Mixed Tumor, Malignant: A malignant tumor composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed)Mixed Tumor, Mesodermal: A sarcoma of the body of the uterus arising in older women, composed of more than one mesenchymal tissue, especially including striated muscle cells. It is associated with previous pelvic radiation exposure in 20% of patients. (Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1702)Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed: Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.Adenoma, Pleomorphic: A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)Myoepithelioma: A usually benign tumor made up predominantly of myoepithelial cells.Mammary Neoplasms, Animal: Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Carcinosarcoma: A malignant neoplasm that contains elements of carcinoma and sarcoma so extensively intermixed as to indicate neoplasia of epithelial and mesenchymal tissue. (Stedman, 25th ed)Mesenchymoma: A mixed mesenchymal tumor composed of two or more mesodermal cellular elements not commonly associated, not counting fibrous tissue as one of the elements. Mesenchymomas are widely distributed in the body and about 75% are malignant. (Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1866)Vaginal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the VAGINA.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Submandibular Gland NeoplasmsAdenosarcoma: A malignant neoplasm arising simultaneously or consecutively in mesodermal tissue and glandular epithelium of the same part. (Stedman, 25th ed)Parotid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.Prostatein: A secreted prostate-specific protein which can bind non-polar steroids, cholesterol and a group of small, proline-rich peptides. The protein is specifically found in RATS and comprises three distinct secretoglobin-related subunits referred to as prostatic steroid-binding protein C1, C2 and C3.Mixed Tumor, Mullerian: A tumor, basically a carcinoma with a single sarcoma such as leiomyosarcoma or angiosarcoma or multiple sarcomas of uterine origin. The role of estrogen has been postulated as a possible etiological factor in this tumor. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1703)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Vimentin: An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Metaplasia: A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Wilms Tumor: A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Neuroendocrine Tumors: Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Tumor Microenvironment: The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: All tumors in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT arising from mesenchymal cells (MESODERM) except those of smooth muscle cells (LEIOMYOMA) or Schwann cells (SCHWANNOMA).Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Mixed tumor: A Mixed tumor is a tumor that derives from multiple tissue types.http://medical-dictionary.Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma: Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, abbreviated EMCa, is a rare malignant tumour that typically arises in a salivary gland and consists of both an epithelial and myoepithelial component. They are predominantly found in the parotid glandOld German Shepherd Dog: Old German Shepherd Dog () is a controversial predicate for the long-hair variation of the German Shepherd Dog (), which is not a separate breed recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale. Nonetheless, there are efforts to establish this variety as a separate breed.Fibrocartilaginous mesenchymoma of boneVaginal intraepithelial neoplasiaPolymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, often abbreviated PLGA, is a rare, asymptomatic, slow-growing malignant salivary gland tumor. It is most commonly found in the palate.Uterine adenosarcoma: Uterine adenosarcoma, also adenosarcoma of the uterus, and Müllerian adenosarcoma of the uterus, is an uncommon form of cancer that arises from mesenchymal tissue of the uterus and has a benign glandular component.Sialoblastoma: A sialoblastoma is a low-grade salivary gland neoplasm that recapitulates primitive salivary gland anlage. It has previously been referred to as congenital basal cell adenoma, embryoma, or basaloid adenocarcinoma.Kennel clubProgressive osseous heteroplasia: Progressive osseous heteroplasia is a cutaneous condition characterized by cutaneous or subcutaneous ossification.Keratin 6A: Keratin 6A is one of the 27 different type II keratins expressed in humans. Keratin 6A was the first type II keratin sequence determined.Vimentin: Vimentin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VIM gene.Anaplastic carcinoma: Anaplastic carcinoma is a general term for a malignant neoplasm arising from the uncontrolled proliferation of transformed cells of epithelial origin, or showing some epithelial characteristics, but that reveal no cytological or architectural features of associated with more differentiated tumors, such as the glandular formation or special cellular junctions that typical of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, respectively.Cancer biomarkers: A cancer biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer.Intestinal metaplasia: 200px|right|thumb|Intestinal metaplasia (top middle of image) of the gastric antrum and [[stomach cancer|adenocarcinoma of the stomach (left/centre of image). H&E stain.G-CSF factor stem-loop destabilising elementChildren's Cancer and Leukaemia GroupTumor suppressor gene: A tumor suppressor gene, or antioncogene, is a gene that protects a cell from one step on the path to cancer. When this gene mutates to cause a loss or reduction in its function, the cell can progress to cancer, usually in combination with other genetic changes.Typical pulmonary carcinoid tumour: Typical pulmonary carcinoid tumour is a subtype of pulmonary carcinoid tumour. It is an uncommon low-grade malignant lung mass that is most often in the central airways of the lung.P53: Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice). This homolog (originally thought to be, and often spoken of as, a single protein) is crucial in multicellular organisms, where it prevents cancer formation, thus, functions as a tumor suppressor.Neurooncology: Neuro-oncology is the study of brain and spinal cord neoplasms, many of which are (at least eventually) very dangerous and life-threatening (astrocytoma, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, ependymoma, pontine glioma, and brain stem tumors are among the many examples of these). Among the malignant brain cancers, gliomas of the brainstem and pons, glioblastoma multiforme, and high-grade (highly anaplastic) astrocytoma are among the worst.Angiostasis: Angiostasis is the strict regulation by the body over creation of new blood vessels, which is the normal state (homeostasis) for adult humans. The opposite state of angiostasis is angiogenesis, or the state of generating new blood vessels, as happens after injury, and during tumor growth.Adenocarcinoma of the lung: Adenocarcinoma of the lung (pulmonary adenocarcinoma) is a common histological form of lung cancer that contains certain distinct malignant tissue architectural, cytological, or molecular features, including gland and/or duct formation and/or production of significant amounts of mucus.Tyrosine kinase: A tyrosine kinase is an enzyme that can transfer a phosphate group from ATP to a protein in a cell. It functions as an "on" or "off" switch in many cellular functions.Cancer/testis antigen family 45, member a5
(1/9) Hormone replacement therapy and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.
