*  Mutation of the Sry-related Sox10 gene in Dominant megacolon, a mouse model for human Hirschsprung disease.

Here we report that the defect in the Dom mouse is caused by mutation of the gene encoding the Sry-related t ... The spontaneous mouse mutant Dominant megacolon (Dom) is a valuable model for the study of human congenital megacolon ( ... Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Mutant Strains. Molecular Sequence Data. Neural Crest / physiology*. RNA, Messenger / genetics ... The spontaneous mouse mutant Dominant megacolon (Dom) is a valuable model for the study of human congenital megacolon ( ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Mutation-Sry-related-Sox10-gene/9560246.html

*  Bcl-2 overexpression corrects mitochondrial defects and ameliorates inherited desmin null cardiomyopathy.

Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Knockout. Mice, Transgenic. Microscopy, Electron. Mitochondrial Diseases / genetics*, pathology ... Mice null for desmin, the muscle-specific member of the intermediate filament gene family, develop cardiomyopathy characterized ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Bcl-2-overexpression-corrects-mitochondrial/14715896.html

*  Posttranscriptional regulation of histone lysine methyltransferase GLP in embryonic male mouse germ cells.

Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Models, Animal. RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional / physiology*. Spermatozoa / metabolism*. ... EC 2.1.1.43/G9a protein, mouse; EC 2.1.1.43/GLP protein, mouse; EC 2.1.1.43/Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase ... During the period from Embryonic Day (E) 13.5 to E18.5 in mice, gonadal H3K9me2 levels were substantially lower in germ cells ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Posttranscriptional-Regulation-Histone-Lysine-Methyltransferase/23284137.html

*  Sertraline and cocaine-induced locomotion in mice. I. Acute studies.

... the behavioral and pharmacokinetic interaction between the serotonin uptake blocker sertraline and cocaine in C57BL/6ByJ mice. ... Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Motor Activity / drug effects*. Neurons / drug effects, metabolism. Serotonin / metabolism. Serotonin ... Although female mice were more responsive to cocaine than male mice, they were not different in their response to sertraline.. ... the behavioral and pharmacokinetic interaction between the serotonin uptake blocker sertraline and cocaine in C57BL/6ByJ mice. ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Sertraline-cocaine-induced-locomotion-in/2057535.html

*  Redox-Regulated Suppression of Splenic T-Lymphocyte Activation in a Model of SympathoexcitationNovelty and Significance |...

Mice. All experiments were performed using male wild-type C57BL/6 inbred mice. Hypertension was induced by the subcutaneous ... 1.5 ng/mL in saline-infused mice to 385.4±32.4 ng/mL in norepinephrine-infused mice, whereas steady-state plasma levels ... Mice were infused with saline or NE (3.8 μg/kg/min) for 14 days. A, Urine and plasma NE levels 14 days after saline or NE ... Mice were infused with saline or NE (3.8 μg/kg/min) for 14 days. Drinking water was supplemented with 1 mmol/L Tempol (Temp) 5 ...
hyper.ahajournals.org/content/65/4/916

*  "Fighting in the home cage: Agonistic encounters and effects on neurobiological markers within the social decision-making...

We assessed group-housed laboratory mice C57Bl/6 for competitive ability and then tested the extent high competitive ability ( ... such as C57Bl/6, have become preferred animal models for neurobehavioral studies. A main goal in creating inbred lines is to ... High CA mice had significantly more corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 (CRHR2) and estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) mRNA ... yield valuable information that could be used to reduce error variance and increase power in neurobiological studies using mice ...
https://works.bepress.com/gian-greenberg/3/

*  Overexpression of toll-like receptor 4 amplifies the host response to lipopolysaccharide and provides a survival advantage in...

