Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Fathers: Male parents, human or animal.Surrogate Mothers: Women who allow themselves to be impregnated with the understanding that the offspring are to be given over to the parents who have commissioned the surrogate.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Infant Care: Care of infants in the home or institution.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Single Parent: A natural, adoptive, or substitute parent of a dependent child, who lives with only one parent. The single parent may live with or visit the child. The concept includes the never-married, as well as the divorced and widowed.Postnatal Care: The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Depression, Postpartum: Depression in POSTPARTUM WOMEN, usually within four weeks after giving birth (PARTURITION). The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Bottle Feeding: Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Child Rearing: The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Object Attachment: Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Crying: To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.Infant Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Maternal-Child Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Child Care: Care of CHILDREN in the home or in an institution.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Perinatal Care: The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Women, Working: Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Nuclear Family: A family composed of spouses and their children.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Father-Child Relations: Interaction between the father and the child.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Lactation Disorders: Disturbances of MILK secretion in either SEX, not necessarily related to PREGNANCY.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Maternal-Fetal Relations: The bond or lack thereof between a pregnant woman and her FETUS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Birth Certificates: Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.Intergenerational Relations: The interactions between individuals of different generations. These interactions include communication, caring, accountability, loyalty, and even conflict between related or non-related individuals.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Kangaroo-Mother Care Method: A method of continuously holding a partially wrapped baby to the chest, involving skin-to-skin contact. Originally it was a method of caring for LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT INFANT in developing countries and is now more widespread in developed nations. Aside from encouraging breast feeding, the extra sleep that the infant gets assists in regulating body temperature, helps the baby conserve energy, and redirects calorie expenditures toward growth and weight gain.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Illegitimacy: The state of birth outside of wedlock. It may refer to the offspring or the parents.Single-Parent Family: A household that includes children and is headed by one adult.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Birth Order: The sequence in which children are born into the family.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Puerperal Disorders: Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Paternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.United StatesSex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Family Relations: Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.Adult Children: Children who have reached maturity or the legal age of majority.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Animals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Colostrum: The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).BrazilMarriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Pregnant Women: Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.Maternal-Child Nursing: The nursing specialty that deals with the care of women throughout their pregnancy and childbirth and the care of their newborn children.IndiaMaternal Mortality: Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.Child Custody: The formally authorized guardianship or care of a CHILD.Infant, Small for Gestational Age: An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.Family Conflict: Struggle or disagreement between parents, parent and child or other members of a family.Infant Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in infants ages 1 month to 24 months.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.Midwifery: The practice of assisting women in childbirth.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Adoption: Voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be as one's own child, usually with legal confirmation.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Sudden Infant Death: The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)Twins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Fetal Macrosomia: A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.Early Intervention (Education): Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)NorwayTobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Hospitals, Maternity: Special hospitals which provide care to women during pregnancy and parturition.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: Fetal and neonatal addiction and withdrawal as a result of the mother's dependence on drugs during pregnancy. Withdrawal or abstinence symptoms develop shortly after birth. Symptoms exhibited are loud, high-pitched crying, sweating, yawning and gastrointestinal disturbances.Breast Milk Expression: The act of evacuating BREAST MILK by hand or with a pump.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Placenta Diseases: Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.Maternal Deprivation: Prolonged separation of the offspring from the mother.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.

