Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Multilocus Sequence Typing: Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Minisatellite Repeats: Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Ribotyping: RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Caliciviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.TaiwanEscherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.ItalyRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Norovirus: A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.United StatesSpain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Acinetobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Adenovirus Infections, Human: Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.ArgentinaHemodialysis Units, Hospital: Hospital units in which care is provided the hemodialysis patient. This includes hemodialysis centers in hospitals.Astroviridae Infections: Infections with ASTROVIRUS, causing gastroenteritis in human infants, calves, lambs, and piglets.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.BrazilAnimals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Sapovirus: A genus of the family CALICIVIRIDAE associated with worldwide sporadic outbreaks of GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The first recorded outbreak was in human infants in Sapporo, Japan in 1977. The genus is comprised of a single species, Sapporo virus, containing multiple strains.pol Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Dysentery, Bacillary: DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.ColombiaDisease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.IsraelMamastrovirus: A genus of small, circular RNA viruses in the family ASTROVIRIDAE. They cause GASTROENTERITIS and are found in the stools of several vertebrates including humans. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route and there are at least eight human serotypes. The type species is Human astrovirus.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Acinetobacter baumannii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Tunisia: A country in northern Africa between ALGERIA and LIBYA. Its capital is Tunis.Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.IndiaDiarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.EuropeDrug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).JapanRespiratory Syncytial Virus, Human: The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.HungaryHepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Rabies: Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Conjunctivitis, Viral: Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.AfricaStaphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Algeria: A country in northern Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between MOROCCO and TUNISIA. Its capital is Algiers.Child Day Care Centers: Facilities which provide care for pre-school and school-age children.Impetigo: A common superficial bacterial infection caused by STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS or group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. Characteristics include pustular lesions that rupture and discharge a thin, amber-colored fluid that dries and forms a crust. This condition is commonly located on the face, especially about the mouth and nose.Military Facilities: Areas designated for use by the armed forces personnel.Corynebacterium diphtheriae: A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria in which three cultural types are recognized. These types (gravis, intermedius, and mitis) were originally given in accordance with the clinical severity of the cases from which the different strains were most frequently isolated. This species is the causative agent of DIPHTHERIA.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Interspersed Repetitive Sequences: Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Vancomycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.Caliciviridae: A family of RNA viruses infecting a broad range of animals. Most individual species are restricted to their natural hosts. They possess a characteristic six-pointed starlike shape whose surfaces have cup-shaped (chalice) indentions. Transmission is by contaminated food, water, fomites, and occasionally aerosolization of secretions. Genera include LAGOVIRUS; NORWALK-LIKE VIRUSES; SAPPORO-LIKE VIRUSES; and VESIVIRUS.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Bias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.Carbapenems: A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Shigella sonnei: A lactose-fermenting bacterium causing dysentery.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.GreeceHIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Goat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.PhilippinesDengue Virus: A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.Carbon-Oxygen Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond. EC 6.1.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.BelgiumLeukocidins: Pore forming proteins originally discovered for toxic activity to LEUKOCYTES. They are EXOTOXINS produced by some pathogenic STAPHYLOCOCCUS and STREPTOCOCCUS that destroy leukocytes by lysis of the cytoplasmic granules and are partially responsible for the pathogenicity of the organisms.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Ampicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.French Guiana: A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Germany, WestEnterovirus InfectionsRuminants: A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Diphtheria: A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Cryptococcus gattii: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella bacillispora.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Peliosis Hepatis: A vascular disease of the LIVER characterized by the occurrence of multiple blood-filled CYSTS or cavities. The cysts are lined with ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; the cavities lined with hepatic parenchymal cells (HEPATOCYTES). Peliosis hepatis has been associated with use of anabolic steroids (ANABOLIC AGENTS) and certain drugs.Queensland: A state in northeastern Australia. Its capital is Brisbane. Its coast was first visited by Captain Cook in 1770 and its first settlement (penal) was located on Moreton Bay in 1824. The name Cooksland was first proposed but honor to Queen Victoria prevailed. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p996 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p441)Great BritainGambia: A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.Carcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Enterococcus faecium: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.MexicoConfounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.PakistanEmigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Contact Tracing: Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Echovirus Infections: Infectious disease processes, including meningitis, diarrhea, and respiratory disorders, caused by echoviruses.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Integrons: DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Empyema: Presence of pus in a hollow organ or body cavity.VenezuelaRussia

