Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Moral Development: The process by which individuals internalize standards of right and wrong conduct.Moral Obligations: Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.Ethical Theory: A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)Virtues: Character traits that are considered to be morally praiseworthy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Ethical Analysis: The use of systematic methods of ethical examination, such as CASUISTRY or ETHICAL THEORY, in reasoning about moral problems.Personhood: The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Principle-Based Ethics: An approach to ethics that focuses on theories of the importance of general principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence/nonmaleficence, and justice.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Retrospective Moral Judgment: The application of current standards of morality to past actions, institutions, or persons.Beginning of Human Life: The point at which religious ensoulment or PERSONHOOD is considered to begin.Ethics, Nursing: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of nurses themselves, their patients, and their fellow practitioners, as well as their actions in the care of patients and in relations with their families.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Bioethical Issues: Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.Value of Life: The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Bioethics: A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.Life: The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Human Characteristics: The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Philosophy, MedicalEthical Relativism: The philosophical view that conceptions of truth and moral values are not absolute but are relative to the persons or groups holding them. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed)Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Beneficence: The state or quality of being kind, charitable, or beneficial. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). The ethical principle of BENEFICENCE requires producing net benefit over harm. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Ethics, Clinical: The identification, analysis, and resolution of moral problems that arise in the care of patients. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Conscience: The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.Metaphor: The application of a concept to that which it is not literally the same but which suggests a resemblance and comparison. Medical metaphors were widespread in ancient literature; the description of a sick body was often used by ancient writers to define a critical condition of the State, in which one corrupt part can ruin the entire system. (From Med Secoli Arte Sci, 1990;2(3):abstract 331)Eugenics: The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Euthanasia: The act or practice of killing or allowing death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Ethicists: Persons trained in philosophical or theological ethics who work in clinical, research, public policy, or other settings where they bring their expertise to bear on the analysis of ethical dilemmas in policies or cases. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Bible: The book composed of writings generally accepted by Christians as inspired by God and of divine authority. (Webster, 3d ed)Biomedical Enhancement: The use of technology-based interventions to improve functional capacities rather than to treat disease.Guilt: Subjective feeling of having committed an error, offense or sin; unpleasant feeling of self-criticism. These result from acts, impulses, or thoughts contrary to one's personal conscience.Theology: The study of religion and religious belief, or a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings (from online Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000 and WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1997)Paternalism: Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.Codes of Ethics: Systematic statements of principles or rules of appropriate professional conduct, usually established by professional societies.Engineering: The practical application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles. (Stedman, 25th ed)Euthanasia, Passive: Failing to prevent death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy by the withdrawal or withholding of life-prolonging treatment.Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Religion and ScienceEmbryo Research: Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus during the prenatal stage of development that is characterized by rapid morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures. In humans, this includes the period from the time of fertilization to the end of the eighth week after fertilization.Empathy: An individual's objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. (From Bioethics Thesaurus, 1992)Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Jehovah's Witnesses: Members of a religious denomination founded in the United States during the late 19th century in which active evangelism is practiced, the imminent approach of the millennium is preached, and war and organized government authority in matters of conscience are strongly opposed (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). Jehovah's Witnesses generally refuse blood transfusions and other blood-based treatments based on religious belief.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Dehumanization: The process by which a person or group of persons comes to be regarded or treated as lacking in human qualities.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Double Effect Principle: Guideline for determining when it is morally permissible to perform an action to pursue a good end with knowledge that the action will also bring about bad results. It generally states that, in cases where a contemplated action has such double effect, the action is permissible only if: it is not wrong in itself; the bad result is not intended; the good result is not a direct causal result of the bad result; and the good result is "proportionate to" the bad result. (from Solomon, "Double Effect," in Becker, The Encyclopedia of Ethics, 1992)Wedge Argument: An assertion that an action apparently unobjectionable in itself would set in motion a train of events leading ultimately to an undesirable outcome. (From Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995)Postmodernism: A late 20th-century philosophical approach or style of cultural analysis that seeks to reveal the cultural or social construction of concepts conventionally assumed to be natural or universal. (from E.R. DuBose, The Illusion of Trust: Toward a Medical Theological Ethics in the Postmodern Age, Kluwer, 1995)