*  When Mother's Day Hurts--Tips from Beliefnet readers on coping with loss - Beliefnet - Page 3
Each Mother's Day marks another year that I ache for her. As usual, I think 'How will I make it through this Mother's Day?' Every year the memory of my mother and the legacy she left will get me through it. On her passing, my mother left me a silver locket given to her by her mother. It says, 'A mother's love is the heart of a happy home.' Every Mother's Day, as I thank God for my two beautiful children, I wear that locket in my mother's honor, and I pray I am the kind of selfless mother that she was. There is comfort in knowing my mother still lives at home in my heart. She lives in me and in my two beautiful children. My son, daughter, and I, are a heroine's legacy ...
  http://www.beliefnet.com/love-family/holidays/mothers-day/coping-with-loss-on-mothers-day?p=3
*  "On our own, we can't manage": experiences with infant feeding recommendations among Malawian mothers living with HIV |...
All mothers in this study initially chose to breastfeed rather than replacement feed their infants. Several expressed the sentiment that "breast milk is best for the baby". For two mothers who were unable to breastfeed because of breast health problems and a perception of insufficient milk, replacement feeding was understood as a less than ideal way to feed their infants in the early months of life.. Many mothers in interviews and focus groups emphasized the importance of exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months. One participant described the "naturalness" of exclusive breastfeeding: "That is how it is supposed to be. Formula milk is not very good for the baby until six months, when you can even give the baby porridge and other things" (Prisca, Interview 3). Most mothers responded that they chose to exclusively breastfeed, because "that's the advice they give to HIV positive women". Despite this overwhelming support for exclusive ...
  https://internationalbreastfeedingjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1746-4358-5-15
*  A Parenting and Self-Care Intervention for HIV Infected Mothers - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Worldwide, close to half the adults living with HIV are women and a large proportion of these women are of child-bearing age. Whereas anyone living with HIV faces the physical challenges of living with a chronic disease, as well as the material and social impact of the stigma associated with the disease, mothers living with HIV must also meet the demands of childrearing while mitigating the negative impact of the disease upon their family. Mothers with HIV report that this is their greatest source of stress. Moreover, children of these mothers, growing up with a parent with a chronic, stigmatized, and often fatal disease, are considered a high-risk group. The IMAGE intervention was designed to improve parenting and self-care skills in mothers with HIV in order to improve the mother's physical and mental health as well as the child's mental health and behavioral adjustment ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01586988?order=436
*  Healthcare professionals' and mothers' knowledge of, attitudes to and experiences with, Baby-Led Weaning: a content analysis...
Although anecdotal reports suggest that the use of BLW is increasing, fewer than half of the healthcare professionals in the current study had heard about this approach. Those who were aware of BLW had limited knowledge of the details and were not aware of all the practices promoted as part of BLW.4 ,5 Healthcare professionals suggested potential benefits of BLW (greater opportunity for shared family meal times, fewer mealtime battles, healthier eating behaviours, greater convenience and possible developmental advantages) but most felt reluctant to recommend it because of their concern about the potential increased risk of choking. Most healthcare professionals had not seen BLW in action and therefore had difficulty understanding how a 6-month-old infant could possess the mastication and coordination skills needed to safely manage whole pieces of food.. Overall, mothers reported that using BLW had been a positive experience, that they recommended it to other mothers, and ...
  http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/2/6/e001542.full
*  The Relationship between Life Stress and Breastfeeding Outcomes among Low-Income Mothers.
Stressful life events during pregnancy negatively affect maternal and infant outcomes including breastfeeding initiation. Their impact on breastfeeding duration is uncertain. Given breastfeeding's important health benefits we analyzed stressful life
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Relationship-between-Life-Stress-Breastfeeding/23346409.html
*  Mother and Daughter « Nikita | This I Believe
I believe in the beauty and strength of a relationship between a mother and a daughter. People always told me I looked like my dad's older brother, but I knew in my heart that there is only one person whom I truly reflect, and that is my mother. With passage of time, not only are the physical features evident, but also the personal attributes that truly make me my mother's daughter!. From the beginning of my early years, I found myself intrigued by the same passions as those of my mother's. I would come home from school and ask my mother what song I should try to play on my electronic Casio keyboard my grandmother had brought from USA. I remember swinging on the swing in the middle of an elongated room on hot summer afternoons while playing my keyboard as my mother worked in the kitchen. My mother would pleasantly make her request and smile as I make several attempts to set the tune. Once set, her words of encouragement were fuel enough to ignite and perpetuate my motivation and sometimes, her ...
  http://thisibelieve.org/essay/53784/
*  Expectant Mothers, New Mothers, and Limited Mobility Workouts - by Jillian Wilkins
