Methadone: A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Opiate Substitution Treatment: Medical treatment for opioid dependence using a substitute opiate such as METHADONE or BUPRENORPHINE.Opioid-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.Heroin Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.Methadyl Acetate: A narcotic analgesic with a long onset and duration of action.Buprenorphine: A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: Fetal and neonatal addiction and withdrawal as a result of the mother's dependence on drugs during pregnancy. Withdrawal or abstinence symptoms develop shortly after birth. Symptoms exhibited are loud, high-pitched crying, sweating, yawning and gastrointestinal disturbances.Heroin: A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.PyrrolidinesDrug Overdose: Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Dextropropoxyphene: A narcotic analgesic structurally related to METHADONE. Only the dextro-isomer has an analgesic effect; the levo-isomer appears to exert an antitussive effect.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Opium: The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.Oxidoreductases, N-DemethylatingStereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Meconium: The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Therapeutic Community: Psychotherapeutic technique which emphasizes socioenvironmental and interpersonal influences in the resocialization and rehabilitation of the patient. The setting is usually a hospital unit or ward in which professional and nonprofessional staff interact with the patients.Directly Observed Therapy: A treatment method in which patients are under direct observation when they take their medication or receive their treatment. This method is designed to reduce the risk of treatment interruption and to ensure patient compliance.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.PrisonersDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Codeine: An opioid analgesic related to MORPHINE but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough.Naltrexone: Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.