*  Promoting Capabilities through Moral Education | Human Development and Capability Association

A system of moral education also can be used to bring about the kind of practical reasoning skills needed to solve the ordering ... Jeffrey, Anne Marshall (2014). 'Promoting Capabilities through Moral Education' Paper presented at the annual conference of the ... In the final part of the paper, I shall suggest that a system of moral education, not simply technical or literary education on ... Thus, I argue, a shift of focus onto moral education-education in virtue-is worthwhile for the Capabilities Approach as it ...

*  Is the professional code still the cornerstone of clinical nursing practice? - Esterhuizen - 1996 - Journal of Advanced Nursing...

Philip Esterhuizen, Ad Kooyman, Empowering moral decision making in nurses, Nurse Education Today, 2001, 21, 8, 640. CrossRef ... Johnathan R. Welsh, In whose 'best interests'? Ethical issues involved in the moral dilemmas surrounding the removal of ... codes in relation to their perception by nurses in the clinical situation The influence of the code in the areas of moral ...

*  The Moral Case For Sex Before Marriage - Blogtown - Portland Mercury

... short piece about why having sex before marriage is good for our morals. Basically: Sex makes us much happier people. Much, ... The Moral Case For Sex Before Marriage by Sarah Mirk • Sep 25, 2012 at 12:44 pm ... Writer Jill Filipovic has a great, short piece about why having sex before marriage is good for our morals. Basically: Sex ...

*  India's Moral Churning -- Excerpts from August 16 Tata Lecture, Delhi | Let's Talk Development

The nation's biggest challenge at this critical juncture is a moral and an ethical one. This, for India, is a moment of moral ... Skullduggery and corruption, cutting across party lines, have been rampant, eating into the moral fabric of the nation, leaving ... The nation's biggest challenge at this critical juncture is a moral and an ethical one. This, for India, is a moment of moral ... 1. Moral degradation of people. 2. Failure to carry out meaningful economic reforms from 2009 onwards. 3. Failure to be ...

*  Moral Philosophy and Current Events: Is Morality Simply a Matter of Neurochemistry?

Moral Philosophy and Current Events A blog which is dedicated to the use of Traditional (Aristotelian/Thomistic) moral ... Key Components of Each Moral Act. [Proper Moral Calculus per Aristotelian/Thomistic Synthesis] 1. Object Rationally Chosen ( ... Furthermore, it claims that these moral absolutes or immutable moral norms are understandable that is, knowable by rational man ... moral decision-making. For example, the serotonin system innervates the areas of the brain shown to be involved in moral ...

*  Romeo: Assessment and Contemporary Moral Issue Essay | Majortests

Personal and Moral Responsibility Task Weighting: 30 Total mark... ... 5.2 identify ways in which individuals develop personal moral responsibility and moral maturity. ... Moral Dqs Essay example. that changes as time progresses, and usually reflect what is acceptable actions by society at that ... Personal and Moral Responsibility. Task Weighting: 30. Total mark value: 20 marks. Due Date: Tuesday 18th June, 2013 during ...

*  Report Says U.S. Minorities Get Lower-Quality Health Care; Moral Implications of Widespread Pattern Noted -

Report Says U.S. Minorities Get Lower-Quality Health Care; Moral Implications of Widespread Pattern Noted. ...

*  9781518770913: Social Environment and Moral Progress - AbeBooks - Alfred R. Wallace: 1518770916

Social Environment and Moral Progress (9781518770913) by Alfred R. Wallace and a great selection of similar New, Used and ...

*  A Moral-Existential Account of the Psychological Factors Fostering Intergroup Conflict - Kesebir - 2011 - Social and...