Jillian's workouts are geared toward expectant mothers of all abilities. A new mother in September 2014, Jillian believes that maintaining one's fitness level during pregnancy is important, and designs her workouts with health and enjoyment for both expectant moms and babies in mind.
  http://forums.usms.org/forumdisplay.php?123-Expectant-Mothers-New-Mothers-and-Limited-Mobility-Workouts-by-Jillian-Wilkins&s=470c8d264882afafa7a67a483e061266
*  MOTHER CARE - MOTHER CARE at MADANAPALAS.COM
MOTHER CARE from India direct. Post-natal care is an essential part of Ayurveda. After giving birth Vata dosha is increased much in the mother and extra attention to diet, nutrition, oil massage and special rejuvenative and restorative medicines is given. If such is followed, the recover of the mother's body is speedy and her mind is ready to love and open her heart to the newborn. In modern times this is often neglected leaving the mother deeply exhausted and planting the seeds for possible post-natal diseases. In this section we lovingly offer the most famous and effective medicines, oils and more for the new mother.
  https://www.madanapalas.com/mother-care-c-205.html?sort=3d&page=1
*  Maternal Family Seeks Access after Death of Mother
This case deals with an application from the maternal family of a child who recently lost his mother, seeking consistent, unsupervised access.
  http://blog.separation.ca/maternal-family-seeks-access-death-mother/
*  First-time mothers 'suffer undiagnosed and untreated health issues' - BelfastTelegraph.co.uk
First-time mothers are suffering through a litany of undiagnosed, under-reported and untreated health issues in every aspect of their lives, a major research project has revealed.
  https://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/republic-of-ireland/firsttime-mothers-suffer-undiagnosed-and-untreated-health-issues-35196845.html
*  A Tribute To My Mother, Lung Cancer - Passed May 19th 2011 | Cancer Survivors Network
The moment a child is born, the mother is also born. She never existed before. The woman existed, but the mother, never. A mother is something absolutely new. ~ Rajneesh. Let's admit it... you can never be prepared enough when you decide to have your first child. There are not enough books in a person's library to get one through the first year of worry and sleepless nights in my opinion. Soft curls, baby powder and soft cooing sounds do not replace the frightening, blood curdling screams of a newborn.. How in the world did we mothers get through it?. We do the best we can as mothers in the raising of our children sometimes in spite of us. At the age of 6 or so my daughter was beside me while I was driving my car, she was trying to explain to me something and I knew part of her story was not true. She wanted to know how I could tell, so I told her I could tell by the look in her eyes. So she brought down the visor with the mirror and looked at herself to see if she could ...
  https://csn.cancer.org/node/219089
*  Swedish mothers and fathers of children with cancer : perceptions of well-being, social life, and quality care.
The overall aim was to describe and compare well-being, social life, and quality care among parents of children with cancer with respect to mothers versus fathers and whether the children were on versus. off treatment. The Life Situation Scale for Parents (LSS-P) was answered by 320 parents, comprising 85 mothers and 71 fathers of children on treatment, and 93 mothers and 71 fathers of children off treatment. The results show that the well-being of parents of children with cancer is affected by their child's situation, and that they experience such things as economic strain and a sense of being dependent on the care provided, especially during the child's treatment phase. Mothers whose children are receiving treatment see their life situation as less satisfying, and report being sadder and having lower self-esteem.. ...
  http://liu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:398383
*  May 22, 2014 Why do you think a mother's health is important to a fetus during pregnancy? - ppt download
How does a woman know she is pregnant? Signs that a female might be pregnant… Her period is missing or absent. Period is lighter or different than usual. Breasts are tender or sore. Nausea or vomiting. Changes in appetite. Frequent urination. Tiredness.
  http://slideplayer.com/slide/4075394/
*  Expectant first-time mothers uncertain about vaccinating their children | Murdoch Children's Research Institute
First-time mums are more hesitant and undecided about childhood vaccinations compared to mothers with children and only two thirds of all mothers believe they receive enough information on vaccines during pregnancy.
  https://mcri.edu.au/news/expectant-first-time-mothers-uncertain-about-vaccinating-their-children
*  Mothers Who Kill Their Children
... Houston Mother Kills her five children due to depression More than 600 mothers kill their children each year, which gives rise to a psychological condition described as 'maternal filicide,' according to a child psychologist who has reviewed the worldwide research on this topic. 'There are six major personality profiles of mothers who kill their children,' said Los Angeles psychologist Robert R. Butterworth, Ph.D. He describes
  http://www.websleuths.com/forums/showthread.php?31323-Mothers-Who-Kill-Their-Children
*  Oral Supplement for Pregnant and Lactating Mothers - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
During pregnancy mothers have to fulfill the tremendous physiological needs to support their own immune status as well as that of their babies. Accordingly, it appears highly valuable to provide mothers with a nutritional supplement during pregnancy and lactation to promote the immune development in newborns, thus reinforcing the infants' defenses.. In that respect, an appropriate maternal diet must provide sufficient energy and nutrients to meet the mother's usual requirements and promote health status, as well as the needs of the growing fetus and beyond for the neonate.. Key organogenesis steps take place during fetal life and many functional features of the immune system are already coded in the genetic asset of the individual. However, at birth the immune system remains fairly immature. An epigenetic, postnatal instruction seems to be extremely important for the maturation of the immune system allowing its full functionality.. The cross-talk between the mother and her ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01073033?intr=dietary+supplements&rank=7