*  Prison-Based Methadone Maintenance Programs | Drug War Facts
The treatment needs of offenders with opioid dependence are met through CSC's Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) Program.1 ... Prison-Based Methadone Maintenance Programs) 'Ensuring that offenders have access to interventions that address their substance ... The treatment needs of offenders with opioid dependence are met through CSC's Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) Program.1. ... Characteristics of participants in the Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) Program. Research Report R253. Ottawa, Ontario: ...
  http://drugwarfacts.org/node/1151
*  A Methadone Maintenance Treatment Outcome Study in Three Provinces in China - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
An intensive methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) provider training on methadone dosage may be effective in increasing the ... Drug Information available for: Methadone Methadone hydrochloride Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: ... Training on methadone dosing provided to health care providers working in methadone maintenance clinics ... Training on methadone dosing provided to health care providers working in methadone maintenance clinics ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01315054?order=60
*  Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) Care for HIV Prevention - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Methadone. Analgesics, Opioid. Narcotics. Central Nervous System Depressants. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Analgesics. ... Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) Care for HIV Prevention. This study has been completed. ... Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) Care for HIV Prevention: A Randomized Controlled Trial (MMT2). ... In response to this situation, China introduced methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in 2004, which is now dispensed by 701 ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01760720?order=121
*  Methadone Levels in Breast Milk of Women Taking Methadone for Opiate Addiction - 2 - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Methadone Levels in Breast Milk of Women Taking Methadone for Opiate Addiction - 2. This study has been completed. ... Methadone maintained lactating women Methadone maintained women who chose to breastfeed their infants provided breast milk and ... methadone concentrations in breast milk [ Time Frame: 1-30 days after delivery ]. *methadone concentrations in maternal plasma ... women taking methadone who will breastfeed their babies or women taking methadone who will bottle-feed their babies. On Days 1 ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00218010
*  Methadone Maintenance Treatment for Opioid Dependence - PDF
Methadone Maintenance Treatment for Opioid Dependence APPROVED BY COUNCIL: PUBLICATION DATE: KEY WORDS: REFERENCE MATERIALS: ... When administering methadone for methadone maintenance treatment, physicians must: Ensure that methadone is administered to ... 2010 Methadone, Methadone maintenance treatment, Opioid dependence, Methadone exemption, Delegation exemption, Rare ... Methadone administration: The provision of a dose of methadone to a patient for consumption by the patient under direct ...
  http://docplayer.net/591404-Methadone-maintenance-treatment-for-opioid-dependence.html
*  Overview Of Methadone Jamestown NY - Jamestown NY, overview of methadone, Jamestown NY methadone metabolism, Jamestown NY ...
Methadone is also an analgesic. Methadone is basically recommended for the chronic drug abusers. Methadone has been found to be ... Methadone is an opioid. Methadone is synthetic by nature. ... KNOWING METHADONE. Methadone is an Opioid. Methadone is ... All Topics > Health > Overview Of Methadone > New York > Overview Of Methadone Jamestown NY. Methadone is an opioid. Methadone ... Nonetheless, the methadone withdrawal symptoms linger more than the latter.. THE METHADONE LAUNCHER Methadone was commercially ...
  http://guides.wkbw.com/Overview_Of_Methadone_Jamestown_NY-r989527-Jamestown_NY.html
*  Methadone Maintenance Treatment and Smoking Cessation - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Subjects who have not reached a stable dose of methadone in their methadone maintenance therapy (4 weeks at a constant/fixed ... Methadone Maintenance Treatment and Smoking Cessation (MMTASC). The recruitment status of this study is unknown. The completion ... Stable on methadone maintenance (an individual is considered 'stable' if they have had a 4 week constant/fixed dose of ... Stable methadone maintenance patients receiving varenicline will be more likely to maintain abstinence than patients receiving ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00906386
*  Understanding Methadone Metabolism:A Foundation for Safer Use | Anesthesiology | ASA Publications
Other studies have associated CYP3A4 activity with total methadone plasma concentrations, and possibly with the rare methadone- ... methadone metabolism and CYP2B6 variants, although CYP3A4 activity was also linked to plasma methadone levels in this study.7 ... methadone isomer. Therefore, not only overall plasma levels but also the ratio of plasma methadone isomers is controlled by ... to focus studies on methadone's metabolism to predict who might be particularly prone to methadone-related toxicity, and under ...
  http://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1933212
*  CAMH: Do You Know... Methadone
You are here: Home>Hospital>Health Information>Mental Health & Addiction Information A-Z>Methadone>Do You Know... Methadone ... Is methadone dangerous?. When methadone is taken as prescribed, it is very safe and will not cause any damage to internal ... What does methadone look like?. Pure methadone is a white crystalline powder. The powder is dissolved, usually in a fruit- ... Methadone is a "synthetic" opioid, which means that it is made from chemicals in a lab. Methadone was developed in Germany ...
  http://www.camh.ca/en/hospital/health_information/a_z_mental_health_and_addiction_information/methadone/Pages/methadone_dyk.aspx
*  Interactions of HIV Protease Inhibitors and Methadone in HIV-Infected Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Methadone is used treat addicts and to treat severe pain. In order to find the safest way to use methadone with PIs, it is ... Methadone is extensively used in the maintenance treatment of addicts and in the management of severe pain. In order to use ... Methadone. HIV-1. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Interactions. Drug Therapy, Combination. Saquinavir. Adolescent ... Methadone. Enzyme Inhibitors. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Anti-HIV Agents. Anti-Retroviral Agents. ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000906?order=642
*  A Trial to Compare Raltegravir Versus Nevirapine as Anchor Drug for HIV+ Chinese IDUs on Methadone Maintenance - Full Text View...
... fewer patients will require methadone dose adjustment to abate methadone withdrawal symptoms. Also the average methadone dose ... The percentages of patients in both arms who require methadone dose adjustment4The average methadone dose in each arm [ Time ... Methadone. Anti-HIV Agents. Anti-Retroviral Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. HIV Integrase Inhibitors. ... On stable methadone maintenance therapy at the time of enrollment.. *Antiretrovial treatment naïve and meeting clinical ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01042652?term=HIV+%5BCONDITION%5D+AND+
*  methadone (CHEBI:6807)
... is a benzenes (CHEBI:22712) methadone (CHEBI:6807) is a ketone (CHEBI:17087) methadone (CHEBI:6807) is a ... methadone (CHEBI:6807) has functional parent heptan-3-one (CHEBI:50139) methadone (CHEBI:6807) has role μ-opioid receptor ... methadone (CHEBI:6807) has role opioid analgesic (CHEBI:35482) methadone (CHEBI:6807) has role xenobiotic (CHEBI:35703) ... CHEBI:6807 - methadone. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. .gridLayoutCellStructure { min- ...