We combine ideas from terror management and moral foundations theories to analyze the role of existential and moral concerns in ... We review evidence that threats to the five core moral intuitions posited by moral foundations theory (harm/care, fairness/ ... Perceived threats to one's moral values thus are capable of inducing existential anxiety and unleashing strong moral emotions, ... A Moral-Existential Account of the Psychological Factors Fostering Intergroup Conflict. Authors. *. Pelin Kesebir,. * ...

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20024597 - Animal models for diisocyanate asthma: answers for lingering questions.

Clinical studies have implicated the immune system in the pathogenesis of occupational asthma, but ethical and moral issues ... Clinical studies have implicated the immune system in the pathogenesis of occupational asthma, but ethical and moral issues ...

*  The Moral Void - Less Wrong

You're suggesting that we should trust our moral intuition instead of looking for a fundamental moral principle. But my moral ... See: Good, Evil, Morality, and Ethics: "What would it mean to want to be moral (to do the moral thing) purely for the sake of ... But, while God could pick and chose any moral rules he wants, killing a baby is something that My-Moral-Theory is unlikely ever ... There simply is no moral property to an action or consequence. There is no natural property that is moral. There is no ...

*  The New Synthesis in Moral Psychology | Science

... nature of moral thinking, and the coevolution of moral minds with cultural practices and institutions that create diverse moral ... More research is needed on the collective and religious parts of the moral domain, such as loyalty, authority, and spiritual ... including the importance of moral intuitions, the socially functional (rather than truth-seeking) ...

*  Era of progress and promise, 1863-1910 : the religious, moral, and educational development of the American Negro since his...

Era of progress and promise, 1863-1910 : the religious, moral, and educational development of the American Negro since his ... There is no true life which will meet the appro\'al of God without a correcl moral status. There can be no real race ele\'ation ... There is no true life which will meet the appro\'al of God without a correcl moral status. There can be no real race ele\'ation ... W. Lan,pton, D.D., LL.D. THE greate t need of any people is Uleir moral and religiou educa-tion. All other training or ...

*  Native Plants are a Moral Choice | Garden Rant

So placing the issue in moral terms is much like meting out moral dogma on people for the food they eat or watching tv or ... You talk about moral decisions. Moral decisions can be gardening decisions and lifestyle decisions. What is more immoral- using ... How we garden is a moral choice? Who decides what is moral in the garden? Benjamin, you, your neighbor? This is a dangerous ... A moral argument for native plants is not going to be effective for you if it is not consistent with the facts. Start with the ...

*  Behavioral Decision Research - Chapter - Harvard Business School

In three studies, we design a conflict around moral principles and find that the relationship between moral judgment and ... "Is Saving Lives Your Task or God's? Religiosity, Belief in God, and Moral Judgment." Judgment and Decision Making 12, no. 3 ( ... Keywords: religion; normative conflict; inaction; indirectness; deontology; utilitarianism; Sunday effect; Religion; Moral ... Is Saving Lives Your Task or God's?: Religiosity, Belief in God, and Moral Judgment ...

*  Give Same-Sex Schooling a Chance - Education Week

... schools does an injustice by repeatedly putting the aim of eliminating gender stereotypes ahead of the academic and moral needs ... The report repeatedly puts the aim of eliminating gender stereotypes ahead of the academic and moral needs of children. Most of ... California's same-sex schools repeatedly puts the aim of eliminating gender stereotypes ahead of the academic and moral needs ... California's same-sex schools repeatedly puts the aim of eliminating gender stereotypes ahead of the academic and moral needs ...

*  Brain Injury Medicine, 2nd Edition: Principles and Practice by Nathan D. Zasler MD,Nathan D. MD Zasler,Douglas I. MD - Research...

... moral concerns, criminal concerns, and life-care making plans. Written through over one hundred ninety stated leaders, the ...

