treatment of mental disorders and in helping patients cope with other diseases. Imagery often forms a part of HYPNOSIS, of AUTOGENIC TRAINING, of RELAXATION TECHNIQUES, and of BEHAVIOR THERAPY. (From Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, vol. 4, pp29-30, 1994)Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Pyramidal Tracts: Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.ReadingTeaching: The educational process of instructing.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.H-Reflex: A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.Hand Strength: Force exerted when gripping or grasping.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Bullying: Aggressive behavior intended to cause harm or distress. The behavior may be physical or verbal. There is typically an imbalance of power, strength, or status between the target and the aggressor.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Tourette Syndrome: A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Anisometropia: A condition of an inequality of refractive power of the two eyes.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Role Playing: The adopting or performing the role of another significant individual in order to gain insight into the behavior of that person.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Esotropia: A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Strabismus: Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.
Adult interaction with infants: When adults come into contact with infants, it is unlikely that they would be able to have a proper conversation, as the infant would not know enough about pop culture or general knowledge to create a stimulating conversation for the adult. Also, the adult may not understand baby-language and cannot relate to their situation properly.The Focus Foundation: The Focus Foundation, located in Davidsonville, Maryland, is a research agency that identifies and helps children who have X & Y Variations (also called X & Y chromosomal variations), dyslexia and/or developmental coordination disorder, conditions that lead to language-based disabilities, motor planning deficits, reading dysfunction, and attention and behavioral disorders. The Focus Foundation believes that through increased awareness, early identification and syndrome-specific treatment, children with these conditions can reach their full potential.Renshaw cell: Renshaw cells are inhibitory interneurons found in the gray matter of the spinal cord, and are associated in two ways with an alpha motor neuron.Tower of Babel (M. C. Escher): Tower of Babel is a 1928 woodcut by M. C.Voluntary Parenthood League: The Voluntary Parenthood League (VPL) was an organization that advocated for contraception during the birth control movement in the United States. The VPL was founded in 1919 by Mary Dennett.Sequence learning: In cognitive psychology, sequence learning is inherent to human ability because it is an integrated part of conscious and nonconscious learning as well as activities. Sequences of information or sequences of actions are used in various everyday tasks: "from sequencing sounds in speech, to sequencing movements in typing or playing instruments, to sequencing actions in driving an automobile.David Rees Griffiths: David Rees Griffiths (November 6, 1882 – December 17, 1953), also known by his bardic name of Amanwy, was a Welsh poet, and an older brother of politician Jim Griffiths.The Movement Disorder SocietyMolecular motor: Molecular motors are biological molecular machines that are the essential agents of movement in living organisms. In general terms, a motor may be defined as a device that consumes energy in one form and converts it into motion or mechanical work; for example, many protein-based molecular motors harness the chemical free energy released by the hydrolysis of ATP in order to perform mechanical work.Homeostatic plasticity: In neuroscience, homeostatic plasticity refers to the capacity of neurons to regulate their own excitability relative to network activity, a compensatory adjustment that occurs over the timescale of days. Synaptic scaling has been proposed as a potential mechanism of homeostatic plasticity.Cerebral hemisphere: The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the medial longitudinal fissure. The brain can thus be described as being divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres.I-LIMB Hand: The i-LIMB Hand is the brand name of world's first commercially available bionic hand invented by David Gow and his team at the Bioengineering Centre of the Princess Margaret Rose Hospital in Edinburgh, and manufactured by Touch Bionics. The articulating prosthetic hand has individually powered digits and thumb and has a choice of grips.Neurotechnology: Neurotechnology is any technology that has a fundamental influence on how people understand the brain and various aspects of consciousness, thought, and higher order activities in the brain. It also includes technologies that are designed to improve and repair brain function and allow researchers and clinicians to visualize the brain.Developmental Disability (California): In California, Developmental Disabilitymeans a disability that is attributable to mental retardation], [[cerebral palsy, epilepsy, autism, or disabling conditions found to be closely related to mental retardation or to require treatment similar to that required for individuals with mental retardation.Five Fingers GroupRepeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status is a neuropsychological assessment initially introduced in 1998. It consists of ten subtests which give five scores, one for each of the five domains tested (immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, delayed memory).Explicit memory: Explicit memory is the conscious, intentional recollection of previous experiences and information. People use explicit memory throughout the day, such as remembering the time of an appointment or recollecting an event from years ago.Language pedagogy: Language education may take place as a general school subject, in a specialized language school, or out of school with a rich selection of proprietary methods online and in books, CDs and DVDs. There are many methods of teaching languages.Aging movement control: Normal aging movement control in humans is about the changes on the muscles, motor neurons, nerves, sensory functions, gait, fatigue, visual and manual responses, in men and women as they get older but who do not have neurological, muscular (atrophy, dystrophy...) or neuromuscular disorder.Cognitive skill: Cognitive functioning is a term referring to a human’s ability to process to (thoughts) that should not deplete on a large scale in healthy individuals. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to learn new information, speech, understanding of written material.Representativeness heuristic: The representativeness heuristic is used when making judgments about the probability of an event under uncertainty. It is one of a group of heuristics (simple rules governing judgment or decision-making) proposed by psychologists Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman in the early 1970s.Oculomotor apraxia: Oculomotor apraxia (OMA), also known as Cogan ocular motor apraxia or saccadic initiation failure (SIF) is the absence or defect of controlled, voluntary, and purposeful eye movement.Tada, M, Yokoseki, A, Sato, T, Makifuchi, T, Onodera, O.Maladaptation: A maladaptation () is a trait that is (or has become) more harmful than helpful, in contrast with an adaptation, which is more helpful than harmful. All organisms, from bacteria to humans, display maladaptive and adaptive traits.Child Maintenance and Other Payments Act 2008Temporal feedbackBerg Balance Scale: The Berg Balance Scale (or BBS) is a widely used clinical test of a person's static and dynamic balance abilities, named after Katherine Berg, one of the developers. For functional balance tests, the BBS is generally considered to be the gold standard.Music of Israel: The music of Israel is a combination of Jewish and non-Jewish music traditions that have come together over the course of a century to create a distinctive musical culture. For almost 150 years, musicians have sought original stylistic elements that would define the emerging national spirit.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingEvolution of human intelligence: The evolution of human intelligence refers to a set of theories that attempt to explain how human intelligence has evolved and are closely tied to the evolution of the human brain and to the origin of language.Language delay: Language delay is a failure in children to develop language abilities on the usual age appropriate for their developmental timetable. Language delay is distinct from speech delay, in which the speech mechanism itself is the focus of delay.Inferior cerebellar peduncle: The upper part of the posterior district of the medulla oblongata is occupied by the inferior cerebellar peduncle (restiform body), a thick rope-like strand situated between the lower part of the fourth ventricle and the roots of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves.Select MedicalSpalding MethodCortical stimulation mapping: Cortical stimulation mapping (often shortened to CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function.Philip Hoffman (surfing): Philip Rube "Flippy" Hoffman (January 24, 1930 – November 10, 2010) was a legendary big wave surfing pioneer and businessman.Cable grip: thumbnail|right|[[Detachable chairlift grip. (Chair is on a sidetrack).Learning Disability Coalition: The Learning Disability Coalition is a group of fourteen organisations which campaigns to secure better funding for social care for people with learning disabilities in England.Coalition was formed in May 2007.Walker (BEAM): In BEAM robotics, a walker is a walking machine that has a driven mode of locomotion by intermittent ground-contacting legs. They usually possess 1 to 12 (generally, three or less) motors.Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale: The Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS),also known as the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale (BNAS),Kaplan, R. M.Tic Talk: Living with Tourette Syndrome: Tic Talk: Living with Tourette Syndrome is a book written by Dylan Peters, a 9-year-old boy with Tourette syndrome (TS). In this personal narrative, Peters gives a timeline of events from his TS diagnosis to when he tells his friends and classmates he has TS.Postoperative cognitive dysfunction: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a short-term decline in cognitive function (especially in memory and executive functions) that may last from a few days to a few weeks after surgery. In rare cases, this disorder may persist for several months after major surgery.AnisometropiaMyokine: A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.Bente