  http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:6807
*  Methadone.. | DailyStrength
Today my pain management doctor suggested me trying methadone. I declined for now. I have heard bad stuff about it... but I ... methadone 4 times a day. Sometimes I think it is not working but when I stop taking it I can tell that it was working. I try to ... I was on methadone for about 2 years. It worked wonders for the pain but it made me not think straight and I had to up the ... I was given Methadone for break-thru pain. To be honest it does NOT help that much for me. Sometimes it does take off the sharp ...
  https://www.dailystrength.org/group/neuropathy/discussion/methad_14
*  Methadone | DailyStrength
Both my pain mgment dioc ads well as my family dioc recommend methadone. I too am a doctor (Harvard MD-PhD) - pediatric ... I've been on Methadone for over 3 years now. It's been the best pain reliever I've ever tried, and I've been put on many of ... I know methadone here is about $20 or so for a months worth. But I'm sure it's different where you are. Good luck! Jessica ... i am on methadone too for almost one year. tried everything else. was on avinza but had to quit job due to fibromyalgia pain ...
  https://www.dailystrength.org/group/chronic-pain/discussion/methado_9
*  What Is in Methadone? | eHow
Brand Names for Methadone. Brand names for methadone that are used in the United States include Dolophine, Methadone Diskets, ... Ingredients in Methadone. Methadone's ingredients are methadone hydrochloride, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, ... What is Methadone Used for?. Methadone is a synthetic opioid analgesic (pain reliever) similar to morphine. It may be used to ... Because of its ingredients, methadone is contraindicated in people who are sensitive or allergic to methadone hydrochloride or ...
  https://www.ehow.com/facts_5562138_methadone.html
*  methadone detox - Addiction - MedHelp
I have been detoxed off of my methadone over a six month period,my last dose of 4ml was 10 days ago and the first five days ... methadone detox desclark75 I have been detoxed off of my methadone over a six month period,my last dose of 4ml was 10 days ago ... The great thing is that the symptoms should be a lot milder than if you quit straight from the Methadone.. I wish you success. ...
  https://www.medhelp.org/posts/Addiction/methadone-detox/show/1854556
*  Climate change methadone? « RealClimate
Methadone maintenance is one analogy, here's another:. The house (read planet) is burning down. The editors at RC would have us ... I mean is it better to let an addict die, or put them on methadone and give them a chance? They might die anyway, but is it ... Assuming the methadone analogy is reasonable, does that mean that injecting aerosols as a "temporary fix" is so wrong? The ... This seems rather apt, and like the analogous situation with heroin, methadone isn't going to be a cure. ...
  http://www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2008/08/climate-change-methadone/comment-page-2/?wpmp_switcher=mobile
*  Methadone detox - Addiction - MedHelp
Ive been on methadone since aug.22 2012 last wk. i started detox 80mg. down 5mg. last wk. today 2mgs. for every wk. now can i ... Ive been on methadone since aug.22 2012 last wk. i started detox 80mg. down 5mg. last wk. today 2mgs. for every wk. now can i ... Methadone withdrawal can be lengthy and stressful to your heart rate and BP, please do not attempt to do it without the proper ... the other thing i dont understand is what you can take with methadone. and what you cant take with it . it says some bp meds ...
  http://www.medhelp.org/posts/Addiction/Methadone-detox/show/1870727
*  Methadone Addiction Overdose
There is also information on the symptoms of methadone ... This article will educate you on what methadone is, how it is ... Methadone Addiction Overdose. Is Methadone Killing More Than Just Pain?. For anyone that isn't familiar with methadone, this ... Methadone Withdrawal Symptoms. When methadone is used on a regular basis, whether you are legally taking this drug or not, if ... As you can see, methadone abuse and overdose is definitely increasing.. What are the causes of Methadone Overdose?. One way a ...
  http://www.addictionsearch.com/treatment_articles/article/methadone-addiction-overdose_101.html
*  Methadone? - Addiction: Living with an Addict - MedHelp
I am not sure though, please help! I will start by saying he is on methadone. Since we met and started dating he claims it is ... Methadone? Lexy0813 Hello all, Its killing me to think that my fiancé may be using heroin. I am not sure though, please help! I ... Methadone?. Hello all, Its killing me to think that my fiancé may be using heroin. I am not sure though, please help! I will ... Does methadone make a person do any of this? I have to add that he smokes marijuana, and says it helps with his back problem. ...
  https://www.medhelp.org/posts/Addiction-Living-with-an-Addict/Methadone/show/1831022
*  Ativan or Methadone - Addiction: Substance Abuse - MedHelp
Ativan or Methadone bshaw999 I have been taking Ativan for a chronic pain condition and it works very well except of course it ... Ativan or Methadone. I have been taking Ativan for a chronic pain condition and it works very well except of course it is ... I would really research this if you are going to consider it .Methadone has its own set of problems of course so do benzos .I ... I would really research this if you are going to consider it .Methadone has its own set of problems of course so do benzos .I ...
  https://www.medhelp.org/posts/Addiction-Substance-Abuse/Ativan-or-Methadone/show/632905
*  Methadone (Oral Route) Before Using - Mayo Clinic
Information about this methadone-oral-route. Pregnancy Category. Explanation. All Trimesters. C. Animal studies have shown an ... Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of methadone in the pediatric population ... which may require caution and an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving methadone. ... studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of methadone in the ...
  https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/methadone-oral-route/before-using/DRG-20075806
*  What is methadone used for? | Reference.com
Methadone is available in tablet, injectable and liquid forms, according to WebMD. It is... ... Methadone is commonly used as part of an addiction program to ease the symptoms of opiate withdrawal. ... Methadone is commonly used as part of an addiction program to ease the symptoms of opiate withdrawal. Methadone is available in ... Methadone is specially formulated to block the high that is caused by opiate use by targeting specific areas of the spinal cord ...
  https://www.reference.com/health/methadone-used-d0d075ffdf8db228
*  Does taking methadone during pregnancy cause miscarriage?
... methadone, pregnancy, miscarriage - Answer: Hello, do you not understand that when you take an opiate such as ... ... Home › Q & A › Questions › Does taking methadone during.... Does taking methadone during pregnancy cause miscarriage?. Asked. 8 ... methadone, pregnancy, miscarriage. Details:. Been mmt for 3.5 yrs. I've had 1 baby then 2 mc then another baby and just ... Side Effects of Methadone (detailed). Search for questions. Still looking for answers? Try searching for what you seek or ask ...
  https://www.drugs.com/answers/does-taking-methadone-during-pregnancy-cause-518666.html
*  how to lose weight while on methadone?
Methadone can make some people slow down. I always ... ... methadone, weight. Details:. is there any diet meds you can ... Does the methadone diskits cause weight gain more than the liquid methadone?. Posted 25 Jan 2011 • 2 answers ... How active are you??? Methadone can make some people slow down. I always tell new patients on methadone that they need to go ... When I started methadone 8 years ago I was down to 123lbs. I'm a male,46 with a average build and 5'10'. I went up to 200lbs ...
  https://www.drugs.com/answers/how-to-lose-weight-while-on-methadone-58527.html