*  Former abortionist: Abortion is never medically necessary to save the life of the mother, page 4
A long, long time ago when doctors made house calls and arrived via horse and buggy, there were certain instruments in his little black bag that were never talked about and, thankfully, rarely employed. Except when labor was too long, the baby too big to exit naturally, and/or the mother's life was in jeopardy. These instruments were used to crush the baby's skull in order to deliver it and save the mother...needless to say, this was before the introduction of caesarian birth. So, yes the need to save a mother's life and forfeit the baby's DID at one time demand some extraordinary measures. Thankfully, we have come a long, long way since then...but, we still have a ways to go ahead of us. One simple thing, yet seemingly impossible for some to grasp, is for women AND men to use common sense and PRECAUTION in their relationships so that the need (or "want") for an abortion is not needed for ANY other reason other than to save the respective life of mother and/or child ...
  http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread1142814/pg4
*  Mothers Living With HIV and Their Adolescent Children - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Participants and Intervention: MLH (n = 339) and their school-age children (n = 259) were randomly assigned to receive 1) an intervention of 16 sessions in a cognitive-behavioral, small-group format; or 2) control. MLH and their children were compared to non-HIV-affected families recruited at shopping markets. Participant retention was high: 84% at 6 months, 83% at 12 months, and 78% at 18 months ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00988390
*  Religious Freedom Coalition - Promoting Religious Freedom and Family Based Legislation
My brother would have been forty years old the month he was murdered. He lived with my mother. He had breakfast with my mother. He went to work with my mother. He had lunch with my mother. He had dinner with my mother. He went on vacation with my mother. He never married. He never really even had the opportunity to have a serious relationship with a woman because Of the control my mother possessed over him. My mother had the same control over my daughter. She was just thirty the year she was murdered. She also lived with my mother. My mother used food to control her and make her unattractive to men. By the time she was murdered she was so heavy she had to purchase two airline tickets because she could not fit in one seat ...
  http://www.rfcnet.org/news/default.asp?action=detail&article=144
*  Booktopia - Strong Mothers, Strong Sons, Lessons Mothers Need to Raise Extraordinary Men by Dr Meg Meeker, 9780345518101. Buy...
Booktopia has Strong Mothers, Strong Sons, Lessons Mothers Need to Raise Extraordinary Men by Dr Meg Meeker. Buy a discounted Paperback of Strong Mothers, Strong Sons online from Australia's leading online bookstore.
  http://www.booktopia.com.au/strong-mothers-strong-sons-dr-meg-meeker/prod9780345518101.html
*  PRESCHOOLERS' MOTHER-REPORTED AND CAREGIVER-TEACHER-REPORTED BEHAVIORAL AND EMOTIONAL PROBLEMS ACCORDING WITH A CHILD'S BIRTH...
PRESCHOOLERS' MOTHER-REPORTED AND CAREGIVER-TEACHER-REPORTED BEHAVIORAL AND EMOTIONAL PROBLEMS ACCORDING WITH A CHILD'S BIRTH ORDER
  http://www.journals.vu.lt/psichologija/article/view/10738
*  Recruiting and engaging new mothers in nutrition research studies: lessons from the Australian NOURISH randomised controlled...
We achieved a pleasing overall retention rate of 78% at infant age two years. This is comparable to the retention rate of 75% at two years of age recently reported for another Australian RCT of an obesity prevention intervention commencing in infancy. [21] A recent pilot study [22] examining an early feeding intervention with first-time mothers (n=160) reported 69% retention at age 12-months. In these studies the intervention was delivered via six and two home visits respectively and as such had much lower participant burden than NOURISH. The NOURISH retention rate is consistent with other longitudinal nutrition studies such as the dietary intake and anthropometric sub-studies of the well-regarded ALSPAC which had 5-6 year retention rates of 54% [23] and 64% [24]. Consistent with the pattern of selection bias, there was evidence of attrition (retention) bias in both maternal age and education. The potential impact of this bias on outcomes will be considered through planned comprehensive ...
  https://ijbnpa.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1479-5868-9-129
*  Mothers in Medicine: Guest Post: A comment from a daughter
My dad works a hard and difficult job with terrible hours because he feels it's his calling. Even when it's very difficult, there's a certain joy in it for him, in the miracle, as I'm sure you all understand. His partners are also loving parents with the same kinds of challenges of having families and careers--and all but two of the six others are women, a mother/doctor group may be interested to hear. However, I also realize that my dad works so hard also because...he loves us. Not only is he giving other people the chance to have the wonders he has, but the hard work he does makes sure that my mother can care for us and her slowly dying mother with Alzheimer's, despite those difficulties (our other grandma also lives with us, but is perfectly sound of mind, if not of eyesight). He keeps food on our table so, though things with insurance companies have made things more difficult over the years, we have never worried about food as many Americans now do--including ones nearby, ones in my school, ...
  http://www.mothersinmedicine.com/2008/07/guest-post-comment-from-daughter.html?showComment=1215535260000