*  "The use of multiple imputation in molecular epidemiologic studies asse" by Manisha Desai, Denise Esserman et al.

... as this is a major aim of many molecular epidemiologic studies. We also investigated whether standard multiple imputation (MI) ... In molecular epidemiologic studies biospecimen data are collected on only a proportion of subjects eligible for study. This ... Epidemiology. Suggested Citation. Desai, Manisha; Esserman, Denise; Gammon, Marilie; and Terry, Mary Beth, "The use of multiple ... Background: In molecular epidemiologic studies biospecimen data are collected on only a proportion of subjects eligible for ...
biostats.bepress.com/cobra/art73/

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20023408 - Ethical issues in genetic and molecular epidemiology.

There is a robust literature on the ethical issues in genetic and molecular epidemiology. The literature addresses issues of ... International Conference on Molecular and Genetic Epidemiology of Cancer. Philadelphia, PA: American Association for Cancer ... There is a robust literature on the ethical issues in genetic and molecular epidemiology. The literature addresses issues of ...
https://cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20023408.html

*  Basic Science / Molecular Epidemiology / Evolution - helico.com Forums

Basic Science / Molecular Epidemiology / Evolution. Scientific questions might be discussed here - maybe someone technical can ...
helico.com/forums/viewforum.php?f=25

*  Molecular Epidemiology of Rickettsial Diseases | SpringerLink

Eremeeva ME (2012). Molecular epidemiology of rickettsial diseases in North America. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 3: 332-337.PubMed ... Balayeva N (1989). Approaches to the molecular epidemiology of rickettsioses. Eur J Epidemiol 5: 414-419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Eremeeva M.E. (2016) Molecular Epidemiology of Rickettsial Diseases. In: Thomas S. (eds) Rickettsiales. Springer, Cham. * DOI ... Finally, the limitations of contemporary tools used in the molecular epidemiology of rickettsioses are examined and discussed ...
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-46859-4_2

*  Molecular epidemiology of endemic Clostridium difficile infection | Epidemiology & Infection | Cambridge Core

Molecular epidemiology of endemic Clostridium difficile infection - Volume 126 Issue 3 - W. N. FAWLEY, M. H. WILCOX ... Molecular epidemiology of endemic Clostridium difficile infection. * W. N. FAWLEY (a1) and M. H. WILCOX (a1) ... This is the first study to provide a comprehensive insight into the molecular epidemiology of endemic Clostridium difficile and ... Hospital-based epidemiology: a strategy for 'dealing with Clostridium difficile'. Journal of Hospital Infection, Vol. 74, p. ...
https://cambridge.org/core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection/article/molecular-epidemiology-of-endemic-clostridium-difficile-infection/5EEDA9BB99A196A4780058646EC4140C

*  Molecular Epidemiology and Emergence of Rift Valley Fever

As for several other viral agents, molecular epidemiology is becoming a useful tool in the study of the emergence of RVF as a ... Studies on molecular epidemiology undertaken to better understand the factors leading to RVF emergence, have confirmed the mode ... MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY OF RVFV Investigation on the variation among RVFV isolates using serological tests based on the ... Regarding the molecular epidemiology data about RVFV, two modes of circulation may be illustrated (Fig. 2): (i) distant spread ...
scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761998000500009&lng=en&tlng=en

*  Molecular epidemiology of Newcastle disease viruses in Vietnam | SpringerLink

Molecular epidemiology of Newcastle disease viruses isolated in South Korea using sequencing of the fusion protein cleavage ... Molecular epidemiologic investigation of lentogenic Newcastle disease virus from domestic birds at live bird markets in Korea. ... Molecular epidemiological analysis of Newcastle disease virus isolated in China in 2005. Journal of Virological Methods, 140, ... Molecular epidemiological investigation of velogenic Newcastle disease viruses from village chickens in Cambodia. Virus Genes. ...
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11250-013-0475-3

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20032711 - A bibliometric analysis of scientific production in cancer molecular epidemiology.