Mice ; Mice, Inbred C3H ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Transgenic ; Receptors, Cell Surface ; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase ... The beneficial effect of Tlr4 overexpression is greatly enhanced when the mice present a wild-type allele at natural resistance ... Overexpression of Tlr4 by itself appears to have a survival advantage in Tg mice early during infection: animals possessing ... However, this early improvement in disease resistance is not conducted later during infection, because mice overexpressing Tlr4 ...
eprints.lancs.ac.uk/86171/

*  008820 - FVB.B-Wld|S|/UmonJ

... spontaneous mutant mouse strain may be useful in studies of peripheral nerve regeneration and neurodegenerative disorders. ... JAX® Mice, Products & Services Conditions of Use. "MICE" means mouse strains, their progeny derived by inbreeding or ... 1 year old C57BL/Ola mice showed faster Wallerian degeneration than 4 week old mice, with compund action potentials recorded in ... 1 year old C57BL/Ola mice showed faster Wallerian degeneration than 4 week old mice, with compund action potentials recorded in ...
https://jax.org/strain/008820

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Behavior, Issue 89, mice, inbred C57BL, social behavior, animal models, autism, BTBR, motor stereotypy, repetitive ... The second model involves interposing an artery segment from a wild type C57BL/6J mouse donor into a host mouse of the same ... The first model involves interposition of a vessel segment from a male mouse into a female recipient of the same inbred strain ... Interposition of a mouse aorta from one strain into another mouse strain recipient is limited as a model for chronic rejection ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/25375118/enhanced-tissue-factor-expression-blood-eosinophils-from-patients

*  008248 - B6.Cg-Tg(SOD1*G85R)148Dwc/J

These G85R-SOD1 transgenic mice may be useful in studying neuromuscular disorders, including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS ... These mice were then backcrossed to C57BL/6J inbred mice for many generations prior to arrival at The Jackson Laboratory. ... JAX® Mice, Products & Services Conditions of Use. "MICE" means mouse strains, their progeny derived by inbreeding or ... When maintaining the live congenic colony, hemizygous carriers may be bred with wildtype siblings or C57BL/6J inbred mice. ...
https://jax.org/strain/008248


(1/92290) Effect of sex difference on the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by the rat.

Hepatic microsome-catalyzed metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to aflatoxin M1 and aflatoxin Q1 and the "metabolic activation" of AFB1 to DNA-alylating metabolite(s) were studied in normal male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, in gonadectomized animals, and in castrated males and normal females treated with testosterone. Microsomes from male animals formed 2 to 5 times more aflatoxin M1, aflatoxin Q1, and DNA-alkylating metabolite(s) than those from females. Castration reduced the metabolism of AFB1 by the microsomes from males by about 50%, whereas ovariectomy had no significant effect on AFB1 metabolism by the microsomes from females. Testosterone treatment (4 mg/rat, 3 times/week for about 6 weeks) of castrated immature males and immature females enhanced the metabolism of AFB1 by their microsomes. A sex difference in the metabolism of AFB1 by liver microsomes was also seen in other strains of rats tested: Wistar, Long-Evans, and Fischer. The activity of kidney microsomes for metabolic activation was 1 to 4% that of the liver activity and was generally lower in microsomes from male rats as compared to those from female rats of Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, and Long-Evans strains. The in vitro results obtained with hepatic microsomes correlated well with the in vivo metabolism of AFB1, in that more AFB1 became bound in vivo to hepatic DNA isolated from male rats and from a female rat treated with testosterone than that isolated from control female rats. These data suggest that the differences in hepatic AFB1 metabolism may be the underlying cause of the sex difference in toxicity and carcinogenicity of AFB1 observed in rats.  (+info)

(2/92290) Tissue pharmacokinetics, inhibition of DNA synthesis and tumor cell kill after high-dose methotrexate in murine tumor models.