Mothers TalkPrenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Breastfeeding promotionTransplacental carcinogenesis: Transplacental carcinogenesis is a series of genotypic and/or phenotypic changes in the cells of a fetus due to in utero exposure to carcinogens. Specifically, these changes are identified as malignant by virtue of their metastatic potential.Toppy: Toppy is the name given to seven cloned Labrador Retriever dogs, born in late 2007 to three surrogate mothers. They were the world's first cloned working dogs, and were used by the Korea Customs Service.Killing Aurora: Killing Aurora is a novel by Helen Barnes about a girl with anorexia. It was published in 1999 by Penguin Books.Birth weight: Birth weight is the body weight of a baby at its birth.Definitions from Georgia Department of Public Health.Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a 10-item questionnaire that was developed to identify women who have PPD. Items of the scale correspond to various clinical depression symptoms, such as guilt feeling, sleep disturbance, low energy, anhedonia, and suicidal ideation.Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale: The Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS),also known as the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale (BNAS),Kaplan, R. M.Bottle recycling: Bottles are able to be recycled and this is generally a positive option. Bottles are collected via kerbside collection or returned using a bottle deposit system.David Rees Griffiths: David Rees Griffiths (November 6, 1882 – December 17, 1953), also known by his bardic name of Amanwy, was a Welsh poet, and an older brother of politician Jim Griffiths.Male lactation: Male lactation in zoology means production of milk from mammary glands in the presence of physiological stimuli connected with nursing infants. It is well documented in the Dayak fruit bat.Teenage Mother (film): Teenage Mother (a.k.Passive immunity: Passive immunity is the transfer of active humoral immunity in the form of ready-made antibodies, from one individual to another. Passive immunity can occur naturally, when maternal antibodies are transferred to the fetus through the placenta, and can also be induced artificially, when high levels of human (or horse) antibodies specific for a pathogen or toxin are transferred to non-immune through blood products that contain antibodies like immune globulin.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Gestational age: Gestational age (or menstrual age) is a measure of the age of a pregnancy where the origin is the woman's last normal menstrual period (LMP), or the corresponding age as estimated by other methods. Such methods include adding 14 days to a known duration since fertilization (as is possible in in vitro fertilization), or by obstetric ultrasonography.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Oxo BiodegradableParent structure: In IUPAC nomenclature, a parent structure, parent compound, parent name or simply parent is the denotation for a compound consisting of an unbranched chain of skeletal atoms (not necessarily carbon), or consisting of an unsubstituted monocyclic or polycyclic ring system.International Baby Food Action Network: The International Baby Food Action Network, IBFAN, consists of public interest groups working around the world to reduce infant and young child morbidity and mortality. IBFAN aims to improve the health and well-being of babies and young children, their mothers and their families through the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding and optimal infant feeding practices.Child Maintenance and Other Payments Act 2008Maternal Health Task ForcePlacenta: The placenta (also known as afterbirth) is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply, fight against internal infection and produce hormones to support pregnancy. The placenta provides oxygen and nutrients to growing babies and removes waste products from the baby's blood.National Birth Defects Prevention Network: The National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN) was founded in 1997. It is a 501(c)3 not-for-profit volunteer organization whose members are involved in birth defects surveillance, prevention and research.Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Poverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.Lower segment Caesarean section: A lower (uterine) segment Caesarean section (LSCS) is the most commonly used type of Caesarean section used today. It includes a transverse cut just above the edge of the bladder and results in less blood loss and is easier to repair than other types of Caesarean sections.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingAvoidance coping: In psychology, avoidance coping, escape coping, or cope and avoid is a maladaptive coping mechanism characterized by the effort to avoid dealing with a stressor. Coping refers to behaviors that attempt to protect oneself from psychological damage.Pedigree chart: A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next,pedigree chart Genealogy Glossary - About.com, a part of The New York Times Company.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.KMC Chain IndustrialPhilip Stanhope (diplomat): Philip Stanhope (2 May 1732 – 16 November 1768) was the illegitimate son of Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield to whom the famous Letters to His Son were addressed. His mother was a French governess, Madelina Elizabeth du Bouchet.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Puerperal disorderHypervigilance: Hypervigilance is an enhanced state of sensory sensitivity accompanied by an exaggerated intensity of behaviors whose purpose is to detect threats. Hypervigilance is also accompanied by a state of increased anxiety which can cause exhaustion.Relative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.