Klarlund Pedersen , Thorbjörn C.Gary H. Posner: Gary H. Posner (born c.Non-rapid eye movement sleepKinesinMurder of Robert Schwartz: The murder of Robert Schwartz occurred on December 8, 2001 in Leesburg, Virginia. The crime was orchestrated by his 20-year-old daughter, Clara Jane Schwartz, as part of a fantasy role-playing game.Syllabus: A syllabus (pl. syllabi) is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in an education or training course.Causes of Parkinson's disease: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Most people with PD have idiopathic Parkinson's disease (having no specific known cause).EsotropiaMechanochemistry: Mechanochemistry or mechanical chemistry is the coupling of mechanical and chemical phenomena on a molecular scale and includes mechanical breakage, chemical behaviour of mechanically stressed solids (e.g.List of kanji by stroke count: This Kanji index method groups together the kanji that are written with the same number of strokes. Currently, there are 2,186 individual kanji listed.Spaced retrieval: Spaced retrieval, also known as expanded retrieval or uniform retrieval, is a learning technique, which requires users to rehearse information to be learned at different and increasing spaced intervals of time or a set uniform amount of time.Haslam, C.Upsilon Phi Delta: Upsilon Phi Delta (ΥΦΔ) is the national academic honor society for students in healthcare administration in the United States. The organization was formed in 1965 to further the profession of health administration and the professional competence and dedication of its members.History of communication studies: Various aspects of communication have been the subject of study since ancient times, and the approach eventually developed into the academic discipline known today as communication studies.Information hypothesis of conditioned reinforcementHyperintensityLentiform nucleus: The lentiform nucleus or lenticular nucleus comprises the putamen and the globus pallidus within the basal ganglia. It is a large, cone-shaped mass of gray matter just lateral to the internal capsule.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Song control system: A song system, also known as a song control system (SCS), is a series of discrete brain nuclei involved in the production and learning of song in songbirds. It was first observed by Fernando Nottebohm in 1976 in a paper titled "Central control of song in the canary, Serinus canarius", published in the Journal of Comparative Neurology.Riding-like sittingStrabismusFrontostriatal circuit: Frontostriatal circuits are neural pathways that connect frontal lobe regions with the basal ganglia (striatum) that mediate motor, cognitive, and behavioural functions within the brain. They receive inputs from dopaminergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, and cholinergic cell groups that modulate information processing.HSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).Avoidance coping: In psychology, avoidance coping, escape coping, or cope and avoid is a maladaptive coping mechanism characterized by the effort to avoid dealing with a stressor. Coping refers to behaviors that attempt to protect oneself from psychological damage.
(1/2062) Structural maturation of neural pathways in children and adolescents: in vivo study.
Structural maturation of fiber tracts in the human brain, including an increase in the diameter and myelination of axons, may play a role in cognitive development during childhood and adolescence. A computational analysis of structural magnetic resonance images obtained in 111 children and adolescents revealed age-related increases in white matter density in fiber tracts constituting putative corticospinal and frontotemporal pathways. The maturation of the corticospinal tract was bilateral, whereas that of the frontotemporal pathway was found predominantly in the left (speech-dominant) hemisphere. These findings provide evidence for a gradual maturation, during late childhood and adolescence, of fiber pathways presumably supporting motor and speech functions. (+info)
(2/2062) Neuropsychological laterality indices of schizophrenia: interactions with gender.
Neurobehavioral laterality indices were examined across motor, sensory, language versus spatial, and verbal memory versus spatial memory domains for 75 patients with schizophrenia (45 men, 30 women) and 75 demographically matched healthy controls. Patients were impaired across tasks, and laterality results varied by domain. There was no evidence for diagnosis by hemisphere interactions in motor, sensory, or memory tasks. However, patients were more impaired in language than in spatial domains, which suggests relatively greater left hemisphere dysfunction. This finding was mediated by the sex of the participant. While patients as a group showed greater language than spatial impairment, male patients showed expected superiority in spatial relative to language performance, whereas female patients performed the same on both functions. These results underscore the importance of examining sex differences in laterality effects. The findings also demonstrate that, although the left hemisphere model of schizophrenia may be partially supported by data on higher cognitive functions, this support does not extend to more basic motor and sensory domains. (+info)
(3/2062) Specific alteration of spontaneous GABAergic inhibition in cerebellar purkinje cells in mice lacking the potassium channel Kv1. 1.