... the main purpose of this research was to compare the scientific production in the field of cancer molecular epidemiology among ... Conclusion: cancer molecular epidemiology is an expanding area attracting an increasing interest. The identification of an ... the main purpose of this research was to compare the scientific production in the field of cancer molecular epidemiology among ... Cancer; Genes; Genetic-factors; Immune-reaction; Statistical-analysis; Carcinogenesis; Carcinogens; Epidemiology; Neoplasms ...
https://cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20032711.html

*  Molecular Epidemiology - Mary Carrington; A. Rus Hoelzel - Oxford University Press

Provides a broad overview of the diverse approaches encompassed by the emerging discipline of molecular epidemiology. ... You are here: Home Page , Medicine & Health , Public Health & Epidemiology , Epidemiology , Molecular Epidemiology ... Molecular Epidemiology. Edited by Mary Carrington and A. Rus Hoelzel. Practical Approach Series. *The sequencing of the human ... Molecular Epidemiology was a delight to read and would be invaluable to postgraduates or as a textbook for an undergraduate ...
https://global.oup.com/academic/product/molecular-epidemiology-9780199638109?cc=revNumResPerPage=20&lang=en&%0D%0AprevSortField=9&start=20

*  American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease) and the role of molecular epidemiology in guiding control strategies | The BMJ

American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease) and the role of molecular epidemiology in guiding control strategies BMJ 2003; 326 : ... American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease) and the role of molecular epidemiology in guiding control strategies. BMJ 2003; 326 ... American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease) and the role of molecular epidemiology in guiding control strategies ... American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease) and the role of molecular epidemiology in guiding control strategies ...
bmj.com/content/326/7404/1444.full

*  Infectious Diseases Molecular Epidemiology Laboratory | College of Veterinary Medicine

Molecular Epidemiology and Diversity of Foodborne and Nosocomial Pathogens. We seek to understand the molecular mechanisms and ... As a team of scientists, we seek to unravel the epidemiology and molecular mechanisms of foodborne and nosocomial pathogens, ... Foodborne and Nosocomial Pathogen Epidemiology. We seek to understand the risk factors associated with persistence and ... management risk factors and determine clonality of strains from various settings using cutting-edge molecular epidemiologic ...
vet.osu.edu/idmel

*  "Clinical and Radiographic Correlates Clinical and Radiographic Correlates: A Molecular Epidemiology Study" by Elvin H...

"Clinical and Radiographic Correlates Clinical and Radiographic Correlates: A Molecular Epidemiology Study" JAMA Vol. 293 (2005 ... Clinical and Radiographic Correlates Clinical and Radiographic Correlates: A Molecular Epidemiology Study ...
https://works.bepress.com/elvingeng/5/

*  British Library EThOS: Molecular epidemiology, evolution and adaptation of hepatitis C virus to population immunity

Molecular epidemiology, evolution and adaptation of hepatitis C virus to population immunity ...
ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.711633

*  Molecular Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases by Chris Wil - Buy Book Online at Boomerang Books

Buy Molecular Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases by Chris Wild (9780470027431) from Boomerang Books, Australia's Online ... epidemiology has moved into the molecular domain. Scientists can now use molecular markers to track disease-associated genes in ... Molecular Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases. Chris Wild. Paolo Vineis. Seymour Garte. Format: Hardback ... Book Reviews - Molecular Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases by Chris Wild. » Have you read this book? We'd like to know what you ...
https://boomerangbooks.com.au/book.cfm?isbn=9780470027431

*  Molecular epidemiology of rabies in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

In order to contribute to the understanding of the molecular epidemiology of rabies in the KwaZulu Natal province, and to ... thereby assist in future surveillance and control efforts, we conducted a molecular sequence analysis of representative panel ...
https://repository.up.ac.za/handle/2263/22881

*  Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance genes among blood and urinary Escherichia coli...

Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance genes among blood and urinary Escherichia coli ... were used to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of plasmid-mediated fosfomycin (fos) resistance genes. ...
https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23988630

*  The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA IN CAMEROON. XVII. BASELINE...

f MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA IN CAMEROON. XVII. BASELINE MONITORING OF ATOVAQUONE-RESISTANT PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM BY IN ... Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Yaounde, Cameroon. VI. Sequence variations in the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate ... MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA IN CAMEROON. XVII. BASELINE MONITORING OF ATOVAQUONE-RESISTANT PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM BY IN ... The Epidemiology of Dengue in the Americas Over the Last Three Decades: A Worrisome Reality Authors: José Luis San Martín, ...
ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2003.69.179

*  The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA IN CAMEROON. XXIV. TRENDS OF IN VITRO...

... complementary laboratory tool for determining the trend of response to drugs for which there is still no established molecular ... f MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA IN CAMEROON. XXIV. TRENDS OF IN VITRO ANTIMALARIAL DRUG RESPONSES IN YAOUNDE, CAMEROON * ... Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XIX. Quality of antimalarial drugs used for self-medication. Am J Trop Med Hyg ... Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XIII. Analysis of pfcrt mutations and in vitro chloroquine resistance. Am J Trop ...
ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.76.20

*  Table 2 - Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - Volume 7, Number 2-April 2001 - Emerging...

Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bo Shopsin*† and Barry N. Kreiswirth*. ...
https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/7/2/70-0323-t2

*  Figure 1 - Molecular Epidemiology of Dengue Virus Strains from Finnish Travelers - Volume 14, Number 1-January 2008 - Emerging...

Molecular Epidemiology of Dengue Virus Strains from Finnish Travelers Eili Huhtamo*. , Nathalie Y. Uzcátegui*, Heli Siikamäki ...
https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/14/1/07-0865-f1

*  Increase in Bloodstream Infection Due to Vancomycin-Susceptible Enterococcus faecium in Cancer Patients: Risk Factors,...

... molecular epidemiology and outcome of bloodstream infection (BSI) due to Enterococcus faecium in hospitalized cancer patients. ...
journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0074734

*  Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis E virus infections in Shanghai, China

More molecular epidemiological investigations of HEV in swine, and particularly among the human population, should be ... the epidemiology of HEV infections within the municipality, a major industrial and commercial center, deserves closer attention ...
https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/18777

*  Molecular Epidemiology and Natural History of SIVcpz | Scholars@Duke

Molecular Epidemiology and Natural History of SIVcpz's profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors ... Molecular Epidemiology and Natural History of SIVcpz Administered By * Evolutionary Anthropology Awarded By * University of ...
https://scholars.duke.edu/display/gra198080

*  Nutritional requirements in advanced cancer patients | OncologyPRO

Glossary of Molecular Biology. ESMO members: Browse through the ESMO Glossary in Molecular Biology of Cancer and Molecular ... Cancer Aetiology, Epidemiology and Prevention. Find ESMO publications, meeting resources, experts' interviews and more on this ... Pathology and Molecular Biology. Access ESMO scientific and educational resources on this topic ... Educational slides on Cancer Prevention, Clinical Trials, Colorectal Cancer and Molecular Biology ...
oncologypro.esmo.org/Meeting-Resources/ESMO-Preceptorship-on-Supportive-and-Palliative-Care-Zurich-February-2017/Nutritional-requirements-in-advanced-cancer-patients