In Sarcoma 180 and L1210 ascites tumor models, the initial rate of methotrexate accumulation in tumor cells in the peritoneal cavity and in small intestine (intracellularly) after s.c. doses up to 800 mg/kg, showed saturation kinetics. These results and the fact that initial uptake in these tissues within this dosage range was inhibited to the expected relative extent by the simultaneous administration of leucovorin suggest that carrier mediation and not passive diffusion is the major route of drug entry at these extremely high doses. Maximum accumulation of intracellular drug occurred within 2 hr and reached much higher levels in small intestine than in tumor cells at the higher dosages. At a 3-mg/kg dose of methotrexate s.c., intracellular exchangeable drug levels persisted more than four times longer in L1210 cells than in small intestine, but differences in persistence (L1210 cell versus gut) diminished markedly with increasing dosage. At 96 mg/kg, the difference in persistence was less than 2-fold. In small intestine and L1210 cells, theduration of inhibition of DNA synthesis at different dosages correlated with the extent to which exchangeable drug was retained. Toxic deaths occurred when inhibition in small intestine lasted longer than 25 to 30 hr. Recovery of synthesis in small intestine and L1210 cells occurred synchronously and only below dosages of 400 mg/kg. Within 24 hr after dosages of greater than 24 mg/kg, the rate of tumor cell loss increased to a point characterized by a single exponential (t1/2=8.5 hr). The total cell loss, but not the rate of cell loss, was dose dependent.  (+info)

(3/92290) Explanations for the clinical and microscopic localization of lesions in pemphigus foliaceus and vulgaris.

Patients with pemphigus foliaceus (PF) have blisters on skin, but not mucous membranes, whereas patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) develop blisters on mucous membranes and/or skin. PF and PV blisters are due to loss of keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion in the superficial and deep epidermis, respectively. PF autoantibodies are directed against desmoglein (Dsg) 1; PV autoantibodies bind Dsg3 or both Dsg3 and Dsg1. In this study, we test the hypothesis that coexpression of Dsg1 and Dsg3 in keratinocytes protects against pathology due to antibody-induced dysfunction of either one alone. Using passive transfer of pemphigus IgG to normal and DSG3(null) neonatal mice, we show that in the areas of epidermis and mucous membrane that coexpress Dsg1 and Dsg3, antibodies against either desmoglein alone do not cause spontaneous blisters, but antibodies against both do. In areas (such as superficial epidermis of normal mice) where Dsg1 without Dsg3 is expressed, anti-Dsg1 antibodies alone can cause blisters. Thus, the anti-desmoglein antibody profiles in pemphigus sera and the normal tissue distributions of Dsg1 and Dsg3 determine the sites of blister formation. These studies suggest that pemphigus autoantibodies inhibit the adhesive function of desmoglein proteins, and demonstrate that either Dsg1 or Dsg3 alone is sufficient to maintain keratinocyte adhesion.  (+info)

(4/92290) Bone resorption induced by parathyroid hormone is strikingly diminished in collagenase-resistant mutant mice.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates bone resorption by acting directly on osteoblasts/stromal cells and then indirectly to increase differentiation and function of osteoclasts. PTH acting on osteoblasts/stromal cells increases collagenase gene transcription and synthesis. To assess the role of collagenase in the bone resorptive actions of PTH, we used mice homozygous (r/r) for a targeted mutation (r) in Col1a1 that are resistant to collagenase cleavage of type I collagen. Human PTH(1-34) was injected subcutaneously over the hemicalvariae in wild-type (+/+) or r/r mice four times daily for three days. Osteoclast numbers, the size of the bone marrow spaces and periosteal proliferation were increased in calvariae from PTH-treated +/+ mice, whereas in r/r mice, PTH-induced bone resorption responses were minimal. The r/r mice were not resistant to other skeletal effects of PTH because abundant interstitial collagenase mRNA was detected in the calvarial periosteum of PTH-treated, but not vehicle-treated, r/r and +/+ mice. Calcemic responses, 0.5-10 hours after intraperitoneal injection of PTH, were blunted in r/r mice versus +/+ mice. Thus, collagenase cleavage of type I collagen is necessary for PTH induction of osteoclastic bone resorption.  (+info)

(5/92290) GM-CSF-deficient mice are susceptible to pulmonary group B streptococcal infection.

