Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Homeless Persons: Persons who have no permanent residence. The concept excludes nomadic peoples.United StatesMentally Ill Persons: Persons with psychiatric illnesses or diseases, particularly psychotic and severe mood disorders.Visually Impaired Persons: Persons with loss of vision such that there is an impact on activities of daily living.Mentally Disabled Persons: Persons diagnosed as having significantly lower than average intelligence and considerable problems in adapting to everyday life or lacking independence in regard to activities of daily living.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Single Person: The unmarried man or woman.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Personhood: The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Frail Elderly: Older adults or aged individuals who are lacking in general strength and are unusually susceptible to disease or to other infirmity.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Transgendered Persons: Persons having a sense of persistent identification with, and expression of, gender-coded behaviors not typically associated with one's anatomical sex at birth, and with or without a desire to undergo SEX REASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Transsexualism: Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)Famous PersonsCaliforniaAccidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.ConnecticutRegression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.WisconsinRetrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Contact Tracing: Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.Refugees: Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)Nursing Homes: Facilities which provide nursing supervision and limited medical care to persons who do not require hospitalization.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Self-Help Devices: Devices, not affixed to the body, designed to help persons having musculoskeletal or neuromuscular disabilities to perform activities involving movement.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.AlaskaDiabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.San FranciscoHealth Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Homebound Persons: Those unable to leave home without exceptional effort and support; patients (in this condition) who are provided with or are eligible for home health services, including medical treatment and personal care. Persons are considered homebound even if they may be infrequently and briefly absent from home if these absences do not indicate an ability to receive health care in a professional's office or health care facility. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p309)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Mobility Limitation: Difficulty in walking from place to place.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.New York CityMultivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).GermanyDepression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.AIDS Serodiagnosis: Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.SwedenSmoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.KansasTreatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.MarylandQuadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System: Telephone surveys are conducted to monitor prevalence of the major behavioral risks among adults associated with premature MORBIDITY and MORTALITY. The data collected is in regard to actual behaviors, rather than on attitudes or knowledge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 1984.Residential Facilities: Long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)DenmarkWashingtonAdaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Sports for Persons with Disabilities: Activities or games played by PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES, usually requiring physical effort or skill. The activities or games may be specifically created or based on existing sports, with or without modifications, to meet the needs of persons with physical or intellectual disabilities.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Institutionalization: The caring for individuals in institutions and their adaptation to routines characteristic of the institutional environment, and/or their loss of adaptation to life outside the institution.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Geriatrics: The branch of medicine concerned with the physiological and pathological aspects of the aged, including the clinical problems of senescence and senility.Haiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Tuberculin Test: One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.Persons With Hearing Impairments: Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.FloridaPatient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Wheelchairs: Chairs mounted on wheels and designed to be propelled by the occupant.Mental Competency: The ability to understand the nature and effect of the act in which the individual is engaged. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed).Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.TennesseeJapanFinlandIndiaHispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Rehabilitation, Vocational: Training of the mentally or physically disabled in work skills so they may be returned to regular employment utilizing these skills.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Education of Intellectually Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with subnormal intellectual functioning.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Sampling Studies: Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Philosophy, MedicalHomes for the Aged: Geriatric long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.GeorgiaTexasGrief: Normal, appropriate sorrowful response to an immediate cause. It is self-limiting and gradually subsides within a reasonable time.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Home Nursing: Nursing care given to an individual in the home. The care may be provided by a family member or a friend. Home nursing as care by a non-professional is differentiated from HOME CARE SERVICES provided by professionals: visiting nurse, home health agencies, hospital, or other organized community group.Value of Life: The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)ColoradoNorwayEpidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.New JerseyLinear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Long-Term Care: Care over an extended period, usually for a chronic condition or disability, requiring periodic, intermittent, or continuous care.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Pudong New Area of Shanghai using three proposed definitions among Chinese adultsPregnant women and physically or mentally disabled persons were excluded from the survey. Of the 6,387 eligible adults ... The 2006 International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition classified a person with the MS in the same way as ATP III, but ... All participants were interviewed in-person between April and July of 2008 to collect information on demographic and lifestyle ... After obtaining written consent, a structured in-person interview was conducted by trained interviewers to elicit information ...
Treatment-resistant major depressive disorder and assisted dying | Journal of Medical EthicsMentally Ill and Disabled Persons. *Psychiatry. *Suicide/Assisted Suicide. Introduction. Opinion polls suggest that many of ... A TRD person's authentic self is by necessity defined to a significant extent by her illness. That does not render her ... It is true that the person these patients once were, and that they likely long to be, they are no longer and they will not be ... In the minds of many, empathy with a clinically depressed person is not different to our empathy with someone who just feels a ...
Protocol for Rabies Post-exposure Prophylaxis (RPEP) After Exposure to a Rabies Susceptible Animal... mentally disabled person, or intoxicated person). RPEP would not be warranted for household members who were not present in the ... Persons were in the same room as the bat and may be unaware that a bite or direct contact occurred (e.g., a sleeping person ... Any person with a history of a complete pre-exposure or postexposure vaccination regimen with HDCV, PCECV, or rabies vaccine ... For persons with immunosuppression, rabies PEP should be administered using all 5 doses of vaccine on days 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28. ...