*  CDPH Home

Clinical Genetic Molecular Biologist Scientist Trainee License. *Clinical Hematologist Scientist Trainee License ... Environmental Epidemiology Section. *Exposure Assessment Section. *Site Assessment Section. *Contact EHIB *Environmental Health ...
https://cdph.ca.gov/

ESCAIDEPulsenet: PulseNet is a network run by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) which brings together public health and food regulatory agency laboratories around the United States.http://www.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Amplified fragment length polymorphismCameroon–China relations: China and Cameroon established bilateral relations on March 26, 1971. Cameroon is an adherent to the One China Policy.Genetic variation: right|thumbThermal cyclerInfection Control and Hospital Epidemiology: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the University of Chicago Press. It publishes research on control and evaluation of the transmission of pathogens in healthcare institutions and on the use of epidemiological principles and methods to evaluate and improve the delivery of care, including infection control practices, surveillance, cost-benefit analyses, resource use, occupational health, and regulatory issues.Multiple Loci VNTR Analysis: Multiple Loci VNTR Analysis (MLVA ) is a method employed for the genetic analysis of particular microorganisms, such as pathogenic bacteria, that takes advantage of the polymorphism of tandemly repeated DNA sequences. A "VNTR" is a "variable-number tandem repeat".Coles PhillipsBeta-lactamaseIncidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.BacitracinViral gastroenteritis: Viral gastroenteritis (Gastro-Enter-eye,tiss),http://www.merriam-webster.RAPD: RAPD (pronounced "rapid") stands for 'Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA'. It is a type of PCR reaction, but the segments of DNA that are amplified are random.Resistome: The resistome is a proposed expression by Gerard D. Wright for the collection of all the antibiotic resistance genes and their precursors in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria.Klebsiella pneumoniaMycobacterium tuberculosis complex: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex refers to a genetically related group of Mycobacterium species that can cause tuberculosis in humans or other organisms.Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).National Taiwan University Hospital: The National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH; ) started operations under Japanese rule in Daitōtei (today's Dadaocheng) on June 18, 1895, and moved to its present location in 1898. The Hospital was later annexed to the Medical School of Taihoku Imperial University and renamed Taihoku Imperial University Medical School Affiliated Hospital in 1937.Triangle of death (Italy): The triangle of death (Italian: Triangolo della morte) is an area in the Italian province of Campania comprising the municipalities of Acerra, Nola and Marigliano. The region has recently experienced increasing deaths caused by cancer and other diseases that exceeds the Italian national average.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Gijs Kuenen: Johannes Gijsbrecht Kuenen (born 9 December 1940, Heemstede) is a Dutch microbiologist who is professor emeritus at the Delft University of Technology and a visiting scientist at the University of Southern California. His research is influenced by, and a contribution to, the scientific tradition of the Delft School of Microbiology.Tuberculosis managementFour Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Norovirus: Norovirus, sometimes known as the winter vomiting bug in the UK, is the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans. It affects people of all ages.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,List of lighthouses in Spain: This is a list of lighthouses in Spain.Phylogeography: Phylogeography is the study of the historical processes that may be responsible for the contemporary geographic distributions of individuals. This is accomplished by considering the geographic distribution of individuals in light of the patterns associated with a gene genealogy.Budic II of Brittany: Budic II (; or ; ), formerly known as Budick, was a king of Cornouaille in Brittany in the late 5th and early 6th centuries. He was the father of Hoel Mawr and is probably to be identified with the Emyr Llydaw ("Emperor of Brittany") and King Nentres who appear in Arthurian legend.Epidemiological method: The science of epidemiology has matured significantly from the times of Hippocrates and John Snow. The techniques for gathering and analyzing epidemiological data vary depending on the type of disease being monitored but each study will have overarching similarities.Marcos Paz, Buenos AiresUniversity of CampinasSapovirus: Sapovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Caliciviridae. Humans and swine serve as natural hosts.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Quellung reaction: The Quellung reaction is a biochemical reaction in which antibodies bind to the bacterial capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Page 340 Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. The antibody reaction allows these species to be visualized under a microscope.Bacillary dysenteryProportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.El Queremal, Valle del CaucaColt Crag Reservoir: Colt Crag Reservoir is a relatively shallow reservoir in Northumberland, England adjacent to the A68 road, and north of Corbridge. The A68 road at this point runs along the course of Dere Street, a Roman road.Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center: Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center (commonly referred to as Ichilov Hospital) is the main hospital serving Tel Aviv, Israel, and its metropolitan area. It is the third-largest hospital complex in the country.Rabies virus: The rabies virus is a neurotropic virus that causes rabies in humans and animals. Rabies transmission can occur through the saliva of animals and less commonly through contact with human saliva.Ewingella americana: Ewingella americana is a Gram-negative rod, and the only species in the genus Ewingella. It was first identified and characterized in 1983.Acinetobacter baumannii: Acinetobacter baumannii is a typically short, almost round, rod-shaped (coccobacillus) Gram-negative bacterium. It can be an opportunistic pathogen in humans, affecting people with compromised immune systems, and is becoming increasingly important as a hospital-derived (nosocomial) infection.Gene polymorphismBacteremia: (NOS) |Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.List of butterflies of Tunisia: This is a list of butterflies of Tunisia. About 84 species are known from Tunisia.Rotavirus: Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhoea among infants and young children. It is a genus of double-stranded RNA virus in the family Reoviridae.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityCongenital chloride diarrhea: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD, also congenital chloridorrhea or Darrow Gamble syndrome) is a genetic disorder due to an autosomal recessive mutation on chromosome 7. The mutation is in downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA), a gene that encodes a membrane protein of intestinal cells.GA²LENNiigata University