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene-targeted mice (GM-/-) cleared group B streptococcus (GBS) from the lungs more slowly than wild-type mice. Expression of GM-CSF in the respiratory epithelium of GM-/- mice improved bacterial clearance to levels greater than that in wild-type GM+/+ mice. Acute aerosolization of GM-CSF to GM+/+ mice significantly enhanced clearance of GBS at 24 hours. GBS infection was associated with increased neutrophilic infiltration in lungs of GM-/- mice, while macrophage infiltrates predominated in wild-type mice, suggesting an abnormality in macrophage clearance of bacteria in the absence of GM-CSF. While phagocytosis of GBS was unaltered, production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide was markedly deficient in macrophages from GM-/- mice. Lipid peroxidation, assessed by measuring the isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2alpha, was decreased in the lungs of GM-/- mice. GM-CSF plays an important role in GBS clearance in vivo, mediated in part by its role in enhancing superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production and bacterial killing by alveolar macrophages.  (+info)

(6/92290) A new element within the T-cell receptor alpha locus required for tissue-specific locus control region activity.

Locus control regions (LCRs) are cis-acting regulatory elements thought to provide a tissue-specific open chromatin domain for genes to which they are linked. The gene for T-cell receptor alpha chain (TCRalpha) is exclusively expressed in T cells, and the chromatin at its locus displays differentially open configurations in expressing and nonexpressing tissues. Mouse TCRalpha exists in a complex locus containing three differentially regulated genes. We previously described an LCR in this locus that confers T-lineage-specific expression upon linked transgenes. The 3' portion of this LCR contains an unrestricted chromatin opening activity while the 5' portion contains elements restricting this activity to T cells. This tissue-specificity region contains four known DNase I hypersensitive sites, two located near transcriptional silencers, one at the TCRalpha enhancer, and another located 3' of the enhancer in a 1-kb region of unknown function. Analysis of this region using transgenic mice reveals that the silencer regions contribute negligibly to LCR activity. While the enhancer is required for complete LCR function, its removal has surprisingly little effect on chromatin structure or expression outside the thymus. Rather, the region 3' of the enhancer appears responsible for the tissue-differential chromatin configurations observed at the TCRalpha locus. This region, herein termed the "HS1' element," also increases lymphoid transgene expression while suppressing ectopic transgene activity. Thus, this previously undescribed element is an integral part of the TCRalphaLCR, which influences tissue-specific chromatin structure and gene expression.  (+info)

(7/92290) Prolonged eosinophil accumulation in allergic lung interstitium of ICAM-2 deficient mice results in extended hyperresponsiveness.

ICAM-2-deficient mice exhibit prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium concomitant with a delayed increase in eosinophil numbers in the airway lumen during the development of allergic lung inflammation. The ICAM-2-dependent increased and prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium results in prolonged, heightened airway hyperresponsiveness. These findings reveal an essential role for ICAM-2 in the development of the inflammatory and respiratory components of allergic lung disease. This phenotype is caused by the lack of ICAM-2 expression on non-hematopoietic cells. ICAM-2 deficiency on endothelial cells causes reduced eosinophil transmigration in vitro. ICAM-2 is not essential for lymphocyte homing or the development of leukocytes, with the exception of megakaryocyte progenitors, which are significantly reduced.  (+info)

(8/92290) Phenotype of mice and macrophages deficient in both phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase.