*  Frans de Waal: Moral behavior in animals | TED Talk Subtitles and Transcript | TED

... that show how many of these moral traits all of us share. ... that show how many of these moral traits all of us share. ...

*  Mother Earth, Vol. 1, No. 7

... moral soul' are as much a product of evolution as the mind and the moral habits of the ant or the chimpanzee. We know what ... The moral ideas of these stages of civilization are absolutely strange to him; and he sees in them only 'savagery,' 'despotism ... To this new idol he ordered us to pray, that we might develop in ourselves the moral concept. But once this step had been ... He did not see that the moral sentiment in man is as deeply rooted as all the rest of his physical constitution inherited by ...

*  Caring about--caring for : moral obligations and work responsibilities in intensive care nursing.

1. The moral enterprise in intensive care nursing. Open this publication in new window or tab ,,The moral enterprise in ... A main theme was formulated as caring about--caring for: moral obligations and work responsibilities. Moral obligations and ... colleagues managing moral stress serve as models in stress support, and 5) not being able to deal with moral stress urges one ... expressing moral awareness. In the study III a hypothetical-deductive method was used. The findings indicate that moral stress ...

*  Machiavelli's Political Philosophy Book Report/Review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays

Many authors believed that the use of political power was only rightful if it was exercised by a ruler whose personal moral ... For Machiavelli, there is no moral basis on which to judge the difference between legitimate and illegitimate uses of power. ... It has been a common view among political philosophers that there exists a special relationship between moral goodness and ...

*  Conservative Ideals Drive Hummer Ownership | WIRED

Of course, those morals are guns, guts and gas guzzlers. According to an article published in the Journal of Consumer Research ... A team of researchers has found that Hummer owners say their vehicle choice is strongly related to their personal morals. ... In the article, titled 'Consumer Identity Work as Moral Protagonism: How Myth and Ideology Animate a Brand-Mediated Moral ... Of course, those morals are guns, guts and gas guzzlers.. According to an article published in the Journal of Consumer Research ...

*  Religion : NPR

... and moral issues affecting society and culture. Subscribe to NPR Religion RSS feeds. ... Religion NPR's stories on U.S. and world religion, spirituality, ethics, and moral issues affecting society and culture. ... Health Workers Face Issues of Moral Conflict. January 31, 2006 Several states are considering laws to protect health workers ... who refuse to provide services that conflict with their moral and religious beliefs. Where is the line between an individual's ...

*  When Moral Issues Become Political Issues | Mormon Matters

Should our political views always align with our moral views? When and if they don't align, why not? Guest blogger Ray explores ... "Once a moral issue enters the political arena, it no longer is just a moral issue. It becomes a political issue, subject to ... I do think political action should be a social outreach of your moral center-but what is really at our moral center? Values, ... My opinion is that "moral" values differ from one to another and therefore you just can't make a "moral" value a political ...

*  Hope for Millions

Moral and Ethical Issues (Deanna Bates). In its broadest sense, ethics is defined as the study of right and wrong conduct. ... Ethical and moral decisions should take into consideration any violations of established world orders. For example, if a farmer ... Kenya has since worked extremely hard to put ethics and morals at the forefront of their decision making process. One way they ...