Methadone clinic: A methadone clinic is a clinic which has been established for the dispensing of methadone (Dolophine), a schedule II opioid analgesic, to those who abuse heroin and other opioids. The focus of these clinics is the elimination or reduction of opioid usage by putting the patient on methadone.Uniform State Narcotic Drug Act: The National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws developed the Uniform State Narcotic Drug Act in 1934 due to the lack of restrictions in the Harrison Act of 1914. The act was a revenue-producing act and, while it provided penalties for violations, it did not give authority to the states to exercise police power regarding either seizure of drugs used in illicit trade or punishment of those responsible.Comfort Food (novel): Comfort Food: A Novel by Noah Ashenhurst contains a cast of characters: a romantic academic, a self-assured young writer, an enigmatic musician, a slacker, a wealthy mountaineer, and a former heroin addict—characters whose lives intersect in the unique, award-winning debut novel.NoracymethadolAgonist–antagonistOpioid: Opioids are substances that act on the nervous system in a similar way to opiates such as morphine and codeine. In a medical context the term usually indicates medications that are artificially made rather than extracted from opium.Neonatal withdrawalDrug test: A drug test is a technical analysis of a biological specimen, for example urine, hair, blood, breath, sweat, or oral fluid/saliva—to determine the presence or absence of specified parent drugs or their metabolites. Major applications of drug testing include detection of the presence of performance enhancing steroids in sport, employers screening for drugs prohibited by law (such as cannabis, cocaine and heroin) and police officers testing for the presence and concentration of alcohol (ethanol) in the blood commonly referred to as BAC (blood alcohol content).PyrrolidineOpioid overdose: .0, -Morphia (disambiguation): Morphia, also called morphine, is a highly potent opiate analgesic drug.DextropropoxypheneList of drug interactions: The following is a list of interactions with various prescription and over-the counter drugs:Substance-related disorderBenzodiazepine withdrawal syndromeOpium lampSharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation: Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation (also called the Sharpless bishydroxylation) is the chemical reaction of an alkene with osmium tetroxide in the presence of a chiral quinine ligand to form a vicinal diol.Palladia (social services organization): Palladia, Inc. is a social services organization in New York City, working with individuals and families challenged by addiction, homelessness, AIDS, domestic violence, poverty and trauma.Drug interaction: A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together. This action can be synergistic (when the drug's effect is increased) or antagonistic (when the drug's effect is decreased) or a new effect can be produced that neither produces on its own.Stateville Penitentiary Malaria Study: The Stateville Penitentiary malaria study was a controlled study of the effects of malaria on the prisoners of Stateville Penitentiary near Joliet, Illinois in the 1940s. The study was conducted by the Department of Medicine at the University of Chicago in conjunction with the United States Army and the State Department.Concentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.CodeineLow-dose naltrexone: Low-dose naltrexone (LDN) describes the off-label use of the medication naltrexone at low doses for diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Naltrexone is typically prescribed for opioid dependence or alcohol dependence, as it is a strong opioid antagonist.