The two genetically established antimicrobial mechanisms of macrophages are production of reactive oxygen intermediates by phagocyte oxidase (phox) and reactive nitrogen intermediates by inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). Mice doubly deficient in both enzymes (gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-)) formed massive abscesses containing commensal organisms, mostly enteric bacteria, even when reared under specific pathogen-free conditions with antibiotics. Neither parental strain showed such infections. Thus, phox and NOS2 appear to compensate for each other's deficiency in providing resistance to indigenous bacteria, and no other pathway does so fully. Macrophages from gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-) mice could not kill virulent Listeria. Their killing of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and attenuated Listeria was markedly diminished but demonstrable, establishing the existence of a mechanism of macrophage antibacterial activity independent of phox and NOS2.  (+info)



Strains


  • Inbred strains of mice, such as C57Bl/6, have become preferred animal models for neurobehavioral studies. (bepress.com)
  • In the present study, mice from inbred strains exhibiting differential responses to chlorine-induced lung injury were exposed to a single high dose of chlorine. (physiology.org)
  • Although experimental parameters have been optimized using these mice, we have conducted studies with adult female C57BL/6J mice, as well as other inbred mouse strains including DBA/2J and C3H/Hecr, selectively bred HAP/LAP lines, and and BXD RI lines. (iniastress.org)

Receptors


  • Targeted gene deletion in the mouse is one strategy to generate experimental models to assess the role of membrane receptors in hemostasis and thrombosis. (bloodjournal.org)
  • PCR sequencing of cDNA revealed ten nucleotide differences between the coding sequences of the DBA/2J and C57BL/6J receptors. (jax.org)

transgenic mice


  • These G85R-SOD1 transgenic mice may be useful in studying neuromuscular disorders, including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's Disease). (jax.org)
  • As the G85R-SOD1 transgenic mice were originally created on a mixed genetic background, it should be noted that the phenotype of these transgenic mice on a C57BL/6-congenic background may vary greatly from that originally described. (jax.org)

Neurons


  • In addition, as compared to neurons from C57BL/6 mice, CAST/Ei neurons exhibit more extensive axonal regeneration in the spinal cord and optic nerve following injury and show greater sprouting following ischemic stroke. (jax.org)

Chromosome


  • 1993. A gene affecting Wallerian nerve degeneration maps distally on mouse chromosome 4. (jax.org)

homozygous


  • On the congenic FVB/N background, mice that are homozygous for this mutation exhibit delayed Wallerian degeneration compared to wildtype controls. (jax.org)
  • We were the first to report the targeted disruption of murine Gp6 8 and demonstrated, using functional in vitro assays, that platelets from homozygous Gp6 −/− mice fail to aggregate upon stimulation with type I fibrillar collagen and fail to form thrombi upon perfusion over collagen-coated surfaces. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Mice homozygous for the jerker spontaneous mutation ( Espn je ) show behavior typical of the circling mutants - head-tossing, circling, and hyperactivity. (jax.org)
  • Homozygous mutant mice are deaf from birth and have no detectable stimulus-related cochlear potential at any stage. (jax.org)
  • JE/Le mice are also homozygous for the nonagouti ( a ) and ruby-eye ( Hps6 ru ) mutations. (jax.org)

genetic


  • A main goal in creating inbred lines is to reduce the effects of individual genetic variation on observed phenotypes. (bepress.com)
  • On the C57BL/6 genetic background, hemizygous mice have a longer lifespan (median lifespan of 361 days). (jax.org)
  • The extent of this dysfunction in all Gp6 −/− mice is uniform and is not affected by genetic background. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Wild-derived mice are genetically distinct from common laboratory mice for a number of complex phenotypic characteristics and are valuable tools for genetic mapping, evolution and systematics research. (jax.org)
  • Development of a SNP genotyping panel for genetic monitoring of the laboratory mouse. (jax.org)

laboratory mice


  • We assessed group-housed laboratory mice C57Bl/6 for competitive ability and then tested the extent high competitive ability (CA) or low CA was related to gene and protein expression within related pathways. (bepress.com)
  • Most common laboratory mice are sensitive to flavivirus infection. (jax.org)

protein


  • The beneficial effect of Tlr4 overexpression is greatly enhanced when the mice present a wild-type allele at natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1, another critical innate immune gene involved in resistance to infection with Salmonella. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Heterozygous mice harbor an Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-creERT2 "knock-in" allele that both abolishes Lgr5 gene function and expresses EGFP and CreERT2 fusion protein. (jax.org)
  • Normal levels of mRNA are observed, but no accumulation of protein is observed in the jerker mouse. (jax.org)