(1/3911) Predicting longitudinal growth curves of height and weight using ecological factors for children with and without early growth deficiency.

Growth curve models were used to examine the effect of genetic and ecological factors on changes in height and weight of 225 children from low income, urban families who were assessed up to eight times in the first 6 y of life. Children with early growth deficiency [failure to thrive (FTT)] (n = 127) and a community sample of children without growth deficiency (n = 98) were examined to evaluate how genetic, child and family characteristics influenced growth. Children of taller and heavier parents, who were recruited at younger ages and did not have a history of growth deficiency, had accelerated growth from recruitment through age 6 y. In addition, increases in height were associated with better health, less difficult temperament, nurturant mothers and female gender; increases in weight were associated with better health. Children with a history of growth deficiency demonstrated slower rates of growth than children in the community group without a history of growth deficiency. In the community group, changes in children's height and weight were related to maternal perceptions of health and temperament and maternal nurturance during feeding, whereas in the FTT group, maternal perceptions and behavior were not in synchrony with children's growth. These findings suggest that, in addition to genetic factors, growth is dependent on a nurturant and sensitive caregiving system. Interventions to promote growth should consider child and family characteristics, including maternal perceptions of children's health and temperament and maternal mealtime behavior.  (+info)

(2/3911) Caregiver behaviors and resources influence child height-for-age in rural Chad.