Morality and religion: Morality and religion is the relationship between religious views and morals. Many religions have value frameworks regarding personal behavior meant to guide adherents in determining between right and wrong.Indignation (novel): Indignation is a novel by Philip Roth, released by Houghton Mifflin on September 16, 2008. It is his twenty-ninth book.Erga omnes: Erga omnes is a Latin phrase which means "towards all" or "towards everyone". In legal terminology, erga omnes rights or obligations are owed toward all.The Schizophrenia of Modern Ethical Theories: The Schizophrenia of Modern Ethical Theories (1976) is a popular paper in ethics by Michael Stocker. The central claim of the paper is that some modern ethical theories fail to account for motive in their theories, producing a sort of schizophrenia because the agent is unable to use his reasons or motives as a basis for his actions.Jump for the Cause: Jump for the Cause is a non-profit group of women who perform mass skydiving formations to raise money. A new world's record was set on Saturday, September 26, 2009; when 181 women from 31 countries jumped in formation.Adaptive comparative judgement: Adaptive Comparative Judgement is a technique borrowed from psychophysics which is able to generate reliable results for educational assessment - as such it is an alternative to traditional exam script marking. In the approach judges are presented with pairs of student work and are then asked to choose which is better, one or the other.Henry Lygon, 5th Earl Beauchamp: Henry Lygon, 5th Earl Beauchamp (13 February 1829 – 4 March 1866), styled Viscount Elmley between 1853 and 1863, was a British politician.Mark Siegler: Mark Siegler (born June 20, 1941) is an American physician who specializes in internal medicine. He is the Lindy Bergman Distinguished Service Professor of Medicine and Surgery at the University of Chicago.Richard K. Bernstein: Richard K. Bernstein (born June 17, 1934) is a physician and an advocate for a low-carbohydrate diabetes diet to help achieve normal blood sugars for diabetics.The Human Life ReviewSwadeshi Jagaran Manch: The Swadeshi Jagaran Manch or SJM is an economic wing of Sangh Parivar that again took the tool of Swadeshi advocated in India before its independence to destabilize the British Empire. SJM took to the promotion of Swadeshi (indigenous) industries and culture as a dote against LPG.Motivations for joining the Special OlympicsRegulation of science: The regulation of science refers to use of law, or other ruling, by academic or governmental bodies to allow or restrict science from performing certain practices, or researching certain scientific areas. It is a bioethical issue related to other practices such as abortion and euthanasia; and areas of research such as stem-cell research and cloning synthetic biology.University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics: The University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics, or JCB, is an academic research centre located on the downtown campus of the University of Toronto in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Joint Centre for Bioethics is a partnership between the University and 15 affiliated health care organizations in the Greater Toronto Area.Human Nature (America album): Human Nature is the fourteenth original studio album by American folk rock duo America, released by Oxygen Records in 1998 (see 1998 in music). It was their first new studio album since 1994's "Hourglass".Oil imperialism theories: Oil imperialism theories assert that direct and indirect control of world petroleum reserves is a root factor in current international politics.Modern Moral Philosophy: "Modern Moral Philosophy" is an influential article on moral philosophy by G. E.Science and Conscience: Science and Conscience is a Canadian current affairs television miniseries which aired on CBC Television in 1968.Illness as Metaphor: Illness as Metaphor is a 1978 book by Susan Sontag. She challenged the "blame the victim" mentality behind the language society often uses to describe diseases and those who suffer from them.Eugenics in the United States: Eugenics, the set of beliefs and practices which aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population played a significant role in the history