(1/3372) Quantitative analysis of constitutive and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced cytochrome P450 1B1 expression in human lymphocytes.

Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or dioxin) results in a broad spectrum of biological responses, including altered metabolism, disruption of normal hormone signaling pathways, reproductive and developmental effects, and cancer. Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is a dioxin-inducible gene that is active in the formation of 4-hydroxyestradiol, a potentially genotoxic catechol estrogen. Therefore, the analysis of CYP1B1 in humans may be useful in establishing relationships between dioxin exposure and adverse health effects. In this study, we examined the expression of CYP1B1 in human peripheral blood lymphocytes of unexposed individuals using a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR method. Absolute CYP1B1 RNA levels varied more than 30-fold in uncultured mononuclear cells obtained from 10 individuals. In vitro treatment of mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes with TCDD for 1-5 days of culture resulted in a peak induction of CYP1B1 after 3 days. The induction of CYP1B1 RNA levels after 3 days of culture was dose-dependent, exhibited a maximum response above 10 nM TCDD, and varied greatly among different individuals. However, the half maximal dose required for this induction was similar between individuals and comparable to that observed in the MCF-7 and HepG2 human cell lines. These observations indicate that CYP1B1 exhibits variable constitutive expression and is inducible in vitro by TCDD in human lymphocytes and that the magnitude of induction varies within the population. These data define the suitability of CYP1B1 for use as a mechanistically based biomarker in ongoing molecular epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to dioxins and related chemicals that bind the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor.  (+info)

(2/3372) Molecular markers demonstrate that the first described multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium bovis outbreak was due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