spinal


  • 2009. The neuroprotective factor Wld(s) fails to mitigate distal axonal and neuromuscular junction (NMJ) defects in mouse models of spinal muscular atrophy. (jax.org)

adult


  • 1 Subsequent reports have demonstrated the utility of the doxycycline (DOX) inducible lentiviral delivery system for the generation of both primary and secondary iPS cells from a variety of other adult mouse somatic cell types. (jove.com)
  • This model has been predominantly been studied using adult (65-75 days of age) male C57BL/6J mice obtained from Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, ME). (iniastress.org)

heterozygous


  • Heterozygous jerker mice undergo a similar type of degeneration, but the onset is delayed. (jax.org)
  • Auditory brainstem response is totally absent in homozygotes while heterozygous mice undergo a progressive impairment with age. (jax.org)

viable and fertile


  • Mice hemizygous for this G85R-SOD1 transgene are viable and fertile, with transgenic expression of a G85R mutant form of human SOD1 associated with human familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). (jax.org)

spontaneous mutation


  • The Wallerian degeneration slow spontaneous mutation, Wld s arose on the C57BL/Ola background. (jax.org)

exhibit


  • However, the same Gp6 −/− mice exhibit 2 diametrically opposed phenotypes in vivo. (bloodjournal.org)

axonal


  • 2015. Robust Axonal Regeneration Occurs in the Injured CAST/Ei Mouse CNS. (jax.org)

mutation


  • Mutation of the Sry-related Sox10 gene in Dominant megacolon, a mouse model for human Hirschsprung disease. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here we report that the defect in the Dom mouse is caused by mutation of the gene encoding the Sry-related transcription factor Sox10. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The deaf jerker mouse has a mutation in the gene encoding the espin actin-bundling proteins of hair cell stereocilia and lacks espins. (jax.org)

strain


  • This Wld s spontaneous mutant mouse strain may be useful in studies of peripheral nerve regeneration and neurodegenerative disorders. (jax.org)
  • Upon arrival at The Jackson Laboratory the mice were crossed with FVB/NJ at least once to establish the colony and the resulting offspring carrying only the Wld s allele were selectively bred to establish this strain. (jax.org)
  • Unlike the wild-derived strain SPRET, male F1 mice from a CAST cross are fertile. (jax.org)

generations


  • The Donating Investigator backcrossed the mice to FVB/N for 9 generations and notes that there are incidental mutant loci. (jax.org)
  • These mice were then backcrossed to C57BL/6J inbred mice for many generations prior to arrival at The Jackson Laboratory. (jax.org)
  • The donating investigator reported that the resulting Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-creERT2 mice (floxed-neo removed) were then backcrossed to C57BL/6J (see SNP note below) for at least 4 generations. (jax.org)

activation


  • To address this hypothesis, we examined the status of T-lymphocyte activation in spleens of a mouse model of sympathoexcitation-driven hypertension (ie, norepinephrine infusion). (ahajournals.org)
  • GPVI (60-65 kDa) is noncovalently associated with the fragment crystallizable receptor γ (FcRγ) subunit, an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-based signaling coreceptor, 1 , 2 and in the mouse, surface GPVI expression requires coexpression of FcRγ. (bloodjournal.org)

Male


  • Posttranscriptional regulation of histone lysine methyltransferase GLP in embryonic male mouse germ cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Although female mice were more responsive to cocaine than male mice, they were not different in their response to sertraline. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Baseline intake for male C57BL/6J mice is usually in the range of 2.5-2.75 g/kg. (iniastress.org)

generate


  • Dr. Eicher's colony were maintained by inbreeding to generate CAST/Ei and Dr. Roderick's colony were maintained by inbreeding to generate CASA/Rk and CASB/Rk. (jax.org)

control mice


  • In other littermates, tail bleeding times are within the range of wild-type mice, and in vivo thrombus formation is indistinguishable from that of control mice. (bloodjournal.org)