and culture of the United States prior to its involvement in World War II.Hoya Corporation: TOPIX 100 ComponentBritish Columbia Human Rights Tribunal: The British Columbia Human Rights Tribunal is a quasi-judicial human rights body in British Columbia, Canada. It was established under the British Columbia Human Rights Code.Injustice SocietyVoluntary euthanasia: Voluntary euthanasia is the practice of ending a life in a painless manner. Voluntary euthanasia (VE) and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) have been the focus of great controversy in recent years.Dignitas Personae: Dignitas Personae is the title of a 2008 instruction by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith giving doctrinal directives on certain embryonic ethical controversies that had emerged since 1987, after Donum Vitae was released.Crime and punishment in the Bible: The Hebrew Bible is considered a holy text in most Abrahamic religions. It records a large number of events and laws that are endorsed or proscribed by the God of Israel.Boss CoffeeVincible ignorance: Vincible ignorance is, in Catholic ethics, a moral or doctrinal matter that could have been removed by diligence reasonable to the circumstances. It contrasts with invincible ignorance, which can not be removed at all, or only by supererogatory efforts (i.American Mixed Breed Obedience Registry: The American Mixed Breed Obedience Registry (AMBOR) is a registry for mixed-breed dogs to enable them to compete in obedience and dog agility.International College of Dentists: InternationalBirse Civils: Birse Civils is a civil engineering company based in North Yorkshire, England. It was formerly a separate civil engineering company simply known as Birse Group, but is now owned by Balfour Beatty.Ellen Lewis Herndon Arthur: Ellen Lewis Herndon Arthur (August 30, 1837 – January 12, 1880) was the wife of the 21st President of the United States, Chester A. Arthur I.Science, Evolution, and Creationism: Science, Evolution, and Creationism is a publication by the United States National Academy of Sciences. The book's authors intended to provide a current and comprehensive explanation of evolution and "its importance in the science classroom".Dolly Parton singles discography: The singles discography of American country singer Dolly Parton includes 106 singles and 45 music videos.Simulation theory of empathy: Simulation theory of empathy is a theory that holds that humans anticipate and make sense of the behavior of others by activating mental processes that, if carried into action, would produce similar behavior. This includes intentional behavior as well as the expression of emotions.Patient advocacyPrince (musician)The Final Decision: The Final Decision is an episode from season 1 of the animated TV series X-Men Animated Series.Rosenhan experiment: The Rosenhan experiment was a famous experiment done in order to determine the validity of psychiatric diagnosis, conducted by psychologist David Rosenhan (November 22, 1929 – February 6, 2012), a Stanford University professor, and published by the journal Science in 1973 under the title "On being sane in insane places". The study is considered an important and influential criticism of psychiatric diagnosis.Humanitarian crisis: A humanitarian crisis (or "humanitarian disaster") is defined as a singular event or a series of events that are threatening in terms of health, safety or well being of a community or large group of people."What Is a Humanitarian Crisis", Humanitarian Coalition, Retrieved on 6 May 2013.Euthanasia and the slippery slope: Critics of euthanasia sometimes claim that legalizing any form of the practice will lead to a slippery slope effect, resulting eventually in non-voluntary or even involuntary euthanasia. The slippery slope argument has been present in the euthanasia debate since at least the 1930s.Russian postmodernism: Russian postmodernism refers to the cultural, artistic, and philosophical condition in Russia since the downfall of the Soviet Union and dialectical materialism. With respect to statements about post-Soviet philosophy or sociology, the term is primarily used by non-Russians to describe the state of economic and political uncertainty they observe since the fall of communism and the way this uncertainty affects Russian identity.