It has been suggested that oestrogen replacement therapy is associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer of the endometrioid type. Using data from an Australian population-based case-control study, the relation between unopposed oestrogen replacement therapy and epithelial ovarian cancer, both overall and according to histological type, was examined. A total of 793 eligible incident cases of epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed from 1990 to 1993 among women living in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria were identified. These were compared with 855 eligible female controls selected at random from the electoral roll, stratified by age and geographic region. Trained interviewers administered standard questionnaires to obtain detailed reproductive and contraceptive histories, as well as details about hormone replacement therapy and pelvic operations. No clear associations were observed between use of hormone replacement therapy overall and risk of ovarian cancer. Unopposed oestrogen replacement therapy was, however, associated with a significant increase in risk of endometrioid or clear cell epithelial ovarian tumours (odds ratio (OR) 2.56; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-4.94). In addition, the risk associated with oestrogen replacement therapy was much larger in women with an intact genital tract (OR 3.00; 95% CI 1.54-5.85) than in those with a history of either hysterectomy or tubal ligation. Post-menopausal oestrogen replacement therapy may, therefore, be a risk factor associated with endometrioid and clear cell tumours in particular. Additionally, the risk may be increased predominantly in women with an intact genital tract. These associations could reflect a possible role of endometriosis in the development of endometrioid or clear cell ovarian tumours. (+info)
(2/9) Endometrial mesodermal mixed tumor occurring after tamoxifen treatment: report on a new case and review of the literature.
BACKGROUND: Anti oestrogenic treatment is widely used for breast cancer treatment and prevention of recurrence. Because of concomitant estrogenic effects, tamoxifen exerts carcinogenic properties on the endometrium. Although secondary endometrial cancers usually present as pure adenocarcinomas, other types of rare tumors have also been reported. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Herein we describe the clinical, pathological as well as therapeutic aspects of a new case of endometrial mesodermal mixed tumor occurring after long-term tamoxifen therapy. RESULTS: The present case occured five years after cessation of a five years tamoxifen treatment. The patient failed to respond to doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide when combined to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), but she reached complete response when the same two drugs were used with carboplatin, suggesting the potential usefullness of platinum derivatives. CONCLUSIONS: A longer latency period might be observed for endometrial mesodermal mixed tumors as compared to adenocarcinomas and could justify a prolonged clinical and ultrasonographic follow-up of patients during and after tamoxifen treatment. When indicated, chemotherapy might require the use of platinum derivatives in this particular type of secondary tumor. (+info)
(3/9) Simultaneous bilateral occurrence of a mixed mesodermal tumor and cystadenocarcinoma in the ovary.
The mixed mesodermal tumor is a very uncommon malignancy. The aggressiveness of this lesion is illustrated by extremely poor prospects for afflicted patients: postoperative survival is usually shorter than 24 months. According to the literature, malignant mixed tumor of the ovary is rather rare and its occurrence with other malignancy is exceptional. We report here a case of a 62-years old woman with serous cystadenocarcinoma in the right ovary and a heterologous malignant mixed mesodermal tumor in the left one. Both tumors expressed cytokeratins, while only the mesodermal tumor expressed S-100 and focal NSE. (+info)
(4/9) Tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer and risk of endometrial cancer: a case-control study.
BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen treatment of breast cancer is associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer, but tamoxifen-related risks of endometrial cancer are unclear in premenopausal women, in long-term users of tamoxifen, and in women for whom several years have passed since ending treatment. We conducted a case-control study in Britain to investigate these risks. METHODS: We compared treatment information on 813 case patients who had endometrial cancer after their diagnosis for breast cancer and 1067 control patients who had breast cancer but not subsequent endometrial cancer. We assessed risk by conditional logistic regression analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Overall, tamoxifen treatment, compared with no treatment, was associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8 to 3.0). Risk increased statistically significantly (P(trend)<.001) with duration of treatment (for > or =5 years of treatment compared with no treatment, OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 2.6 to 4.8). As an indication of background levels of treatment, 16% of control patients received 5 years or more of treatment. Risk of endometrial cancer adjusted for treatment duration did not diminish in follow-up to at least 5 years after the last treatment ended. Risk of endometrial cancer was not associated with the daily dose of tamoxifen and was comparable in pre- and postmenopausal women. Ever treatment with tamoxifen was associated with a much greater risk of Mullerian and mesodermal mixed endometrial tumors (OR = 13.5, 95% CI = 4.1 to 44.5) than of adenocarcinoma (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.6 to 2.7) or clear cell and papillary serous tumors (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 0.8 to 17.9). CONCLUSIONS: There is an increasing risk of endometrial cancer associated with longer tamoxifen treatment, extending well beyond 5 years. The increased risk of endometrial cancer associated with tamoxifen treatment should be considered clinically for both premenopausal and postmenopausal women during treatment and for at least 5 years after the last treatment. (+info)
(5/9) Microsatellite instability in gynecological sarcomas and in hMSH2 mutant uterine sarcoma cell lines defective in mismatch repair activity.
We have examined a panel of gynecological sarcomas for microsatellite instability. The genomic DNA from 11 of 44 sarcomas contained somatic alterations in the lengths of one or more di-, tri-, tetra-, or pentanucleotide microsatellite sequence markers, and 6 of these cases had alterations in two or more markers. In addition, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide microsatellites were found to be highly unstable in single cell clones of two cell lines derived from a uterine mixed mesodermal tumor. Since such instability is characteristic of cells defective in postreplication mismatch repair, we examined mismatch repair activity in extracts made from these lines. Both extracts were repair deficient, while an extract of another gynecological sarcoma cell line not exhibiting microsatellite instability was repair proficient. The repair deficiency was complemented by a colon tumor cell extract that was defective in the hMLH1 protein but not by an extract defective in hMSH2 protein. This suggested that the defect in the uterine sarcoma line could be in hMSH2. Subsequent analysis of the gene revealed a 2-bp deletion in exon 14, leading to premature truncation of the hMSH2 protein at codon 796 and no detectable wild-type gene present. These data suggest that the microsatellite instability observed in these cell lines, and possibly in a significant number of gynecological sarcomas, is due to defective postreplication mismatch repair. There was no apparent correlation with microsatellite instability and clinical outcome. (+info)
(6/9) Chromosome 11 allele imbalance and clinicopathological correlates in ovarian tumours.
Allele imbalance on chromosome 11 loci in ovarian cancer is a frequent event, suggesting the presence of tumour-suppressor genes for ovarian carcinogenesis on this chromosome. Ten highly polymorphic (CA) repeat microsatellites were used to determine allele imbalance in 60 primary ovarian tumours, including 47 epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs). Forty EOCs (85%) showed allele imbalance at one or more loci, and in 39 of these (83%) the data suggested subchromosomal deletions: eight of 11p only; six of 11q only; and 25 of both 11p and 11q. Three consensus regions of deletion were indicated at 11p15.5-p15.3, 11q12-q22 and 11q23.3-q24.1. Allele imbalance at the 11q subtelomeric region (D11S912) correlated significantly with adverse survival, while imbalance at 11q14.3 and retention of heterozygosity at 11q22 (close to the site of the progesterone receptor gene) were associated with favourable clinicopathological features. The findings allow development of a preliminary model for the molecular evolution of epithelial ovarian cancer. (+info)
(7/9) Histological evaluation of mixed mesodermal tumor of the ovary.
Mixed mesodermal tumor (MMT) arising from the ovary is very rare, but we recently encountered two cases of this tumor. The tumors were examined histologically using hematoxylin-eosin, alcian blue, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), and toluidine blue staining, as well as immunohistochemical staining for S-100 protein. The two patients were postmenopausal women aged 68 and 58 years, respectively. The carcinomatous region of the mixed tumor was endometrioid carcinoma in Patient 1 and serous cystadenocarcinoma in Patient 2, while the sarcomatous region was chondrosarcoma in both patients. The chondrosarcoma tissue was positive for PAS, alcian blue, toluidine blue, and S-100 protein. (+info)
(8/9) Clinical and pathological investigation of endometrial mixed mesodermal tumor.
Four cases of mixed mesodermal tumor (MMT) of uterine origin were histologically and cytologically studied. In the case of occurrence of rhabdomyosarcoma, the cells in the aspiration smear appeared independently and sporadically and were relatively large in size and polyhedral in shape. The cell margins were not clearly distinguishable, and the cytoplasm was non-uniformly and heavily stained light green in general except for some pale red eosinophilic areas. The swollen and elliptical nuclei had a high N/C ratio. The chromatin showed a densely stained coarse granular pattern, and the nuclear margin was expanded. On the imprint smear, the cells contained abundant cytoplasm with amoeboid protrusions. The cytoplasm was light green in general, was filled with granules of various sizes which were non-uniformly and heavily stained. The chromatin showed coarse granulation, and a large nucleolus was observed. (+info)