The purpose of this study was to identify caregiver characteristics that influence child nutritional status in rural Chad, when controlling for socioeconomic factors. Variables were classified according to the categories of a UNICEF model of care: caregiving behaviors, household food security, food and economic resources and resources for care and health resources. Sixty-four households with 98 children from ages 12 to 71 mo were part of this study. Caregivers were interviewed to collect information on number of pregnancies, child feeding and health practices, influence on decisions regarding child health and feeding, overall satisfaction with life, social support, workload, income, use of income, and household food expenditures and consumption. Household heads were questioned about household food production and other economic resources. Caregiver and household variables were classified as two sets of variables, and separate regression models were run for each of the two sets. Significant predictors of height-for-age were then combined in the same regression model. Caregiver influence on child-feeding decisions, level of satisfaction with life, willingness to seek advice during child illnesses, and the number of individuals available to assist with domestic tasks were the caregiver factors associated with children's height-for-age. Socioeconomic factors associated with children's height-for-age were the amount of harvested cereals, the sources of household income and the household being monogamous. When the caregiver and household socioeconomic factors were combined in the same model, they explained 54% of the variance in children's height-for-age, and their regression coefficients did not change or only slightly increased, except for caregiver's propensity to seek advice during child illnesses, which was no longer significant. These results indicate that caregiver characteristics influence children's nutritional status, even while controlling for the socioeconomic status of the household.  (+info)

(3/3911) Influence of maternal ethnicity on infant mortality in Chicago, 1989-1996.

This study compared infant mortality rates between large ethnic groups in Chicago from 1989-1996. Infant mortality information about ethnic groups was compared using data from annual reports published by the Epidemiology Program, Department of Public Health, City of Chicago and vital statistics documents in Illinois, which include information on ethnicity. Chi-squared analysis was used to evaluate the differences between the proportions. A P value of < .05 was considered significant. During the study period, there were 461,974 births and 6407 infant deaths in Chicago. African Americans contributed 212,924 (46.1%) births and 4387 (68.5%) deaths; Hispanics 132,787 (28.7%) births and 1166 (18.2%) deaths; and whites 99,532 (21.6%) births and 780 (12.2%) infant deaths. Compared with the other groups. African Americans suffered a twofold increased mortality (P < .00001) for five of the six most common causes of infant mortality. Deaths from congenital malformations, although significant, were not excessively increased among African Americans (P = .014). Hispanics demonstrated a higher mortality rate than whites (P = .01), especially for postnatal mortality and respiratory distress syndrome. These data confirm excessive infant mortality among African Americans. Further studies are needed to evaluate the apparent low mortality among some Hispanics compared with the other groups studied.  (+info)

(4/3911) Recurrence of Marfan syndrome as a result of parental germ-line mosaicism for an FBN1 mutation.

Mutations in the FBN1 gene cause Marfan syndrome (MFS), a dominantly inherited connective tissue disease. Almost all the identified FBN1mutations have been family specific, and the rate of new mutations is high. We report here a de novo FBN1mutation that was identified in two sisters with MFS born to clinically unaffected parents. The paternity and maternity were unequivocally confirmed by genotyping. Although one of the parents had to be an obligatory carrier for the mutation, we could not detect the mutation in the leukocyte DNA of either parent. To identify which parent was a mosaic for the mutation we analyzed several tissues from both parents, with a quantitative and sensitive solid-phase minisequencing method. The mutation was not, however, detectable in any of the analyzed tissues. Although the mutation could not be identified in a sperm sample from the father or in samples of multiple tissue from the mother, we concluded that the mother was the likely mosaic parent and that the mutation must have occurred during the early development of her germ-line cells. Mosaicism confined to germ-line cells has rarely been reported, and this report of mosaicism for the FBN1 mutation in MFS represents an important case, in light of the evaluation of the recurrence risk in genetic counseling of families with MFS.  (+info)

(5/3911) The "thermolabile" variant of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and neural tube defects: An evaluation of genetic risk and the relative importance of the genotypes of the embryo and the mother.