(1/615) Persons and their copies.

Is cloning human beings morally wrong? The basis for the one serious objection to cloning is that, because of what a clone is, clones would have much worse lives than non-clones. I sketch a fragment of moral theory to make sense of the objection. I then outline several ways in which it might be claimed that, because of what a clone is, clones would have much worse lives than non-clones. In particular, I look at various ideas connected with autonomy. I conclude that there is no basis to the claim that, because of what a clone is, clones would have much worse lives than non-clones. I therefore reject the claim that cloning human beings is morally wrong.  (+info)

(2/615) Genetics and the British insurance industry.

Genetics and genetic testing raise key issues for insurance and employment. Governmental and public concern galvanised the British insurance industry into developing a code of practice. The history of the development of the code, issues of genetic discrimination, access to medical information, consent and the dangers of withholding information and the impact on the equity of pooled risk are explored. Proactive steps by the Association of British Insurers suggest that moral reflection not legislation is the way forward.  (+info)

(3/615) Indigenous peoples and the morality of the Human Genome Diversity Project.

In addition to the aim of mapping and sequencing one human's genome, the Human Genome Project also intends to characterise the genetic diversity of the world's peoples. The Human Genome Diversity Project raises political, economic and ethical issues. These intersect clearly when the genomes under study are those of indigenous peoples who are already subject to serious economic, legal and/or social disadvantage and discrimination. The fact that some individuals associated with the project have made dismissive comments about indigenous peoples has confused rather than illuminated the deeper issues involved, as well as causing much antagonism among indigenous peoples. There are more serious ethical issues raised by the project for all geneticists, including those who are sympathetic to the problems of indigenous peoples. With particular attention to the history and attitudes of Australian indigenous peoples, we argue that the Human Genome Diversity Project can only proceed if those who further its objectives simultaneously: respect the cultural beliefs of indigenous peoples; publicly support the efforts of indigenous peoples to achieve respect and equality; express respect by a rigorous understanding of the meaning of equitable negotiation of consent, and ensure that both immediate and long term economic benefits from the research flow back to the groups taking part.  (+info)

(4/615) Moral concerns of different types of patients in clinical BRCA1/2 gene mutation testing.

PURPOSE: Implementing predictive genetic testing for a severe and common chronic disease such as breast cancer may raise unique ethical problems. Here we report on moral concerns experienced by patients in the setting of genetic counseling based on BRCA1/2 gene testing. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were members of breast or breast/ovarian cancer families in a consecutive series of 100 families who received counseling at a familial cancer clinic. The patients' moral concerns were identified using the grounded theory approach in the qualitative analysis of verbal transcripts of 45 counseling sessions. Included were sessions with patients who had breast and ovarian cancer, as well as their male and female relatives, before and after the specific BRCA1/2 gene mutation was identified in the family, and before and after those who opted for mutation analysis were informed of their carrier status. RESULTS: There is an association of BRCA1/2 gene mutation carrier status and specific topics of moral concern. The moral preoccupations of patients with breast and ovarian cancer (probable carriers) related to their being instrumental in the detection of the specific mutation segregating in the family. The preoccupations of possible carriers concerned their own offspring. Individuals who tested positive (proven carriers) were concerned with issues of confidentiality. Patients who tested negative (proven noncarriers) were concerned with helping siblings and other relatives. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of the moral concerns of subjects in the study sample may help health care providers be aware of the moral concerns of their own patients. This report may also contribute to the debate on predictive testing for familial adult-onset diseases from the patient's perspective.  (+info)

(5/615) Equitable rationing of highly specialised health care services for children: a perspective from South Africa.

The principles of equality and equity, respectively in the Bill of Rights and the white paper on health, provide the moral and legal foundations for future health care for children in South Africa. However, given extreme health care need and scarce resources, the government faces formidable obstacles if it hopes to achieve a just allocation of public health care resources, especially among children in need of highly specialised health care. In this regard, there is a dearth of moral analysis which is practically useful in the South African situation. We offer a set of moral considerations to guide the macro-allocation of highly specialised public health care services among South Africa's children. We also mention moral considerations which should inform micro-allocation.  (+info)

(6/615) Protective truthfulness: the Chinese way of safeguarding patients in informed treatment decisions.

The first part of this paper examines the practice of informed treatment decisions in the protective medical system in China today. The second part examines how health care professionals in China perceive and carry out their responsibilities when relaying information to vulnerable patients, based on the findings of an empirical study that I had undertaken to examine the moral experience of nurses in practice situations. In the Chinese medical ethics tradition, refinement [jing] in skills and sincerity [cheng] in relating to patients are two cardinal virtues that health care professionals are required to possess. This notion of absolute sincerity carries a strong sense of parental protectiveness. The empirical findings reveal that most nurses are ambivalent about telling the truth to patients. Truth-telling would become an insincere act if a patient were to lose hope and confidence in life after learning of his or her disease. In this system of protective medical care, it is arguable as to whose interests are being protected: the patient, the family or the hospital. I would suggest that the interests of the hospital and the family members who legitimately represent the patient's interests are being honoured, but at the expense of the patient's right to know.  (+info)

(7/615) In defence of medical ethics.