(1/993) Solid-phase microextraction for cannabinoids analysis in hair and its possible application to other drugs.

This paper describes the application of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) to cannabis testing in hair. Fifty milligrams of hair was washed with petroleum ether, hydrolyzed with NaOH, neutralized, deuterated internal standard was added and directly submitted to SPME. The SPME was analyzed by GC-MS. The limit of detection was 0.1 ng/mg for cannabinol (CBN) and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 0.2 ng/mg for cannabidiol (CBD). THC was detected in a range spanning from 0.1 to 0.7 ng/mg. CBD concentrations ranged from 0.7 to 14.1 ng/mg, and CBN concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 ng/mg. The effectiveness of different decontamination procedures was also studied on passively contaminated hair. The proposed method is also suitable for the analysis of methadone in hair; cocaine and cocaethylene can be detected in hair with SPME extraction after enzymatic hydrolysis.  (+info)

(2/993) Safer sex strategies for women: the hierarchical model in methadone treatment clinics.

Women clients of a methadone maintenance treatment clinic were targeted for an intervention aimed to reduce unsafe sex. The hierarchical model was the basis of the single intervention session, tested among 63 volunteers. This model requires the educator to discuss and demonstrate a full range of barriers that women might use for protection, ranking these in the order of their known efficacy. The model stresses that no one should go without protection. Two objections, both untested, have been voiced against the model. One is that, because of its complexity, women will have difficulty comprehending the message. The second is that, by demonstrating alternative strategies to the male condom, the educator is offering women a way out from persisting with the male condom, so that instead they will use an easier, but less effective, method of protection. The present research aimed at testing both objections in a high-risk and disadvantaged group of women. By comparing before and after performance on a knowledge test, it was established that, at least among these women, the complex message was well understood. By comparing baseline and follow-up reports of barriers used by sexually active women before and after intervention, a reduction in reports of unsafe sexual encounters was demonstrated. The reduction could be attributed directly to adoption of the female condom. Although some women who had used male condoms previously adopted the female condom, most of those who did so had not used the male condom previously. Since neither theoretical objection to the hierarchical model is sustained in this population, fresh weight is given to emphasizing choice of barriers, especially to women who are at high risk and relatively disempowered. As experience with the female condom grows and its unfamiliarity decreases, it would seem appropriate to encourage women who do not succeed with the male condom to try to use the female condom, over which they have more control.  (+info)

(3/993) Harm reduction: Australia as a case study.