Recent reports have implicated the "thermolabile" (T) variant of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) in the causation of folate-dependent neural tube defects (NTDs). We report herein the largest genetic study of NTD cases (n=271) and families (n=218) to date, establishing that, in Ireland, the "TT" genotype is found in 18.8% of cases versus 8.3% of controls (odds ratio 2.57; confidence interval [CI] 1.48-4.45; P=.0005). The maternal and paternal TT genotypes have intermediate frequencies of 13.8% and 11.9%, respectively, indicating that the predominant MTHFR-related genetic effect acts via the TT genotype of the developing embryo. Analysis of the 218 family triads of mother, father, and affected child with log-linear models supports this interpretation, providing significant evidence that the case TT genotype is associated with NTDs (P=.02) but no evidence of a maternal TT genotypic effect (P=. 83). The log-linear model predicted that the risk of NTDs conferred by the case TT genotype is 1.61 (CI 1.06-2.46), consistent with the paramount importance of the case TT genotype in determining risk. There is no compelling evidence for more than a modest additional risk conferred by a maternal TT genotype. These results favor a biological model of MTHFR-related NTD pathogenesis in which suboptimal maternal folate status imposes biochemical stress on the developing embryo, a stress it is ill-equipped to tolerate if it has a TT genotype.  (+info)

(6/3911) Acute childhood diarrhoea and maternal time allocation in the northern central Sierra of Peru.

Interventions to improve child health depend, at least implicitly, on changing maternal knowledge and behaviour and a reallocation of maternal time. There have been few studies, however, of the time cost involved in the adoption of new health technologies and even fewer that examine changes in maternal activities in response to child illness. The present study examines maternal daytime activities and investigates changes that occur when children are ill. We examine the impact of acute childhood diarrhoea episodes on the activity patterns of the mother/caretaker in this setting. The results show that mothers alter their usual activity patterns only slightly in response to acute diarrhoea episodes in their children. They continue to perform the same variety of activities as when the children are healthy, although they are more likely to perform them with the child 'carried' on their back. There is some indication that diarrhoea perceived to be more severe did result in the mother acting as caretaker more frequently. These findings have important implications for health interventions that depend on changing the amount of maternal or caretaker time spent for child health technologies, but the implications may vary depending on the reasons for the observed lack of changes in caretaker activities.  (+info)

(7/3911) Factors affecting acceptance of immunization among children in rural Bangladesh.

This paper uses the Bangladesh Fertility Survey 1989 data to identify the factors affecting acceptance of immunization among children in rural Bangladesh. Acceptance of DPT, measles and BCG vaccinations were the dependent variables. The independent variables included proximity to health facilities, frequency of visit by health worker, respondent's mobility, media exposure, education, age, economic status of household, region of residence, and gender of child. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the net effects of the variables in addition to univariate analysis. Among the independent variables, proximity to health facility, frequency of health worker's visit, mother's mobility, education, age, gender of child, ownership of radio, economic condition of household, and region of residence showed statistically significant association with acceptance of immunization. The effect of frequency of health worker's visit was dependent on region of residence, possession of radio, and mother's education. The effect of mother's ability to visit health centre alone was also dependent on ownership of radio, economic condition of household, and mother's education.  (+info)

(8/3911) Immunization determinants in the eastern region of Ghana.

A study of the immunization determinants of children aged 12 to 18 months was conducted in 1991 in the Eastern Region of Ghana, using structured interviews of mothers and fathers. The completion of immunization schedules by one year, among the 294 children, was positively associated (P < 0.005) with the town of residence of the child and mother, the ability of the mother to speak English, the target child having been treated for illness at the local hospital, the child's mother having given birth to less than 5 children, the possession of a sewing machine by the mother, and the birth of the child in the current town of residence. Significantly higher immunization coverage levels were achieved where the Under Fives' Clinic was an affordable and acceptable service, integrating preventive and curative care, and where measures were implemented by the community to increase attendance levels at the Clinic. This was achieved among a target group who were otherwise at a relatively high risk of failing to complete immunization schedules on-time.  (+info)