In the cerebellum, the basket cell innervation on Purkinje cells provides a major GABAergic inhibitory control of the single efferent output from the cerebellum. The Shaker-type K channel Kv1.1 is localized at the axon arborization preceding the terminal of the basket cells and is therefore a potential candidate for regulating the GABAergic inhibition. In this study, we directly assess this role of Kv1.1 by electrophysiological analysis of Kv1.1 null mutant mice. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) were made from Purkinje cells in thin cerebellar slices from postnatal day (P)10-15 Kv1.1-null mutants using wild-type littermates as controls. The null mutation confers a very specific change in the sIPSC: the frequency increases about twofold, without accompanying changes in the mean and variance of its amplitude distribution. The frequency and amplitude of the miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) are unaffected. Spontaneous firing rate of the basket cells is unaltered. Evoked IPSC does not show multiple activity in the mutants. Motor skills tests show that Kv1.1 null mice display a compromised ability to maintain balance on a thin stationary rod. We conclude that the Kv1.1 null mutation results in a persistent elevation of the tonic inhibitory tone on the cerebellum Purkinje cell efferent and that this is not fully compensated for by residual Shaker-type channels. We further suggest that the increase in inhibitory tone in the mutants might underlie the behavioral deficits. At the cellular level, we propose that Kv1.1 deletion enhances excitability of the basket cells by selectively enhancing the likelihood of action potential propagation past axonal branch points. (+info)
(4/2062) Long-term neurological dysfunction and neonatal hypoglycaemia after diabetic pregnancy.
AIM: To determine if children born to mothers with diabetes mellitus during pregnancy, who subsequently developed neonatal hypoglycaemia, experienced long-term neurological dysfunction. METHODS: Thirteen children with, and 15 without, neonatal hypoglycaemia (blood glucose < 1.5 mmol/l) were randomly selected from a larger cohort and investigated at the age of 8 years. They were also compared with 28 age matched healthy controls. RESULTS: Children with neonatal hypoglycaemia had significantly more difficulties in a validated screening test for minimal brain dysfunction than controls and were also more often reported to be hyperactive, impulsive, and easily distracted. On psychological assessment, they had a lower total development score than normoglycaemic children born to diabetic mothers, and control children. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal hypoglycaemia in diabetic pregnancy was associated with long-term neurological dysfunction related to minimal brain dysfunction/deficits in attention, motor control, and perception. (+info)
(5/2062) Biochemical hypothyroidism secondary to iodine deficiency is associated with poor school achievement and cognition in Bangladeshi children.
Iodine deficiency in pregnancy leads to poor cognitive function in the offspring; however, the effect of concurrent iodine deficiency on school-aged children is not clear. Several studies have shown that school children in iodine-deficient villages have poorer cognitive function than children in iodine-sufficient villages. However, villages differ in many factors that may also detrimentally affect children's development. In addition, the children's nutritional and health status has not usually been taken into account. In this study, we compared the cognitive function and school achievement levels of 170 children who had recently had low thyroxine (T4) levels [T4 = 45 nmol/L (hypothyroid)] with children who had not had low T4 levels [T4 >/=70 nmol/L (euthyroid)]. The children were matched for school and grade level and came from the same iodine-deficient regions in rural Bangladesh. They were given a battery of cognitive, motor and school achievement tests. We also measured their nutritional status, examined their stools for geohelminths and assessed their home environments. A factor analysis of cognitive and motor function tests yielded two factors, a general cognitive factor and a fine motor factor. The children's height and arm circumference, experience of hunger, parental characteristics and stimulation in the home made independent contributions to their test scores. Controlling for these variables, the hypothyroid children performed worse than the euthyroid children on reading and spelling and the general cognitive factor. These findings indicate that a large number of disadvantages including hypothyroidism are related to the poor development of these children. (+info)
(6/2062) Functional coupling of human cortical sensorimotor areas during bimanual skill acquisition.
Bimanual co-ordination of skilled finger movements is a high-level capability of the human motor system and virtually always requires training. Little is known about the physiological processes underlying successful bimanual performance and skill acquisition. In the present study, we used task-related coherence (TRCoh) and task-related power (TRPow) analysis of multichannel surface EEG to investigate the functional coupling and regional activation of human sensorimotor regions during bimanual skill acquisition. We focused on changes in interhemispheric coupling associated with bimanual learning. TRCoh and TRPow were estimated during the fusion of two overlearned unimanual finger-tapping sequences into one novel bimanual sequence, before and after a 30-min training period in 18 normal volunteers. Control experiments included learning and repetition of complex and simple unimanual finger sequences. The main finding was a significant increase in interhemispheric TRCoh selectively in the early learning stage (P < 0.0001). Interhemispheric TRCoh was also present during the unimanual control tasks, but with lower magnitude, even if learning was involved. Training improved bimanual sequence performance (from 58.3+/-24.1 to 83.7+/-15.3% correct sequences). After training, interhemispheric (bimanual) TRCoh decreased again, thereby approaching levels similar to those in the unimanual controls. We propose that the initial increase in TRCoh reflects changes in interhemispheric communication that are specifically related to bimanual learning and may be relayed through the corpus callosum. The present data might also offer a neurophysiological explanation for the clinical observation that patients with lesions of the corpus callosum may show deficits in the acquisition of novel bimanual tasks but not necessarily in the execution of previously learned bimanual activities. (+info)
(7/2062) Representational plasticity in cortical area 3b paralleling tactual-motor skill acquisition in adult monkeys.