We genetically characterized multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains which caused a nosocomial outbreak of tuberculosis affecting six human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and one HIV-negative staff member (E. Bouvet, E. Casalino, G. Mendoza-Sassi, S. Lariven, E. Vallee, M. Pernet, S. Gottot, and F. Vachon, AIDS 7:1453-1460, 1993). The strains showed all the phenotypic characteristics of Mycobacterium bovis. They presented a high copy number of IS6110, the spacers 40 to 43 in the direct repeat locus, and the mtp40 fragment. They lacked the G-A mutation at position 285 in the oxyR gene and the C-G mutation at position 169 in the pncA gene. These genetic characteristics revealed that these were dysgonic, slow-growing M. tuberculosis strains mimicking the M. bovis phenotype, probably as a consequence of cellular alterations associated with the multidrug resistance. Spoligotyping and IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis confirmed that the outbreak was due to a single strain. However, the IS6110 RFLP pattern of the strain isolated from the last patient, diagnosed three years after the index case, differed slightly from the patterns of the other six strains. A model of a possible genetic event is presented to explain this divergence. This study stresses the value of using several independent molecular markers to identify multidrug-resistant tubercle bacilli.  (+info)

(3/3372) Molecular evidence for heterogeneity of the multiple-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis population in Scotland (1990 to 1997).

Multiple-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-MTB) has been well studied in hospitals or health care institutions and in human immunodeficiency virus-infected populations. However, the characteristics of MDR-MTB in the community have not been well investigated. An understanding of its prevalence and circulation within the community will help to estimate the problem and optimize the strategies for control and prevention of its development and transmission. In this study, MDR-MTB isolates from Scotland collected between 1990 and 1997 were characterized, along with non-drug-resistant isolates. The results showed that they were genetically diverse, suggesting they were unrelated to each other and had probably evolved independently. Several new alleles of rpoB, katG, and ahpC were identified: rpoB codon 525 (ACC-->AAC; Thr525Asn); katG codon 128 (CGG-->CAG; Arg128Gln) and codon 291 (GCT-->CCT; Ala291Pro); and the ahpC synonymous substitution at codon 6 (ATT-->ATC). One of the MDR-MTB isolates from an Asian patient had an IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern very similar to that of the MDR-MTB W strain and had the same drug resistance-related alleles but did not have any epidemiological connection with the W strains. Additionally, a cluster of M. tuberculosis isolates was identified in our collection of 715 clinical isolates; the isolates in this cluster had genetic backgrounds very similar to those of the W strains, one of which had already developed multiple drug resistances. The diverse population of MDR-MTB in Scotland, along with a low incidence of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis, has implications for the control of the organism and prevention of its spread.  (+info)

(4/3372) Analysis with a combination of macrorestriction endonucleases reveals a high degree of polymorphism among Bordetella pertussis isolates in eastern France.

From 1990 to 1996, routine screening for whooping cough identified 399 patients with a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase-positive test result and yielded 69 Bordetella pertussis isolates. None of the patients were fully vaccinated, and most were less than 6 months old. Analysis of total DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after XbaI, SpeI, or DraI macrorestriction yielded 19, 15, and 5 different patterns, respectively, whereas ribotyping failed to demonstrate any strain polymorphism. Discrimination among the isolates was improved by combining the PFGE profiles. Some patterns were more frequent, but the corresponding patients were not clearly epidemiologically related. The patterns for two strains obtained during a 3-month period from patients who were neighbors differed by the length of a single DNA fragment. These data strongly suggest that one type of isolate is widely spread throughout the world and is carried by individuals other than patients who develop a true illness.  (+info)

(5/3372) Use of molecular subtyping to document long-term persistence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae in South Dakota.