This paper explicates the term, "harm reduction"; demonstrates that harm reduction has a long tradition; and uses one country, Australia, as a case study. Harm reduction can be understood as "policies and programs which are designed to reduce the adverse consequences of mood altering substances without necessarily reducing their consumption"; it is consistent with the best traditions of both medicine and public health. Although it is difficult to interpret trends in mortality from alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs to determine whether harm reduction in Australia "worked", the effectiveness of harm-reduction policies and programs in controlling HIV among injecting drug users (IDUs) seems extremely strong and suggests that benefits of harm-reduction programs for other drugs will become apparent in time.  (+info)

(4/993) Methadone treatment by general practitioners in Amsterdam.

In Amsterdam, a three-tiered program exists to deal with drug use and addiction. General practitioners form the backbone of the system, helping to deal with the majority of addicts, who are not criminals and many of whom desire to be free of addiction. Distinctions are made between drugs with "acceptable" and "unacceptable" risks, and between drug use and drug-related crime; patients who fall into the former categories are treated in a nonconfrontational, nonstigmatizing manner; such a system helps prevent the majority of patients from passing into unacceptable, criminalized categories. The overall program has demonstrated harm reduction both for patients and for the city of Amsterdam.  (+info)

(5/993) Recent developments in maintenance prescribing and monitoring in the United Kingdom.

After a brief historical review of British drug legislation and public and governmental attitudes, this paper describes the wide range of policies and practices that have appeared since the explosion of illicit drug abuse in the 1960s. The spectrum goes from a reluctance to prescribe at all to maintenance on injectable opiates. Comparisons are made with differing attitudes to the availability of abortion in public health services. Compared with 5 years ago, about three times more methadone is being prescribed. There is a steady increase in prescriptions for injectable methadone but heroin maintenance is still rare. The "British System" permits great flexibility in the choice of opiates for maintenance. Some amphetamine-prescribing programmes also exist. Hair analysis for drugs to monitor levels of both prescribed and unprescribed drugs is a welcome and promising alternative to undignified and often misleading urine tests.  (+info)

(6/993) Harm reduction in Bern: from outreach to heroin maintenance.

In Switzerland, harm-reduction programs have the support of the national government and many localities, in congruence with much of the rest of Europe and in contrast with the United States, and take place in public settings. The threat of AIDS is recognized as the greater harm. This paper describes the overall national program and highlights the experience from one city; the program is noteworthy because it is aimed at gathering comparative data from controlled trials.  (+info)

(7/993) Studies on the uptake, metabolism, and release of endogenous and exogenous chemicals by use of the isolated perfused lung.

The isolated perfused lung is a valuable tool for studying many lung functions. The kinds of information one can obtain from the isolated perfused lung are illustrated by examples from our studies on the uptake, accumulation, and metabolism of endogenous and exogenous chemicals.  (+info)

(8/993) A pilot study to determine the usefulness of the urinary excretion of methadone and its primary metabolite (EDDP) as potential markers of compliance in methadone detoxification programs.

Fourteen subjects (selected on the basis of compliance with the methadone-maintenance program prescribed by the consultant psychiatrist in charge of their treatment) undergoing opiate detoxification by methadone-replacement therapy were studied to determine if a relationship exists between the dose of methadone prescribed and the urinary excretion of methadone and/or its primary metabolite, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP). After the derivation of this relationship, it was hoped that the urinary concentrations of methadone and/or EDDP could be used as a noninvasive technique to monitor the methadone compliance of 56 drug abusers. Despite statistically significant correlations (p<0.001) between methadone dose and urine concentrations of methadone and EDDP, the large variation in concentrations measured in the urine of drug abusers negated the possibility of any clear-cut relationship being confirmed. However, it may be possible to use excretion data to monitor individual compliance but only through long-term monitoring of individual subjects to establish their own intraindividual variation in excretion patterns.  (+info)



  • study
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this placebo controlled study is to determine the efficacy, safety, and gender differences in using varenicline for smoking cessation in a population of stable methadone maintenance patients being treated for Opioid Dependence. (clinicaltrials.gov)