A number of recent publications by the philosopher David Seedhouse are discussed. Although medicine is an eminently ethical enterprise, the technical and ethical aspects of health care practices can be distinguished, therefore justifying the existence of medical ethics and its teaching as a specific part of every medical curriculum. The goal of teaching medical ethics is to make health care practitioners aware of the essential ethical aspects of their work. Furthermore, the contention that rational bioethics is a fruitless enterprise because it analyses non-rational social events seems neither theoretically tenable nor to be borne out by actual practice. Medical ethics in particular and bioethics in general, constitute a field of expertise that must make itself understandable and convincing to relevant audiences in health care.  (+info)

(8/615) The virtue of nursing: the covenant of care.

It is argued that the current confusion about the role and purpose of the British nurse is a consequence of the modern rejection and consequent fragmentation of the inherited nursing tradition. The nature of this tradition, in which nurses were inducted into the moral virtues of care, is examined and its relevance to patient welfare is demonstrated. Practical suggestions are made as to how this moral tradition might be reappropriated and reinvigorated for modern nursing.  (+info)


  • At the highest level of post-conventional schema people base their moral judgments on universal principles of justice and fairness. (


  • 2005). Moral judgment developmental differences between gifted youth and college students. (
  • Lawrence Kohlberg, perhaps the most influential developmental psychologist to follow Piaget, theorized that children develop moral reasoning by learning standards and principles of behavior from parents, peers and other role models. (


  • We review evidence that threats to the five core moral intuitions posited by moral foundations theory (harm/care, fairness/reciprocity, ingroup/loyalty, authority/respect, and purity/ sanctity) are associated with existential anxiety and that this contributes to intergroup strife and violence. (


  • But by middle childhood (roughly 6 to 9 years of age), children begin to develop more empathetic and abstract methods of moral reasoning. (


  • 2005), works to understand the early moral development in gifted populations. (
  • Moral development has a number of stages. (
  • The study indicates that age has only a small association with moral development. (
  • Moral development involves how people grow in understanding moral issues and in making moral decisions. (
  • The moral development of children during middle childhood helps to prepare children for the increasingly complex moral decision making of adolescence and adulthood. (
  • Jean Piaget, one of the earliest theorists regarding the moral development of children, extensively studied the growth and interaction of children between ages 4 and 12. (
  • His theory of moral development, which he described as moral reasoning, has served as the basis for many of the theories that since have followed, including those developed by Lawrence Kohlberg, Nancy Eisenberg, Elliot Turiel, Bryan Sokol and Michael Chandler. (
  • In "The Development of Children," Cynthia Lightfoot and her colleagues explain, however, that even as children develop more advanced moral reasoning, they may still "succumb to temptation if it seems they can get away with it. (
  • The objective of the study was to examine the effect of cognitive moral development on ethical attitudes, in the presence of reward consequences, under conditions of moral ambiguity. (
  • The study sought to determine whether Reward Consequences (RC) will be a stronger predictor of Attitude towards the Ethicality of Competitor Bluffing (ATECB) amongst Stakeholder Role Players (SRPs) than their Level Cognitive Moral Development as a predictor of Attitude towards the Ethicality of Competitor Bluffing (ATECB). (
  • The present study was undertaken (1) to compare the connotative meanings criminals attach to a sampling of concepts with those meanings attached by noncriminals, and (2) to examine the possible relationship between moral development and criminal behavior. (
  • In addition, criminals were found to differ significantly from noncriminals on level of moral development. (


  • In early childhood, children are more often concerned about their own personal well-being when they make moral decisions. (


  • Gifted people are capable of taking in a wider context of information to come to their own moral conclusions and start doing so at a young age. (


  • Perceived threats to one's moral values thus are capable of inducing existential anxiety and unleashing strong moral emotions, creating the psychological impetus for intergroup conflict and violence. (


  • We argue that moral values, as important components of cultural worldviews, serve to buffer existential anxiety. (


  • We combine ideas from terror management and moral foundations theories to analyze the role of existential and moral concerns in the creation and escalation of intergroup conflict. (
  • Effective role modeling, open discussion and affirmative feedback all help children as they grow in the area of moral decision making. (