embryonic


  • During the period from Embryonic Day (E) 13.5 to E18.5 in mice, gonadal H3K9me2 levels were substantially lower in germ cells than in cells of nongerm lineage. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here we demonstrate the protocol for reprogramming mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells with the Stemgent DOX Inducible Mouse TF Lentivirus Set. (jove.com)

vivo


  • There was a good correlation between the level of Tlr4 mRNA expression and the sensitivity to LPS both in vitro and in vivo: Tg mice possessing the highest number of Tlr4 copies respond the most to LPS. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • In some mice, tail bleeding times are extremely prolonged, and thrombus formation in an in vivo carotid artery ferric chloride-injury model is significantly impaired. (bloodjournal.org)

inhalation


  • In FVB/NJ mice, chlorine inhalation caused pronounced fibrosis of larger airways that developed by day 7 after exposure and was associated with airway hyperreactivity. (physiology.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that chlorine inhalation in mice results in lung injury characterized by epithelial cell death, pulmonary edema, neutrophilic inflammation, and impaired lung function during the acute phase ( 24 , 35 , 39 ). (physiology.org)
  • The remaining mice (CTL group) are similarly treated, but exposed to air in control inhalation chambers. (iniastress.org)
  • Home cage limited access to ethanol is suspended while the mice receive their respective treatments in inhalation chambers. (iniastress.org)

defects


  • Targeted disruption of the murine gene Gp6 on a mixed 129 × 1/SvJ × C57BL/6J background causes the expected defects in collagen-dependent platelet responses in vitro. (bloodjournal.org)

Expression


  • Using a defined set of transcription factors and cell culture conditions, Yamanaka and colleagues demonstrated that retrovirus-mediated delivery and expression of Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4 is capable of inducing pluripotency in mouse fibroblasts. (jove.com)
  • EGFP or inducible CreERT2 expression may also be observed in other Lgr5 -expressing cell types (including pre-malignant mouse adenomas, colon cancer cells, epithelial stem cells of the stomach gland, basal epithelial layer stem cells of the mammary glands, and hair follicle stem cells). (jax.org)

Fibrosis


  • Mice null for desmin, the muscle-specific member of the intermediate filament gene family, develop cardiomyopathy characterized by extensive cardiomyocyte death, fibrosis, calcification, and eventual heart failure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In contrast, A/J mice had little or no airway fibrosis and had normal lung function at day 7 . (physiology.org)
  • Unexposed FVB/NJ mice had less keratin 5 staining (basal cell marker) than A/J mice in large intrapulmonary airways where epithelial repair was poor and fibrosis developed after chlorine exposure. (physiology.org)
  • The data suggest that lack of basal cells in the large intrapulmonary airways and failure to effect epithelial repair at these sites are factors contributing to the development of airway fibrosis in FVB/NJ mice. (physiology.org)

infection


  • Overexpression of Tlr4 by itself appears to have a survival advantage in Tg mice early during infection: animals possessing more than two copies of the gene survived longer and in a greater percentage to Salmonella infection. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • However, this early improvement in disease resistance is not conducted later during infection, because mice overexpressing Tlr4 developed an excessive inflammatory response detrimental to the host. (lancs.ac.uk)

neural


  • These results identify the transcriptional regulator Sox10 as an essential factor in mouse neural crest development and as a further candidate gene for human Hirschsprung disease, especially in cases where it is associated with features of Waardenburg syndrome. (biomedsearch.com)