Enhanced surveillance of patients with upper respiratory symptoms in a Northern Plains community revealed that approximately 4% of them were infected by toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae of both mitis and gravis biotypes, showing that the organism is still circulating in the United States. Toxigenic C. diphtheriae was isolated from five members of four households. Four molecular subtyping methods-ribotyping, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and single-strand conformation polymorphism-were used to molecularly characterize these strains and compare them to 17 archival South Dakota strains dating back to 1973 through 1983 and to 5 isolates collected from residents of diverse regions of the United States. Ribotyping and RAPD clearly demonstrated the household transmission of isolates and provided precise information on the circulation of several distinct strains within three households. By MEE, most recent and archival South Dakota strains were identified as closely related and clustered within the newly identified ET (electrophoretic type) 215 complex. Furthermore, three recent South Dakota isolates and eight archival South Dakota isolates were indistinguishable by both ribotyping and RAPD. All of these molecular methods showed that recent South Dakota isolates and archival South Dakota isolates were more closely related to each other than to the C. diphtheriae strains isolated in other parts of the United States or worldwide. The data also supported the improbability of importation of C. diphtheriae into this area and rather strongly suggest the long-term persistence of the organism in this region.  (+info)

(6/3372) Geographic distribution and evolution of Sindbis virus in Australia.

The molecular epidemiology and evolution of Sindbis (SIN) virus in Australia was examined. Several SIN virus strains isolated from other countries were also included in the analysis. Two regions of the virus genome were sequenced including a 418 bp region of the E2 gene and a 484 bp region containing part of the junction region and the 5' end of the C gene. Analysis of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence data from 40 SIN virus isolates clearly separated the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian genetic types of SIN virus. Examination of the Australian strains showed a temporal rather than geographic relationship. This is consistent with the virus having migratory birds as the major vertebrate host, as it allows for movement of virus over vast areas of the continent over a relatively short period of time. The results suggest that the virus is being periodically redistributed over the continent from an enzootic focus of evolving SIN virus. However, SIN virus strains isolated from mosquitoes collected in the south-west of Australia appear to represent a new SIN virus lineage, which is distinct from the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages. Given the widespread geographic dispersal of the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages, it is surprising that the South-west genetic type is so restricted in its area of circulation. Nucleotide sequence data from the C gene of the prototype strain of the alphavirus Whataroa were also determined. This virus was found to be genetically distinct from the SIN virus isolates included in the present study; however, it is clearly SIN-like and appears to have evolved from a SIN-like ancestral virus.  (+info)

(7/3372) Molecular typing of Salmonella serotype Thompson strains isolated from human and animal sources.

One-hundred-and-thirteen isolates of Salmonella serotype Thompson from diverse sources in seven countries were characterized by PvuII ribotyping and IS200 fingerprinting. Ten PvuII ribotypes were observed. The predominant PvuII ribotype 1 represented a major clone of world-wide distribution but was not found in Australia; PvuII ribotypes 2 and 3 represented minor clones. HincII ribotyping discriminated subtypes within PvuII ribotype 1: HincII ribotype 1 was distributed widely but HincII ribotype 2 was found mainly in Scottish isolates. None of 101 isolates of PvuII ribotypes 1-3 contained copies of IS200. All 12 isolates of PvuII ribotypes 4-10 were from Australia and 7 of them contained copies of IS200 of 5 different profiles. These results suggest the existence of at least two lineages of Salmonella Thompson with a different geographical distribution. The finding that most isolates from man and poultry in Scotland belonged to the same ribotype (PvuII 1/HincII 2) and were IS200-negative suggests that poultry is an important source of human infection in Scotland.  (+info)

(8/3372) Molecular epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus in The Gambia.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in The Gambia occurs seasonally in association with the rainy season. This study examined the genetic variability of RSV isolates from four consecutive epidemics from 1993-6. Each epidemic was made up of a number of variants which were replaced in subsequent epidemics. Analysis of attachment (G) protein gene sequences showed that isolates were closely related to those observed in the rest of the world. However, many isolates from 1993 and 1994 were unlike other isolates observed in the developed world during this period and were more similar to isolates from 1984 in Europe. In addition, the most commonly observed genotype in the UK in the 1990s was not detected in The Gambia during this period.  (+info)



Detection


  • The study period includes the advent of PulseNet (a national molecular subtyping network for outbreak detection) in 1998 and the Listeria Initiative (enhanced surveillance for outbreak investigation) in 2004. (cdc.gov)