The representations of the surfaces of the hand in the primary somatosensory cortical field, area 3b, were reconstructed in detail in seven owl monkeys and two squirrel monkeys trained to pick up food pellets from five wells of different sizes. From an early clumsy performance in which several to many retrieval attempts were required for each successful pellet retrieval, the monkeys exhibited a gradual improvement in digital dexterity as shown by significant decreases in mean numbers of grasp attempts/successful retrieval and corresponding standard deviations (e.g. 5.8 +/- 4.5 and 4.8 +/- 3.1 respectively, for the smallest well) between the first and last training sessions. All monkeys commonly used alternative, specific retrieval strategies involving various combinations of digits for significant time epochs before developing a highly successful strategy, which, once achieved, was rapidly stereotyped. For example, the numbers of digit combinations used during the first five versus the last five training sessions decreased from 3.3 +/- 0.7 to 1.8 +/- 0.6 for the smallest well. In both owl and squirrel monkeys, as the behavior came to be stereotyped, monkeys reliably engaged limited surfaces of the glabrous tips of two digits (in eight monkeys), or of three digits (in one monkey) in the palpation and manipulation of these small pellets for their location, capture, and transportation to the mouth. In cortical area 3b, the magnification of representation of these differentially engaged glabrous fingertip surfaces was nearly 2x larger than for the corresponding surfaces of other hand digits, or for the contralateral cortical representations of the same digit surfaces on the opposite hand. In parallel, cutaneous receptive field for area 3b neurons representing crucial digital tip surfaces were less than half as large as were those representing the corresponding surfaces of control digits. Receptive field overlaps were smaller on the trained fingertips than on control fingers. Moreover, the proportion of small overlaps was greater for the trained digits (76 +/- 7%) than for the other digits of the same hand (49 +/- 5.4%). There was still a simple, single--but apparently topologically expanded--representation of these differentially engaged skin surfaces in these monkeys. Thus, with very limited manual exercise over a total period of a few hours of practice at a skill played out in brief daily sessions over a several week long training period, the representations of skin surfaces providing information crucial for successfully performing a small-object retrieval behavior appeared to be substantially remodeled in the most 'primary' of the SI somatosensory cortical fields, cortical area 3b. By that remodeling, behaviorally important skin surfaces were represented in a much finer representational grain than normal. Some implications of these findings for motor skill acquisition are discussed. (+info)
(8/2062) Impaired grip-lift synergy in children with unilateral brain lesions.
Children with spastic hemiplegia have impaired dexterity in the affected extremity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the force co-ordination pattern during precision grip in 13 children between 4 and 10 years of age with predominant unilateral brain lesions is related to manual dexterity and to the location and size of the brain lesion. The force co-ordination pattern was investigated by means of a specially designed object that monitored the isometric fingertip forces applied to the contact surfaces during precision grip. Hand function was measured by means of neurological examination, functional hand-grips and dexterity. Brain lesions were identified by series of ultrasound and MRI scans. Normally, the fingertip forces are applied to the object in the initial phase of the lift in an invariant force co-ordination pattern (i.e. grip-lift synergy), in which the grip and load forces are initiated simultaneously and increase in parallel with unimodal force rate trajectories. A majority of children with unilateral brain lesions had not developed the force co-ordination pattern typical for their age, but produced an immature or a pathological pattern. The developmental level of the grip-lift synergy was determined and quantified according to criteria derived from earlier studies on normally developed children. There was a clear relationship between the developmental level of the grip-lift synergy and impaired dexterity, indicating that proper development of the force co-ordination pattern is important for skilled hand function. The grip-lift synergy correlated with the total extent of lesions in the contralateral cortex and white matter and with lesions in the thalamus/basal ganglia, while no correlation was found for isolated cortical lesions. The results suggest that the neural circuits involved in the control of the precision grip are organized in a parallel and distributed system in the hemispheres, and that the basal ganglia are important during the formation of these circuits. Perinatal lesions in specific cortical motor areas may be compensated for by circuits elsewhere in the grip-lift motor system, while large lesions exclude this possibility. (+info)