Jackson Laboratory


  • The founders were trapped in a grain warehouse, in Thonburi, Thailand by Dr. Joseph T Marshall, and mice were sent to Dr. Vernon Chapman and Dr. Frank Ruddle at Yale University, and, from there, to Dr. Eva Eicher and Dr. Thomas Roderick at The Jackson Laboratory in 1971. (jax.org)

significantly


  • High CA mice had significantly more corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 (CRHR2) and estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) mRNA in the BNST. (bepress.com)

lung


  • To examine pathological changes following chlorine-induced lung injury, mice were exposed to a single high dose of chlorine, and repair of the lung was analyzed at multiple times after exposure. (physiology.org)

sequence


  • When these mice mice are bred with mice containing a loxP -flanked sequence of interest, tamoxifen-inducible, Cre-mediated recombination will result in deletion of the floxed sequences in the Lgr5 -expressing cells of the offspring. (jax.org)
  • As such, when Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-creERT2 mice are bred with mice containing loxP -flanked sequence of interest, tamoxifen-inducible, Cre-mediated recombination will result in deletion of the floxed sequences in the Lgr5 -expressing cells of the offspring. (jax.org)
  • Mice receive, in sequence, for two days each: 10% ethanol/5% sucrose, 12% ethanol/5% sucrose, 15% ethanol/5% sucrose, 15% ethanol/2%, and 15% ethanol/1% sucrose. (iniastress.org)

studies


  • Our data suggest a simple test of CA could yield valuable information that could be used to reduce error variance and increase power in neurobiological studies using mice. (bepress.com)

variance


  • Once stable baseline ethanol intake (g/kg) is established (≤ 15% variance in daily intake over a week), mice are separated into two groups (equated for baseline alcohol intake). (iniastress.org)

Typically


  • Typically mice are recovered in 10-14 weeks. (jax.org)
  • This range typically will enable observing a significant escalation of intake in CIE-exposed mice. (iniastress.org)

demonstrate


  • We also demonstrate that the Stemgent DOX Inducible Mouse TF Lentivirus Set is capable of expressing each of the four transcription factors upon transduction into MEFs thereby inducing a pluripotent stem cell state that displays the pluripotency markers characteristic of ES cells. (jove.com)

study


  • The spontaneous mouse mutant Dominant megacolon (Dom) is a valuable model for the study of human congenital megacolon (Hirschsprung disease). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The present study assessed the behavioral and pharmacokinetic interaction between the serotonin uptake blocker sertraline and cocaine in C57BL/6ByJ mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The mice are then maintained on 15% ethanol (v/v) with no sucrose for the remainder of the study. (iniastress.org)
  • Throughout all phases of the study, mice are neither food nor water deprived. (iniastress.org)

experimental


  • Mice are acclimated to the facility for at least two weeks prior to experimental use. (iniastress.org)

effects


  • Interestingly, norepinephrine caused an increase in cellular superoxide, which was shown to be partially causal to the inhibitory effects of norepinephrine, as antioxidant supplementation (ie, Tempol) to norepinephrine-infused mice moderately restored T-lymphocyte growth and proinflammatory cytokine production. (ahajournals.org)
  • To counteract the mixed estrogen agonist effects of tamoxifen injections, which can result in late fetal abortions in pregnant mice, progesterone may be coadministered. (jax.org)

cage


  • All mice are trained to voluntarily drink ethanol in a 2-bottle choice situation (15% v/v ethanol vs. water) using a home cage limited access (2 hr/day) paradigm. (iniastress.org)
  • Using a modified sucrose-fading technique (Samson, 1986), mice are given daily access to ethanol for 2 hr in the home cage, beginning at 0.5 hr prior to the start of the dark cycle (lights off at 1400 hr). (iniastress.org)

cells


  • A/J mice had airways covered by squamous keratin 5-stained cells on day 1 that transitioned to a highly proliferative reparative epithelium by day 4 followed by the reappearance of ciliated and Clara cells by day 7 . (physiology.org)
  • These mice may be useful for lineage-tracing or marking Lgr5 -expressing stem cells of the small intestine. (jax.org)
  • Correctly targeted ES cells were injected into recipient blastocysts and chimeric males were bred with C57BL/6 females. (jax.org)

days


  • FVB/NJ mice had large areas devoid of epithelium on day 1 after exposure leading to fibroproliferative lesions on days 4 and 7 . (physiology.org)