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Program: Rehabilitation of Persons with Traumatic Brain InjuryMentally disabled research subjects: the enduring policy issues. JAMA 1996. ;276(1):67-72.. Haimowitz S, Delano SJ, Oldham JM. ... The ethics of research on the mentally disabled. In: Monagle JF, Thomasma DC, editors. Health care ethics: critical issues for ... Alcohol is reported to be associated with half of all TBI, either in the person causing the injury or in the person with the ... Rehabilitation of persons with TBI should include cognitive and behavioral assessment and intervention. *Persons with TBI and ...
University of Michigan School of Dentistryworking with special population groups (e.g., minority groups, geriatric patients, mentally/physically disabled persons) ...
Most Popular 'Handicapped Person' Titles - IMDbTwo itinerant migrant workers, one mentally disabled and the other his carer, take jobs as ranch hands during the Great ... Disabled Person (9) Food (9) Gore (9) Gun (9) Horse (9) Letter (9) Marriage (9) Money (9) One Word Title (9) Prostitute (9) ... Handicapped Person Friendship (29) Wheelchair (29) Death (22) Female Nudity (22) Blood (21) Doctor (21) Father Son Relationship ... Most Popular 'Handicapped Person' Titles Refine See titles to watch instantly, titles you haven't rated, etc ...
Anatomy of an Epidemic: Psychiatric Drugs and the Astonishing Rise of Mental Illness in America - Whitaker | AHRPIf allowed to go forward, it will likely magnify the number of drug-induced mentally and physically disabled young persons in ... Whitaker then compares the documented evidence showing dramatic increase in the number of disabled mentally ill persons: The ... In 1955 persons disabled by mental illness were institutionalized: the rate of disability was 3.38 per 1,000. In 1987 ... Between 1987 and 2000, the number of disabled mentally ill in the United States increased from 3.331 million people to 5.726 ...
1942-1975: U.S. Soldiers Experimental Guinea Pigs | AHRPThe uninformed human subjects included military servicemen, prisoners, mentally incapacitated persons, disabled veterans, and ...
mentally ill personsMedicare Part D Cost-Sharing and Treatment of Mental Disorders Among Disabled Dua. Julie Marie Donohue; Fiscal Year: 2010 ... mentally ill persons. Summary. Summary: Persons with psychiatric illnesses or diseases, particularly psychotic and severe mood ... the effects of the Psychiatric Care Reform in Sweden in 1995 on the development of needs of severely mentally ill persons and ... that the inpatient mental health system has become less accessible and less able to meet the needs of mentally ill persons ...
Stigma of Mental Illness by on PreziEssentializing language that sees and says anything but the person first.. (eg. the ________, disabled, deaf, blind, mentally ... Shattel, M. (2009). Stigmatizing language with unintended meanings: "Persons with mental illness" or "mentally ill persons"? ... Identifies mentally disturbed behaviors as causing significant problems for the person's social, occupational, academic ... from a person with schizophrenia than from a person with depression or no psychiatric symptoms. They also found that mental ...
What's your best 'I shouldn't laugh' moment? : AskReddit... a mentally and physically disabled person) shouted out 'FIVE DOLLARS!' I didn't laugh out of respect but I had to stop myself. ... Mentally Ill kid a few tables away was staring at me...When him and his mother get up to leave, she's already walking away from ... Every time a person with disabilities falls over. Everybody tries to help them while I'm sitting there laughing my fucking eyes ... I work in my family's scuba store and one day a little person walks in. He asks to look at an underwater camera. I begin ...
M S Dworkinmentally disabled persons*chickenpox vaccine*antigenic variation*food services*pharyngitis*chickenpox*anabolic agents*food ... Bacterial diarrhea in persons with HIV infection, United States, 1992-2002. Travis H Sanchez. Division of HIV AIDS Prevention ... Risk factors for and trends in gonorrhea incidence among persons infected with HIV in the United States. A N Do. Surveillance ... 0 cases per 100 PY) and not higher than in persons whose CD4(+) counts had not decreased below these thresholds, which suggests ...
Results for: /NewsMagazine | EthicShare CommunityMentally Disabled Persons (5). *Alabama (4). *Euthanasia, Passive (4). *Female (4). *Government Regulation (4) ... 1. Federal court order brings big changes in lives of mentally ill and retarded patients in Alabama. ...
Public Act No. 99-279 for House Bill No. 7104... handicapped and developmentally disabled persons' means any persons who are physically or mentally handicapped, including, but ... not limited to, mentally retarded, physically disabled, sensory impaired and autistic persons. ... On presentation of such income withholding order by the officer to whom delivered for service to the person or persons or ... The report shall include information on (1) the number of persons screened for the pilot program, (2) the number of persons ...
Glossary, IRB-HSRMentally Disabled - See Cognitively impaired. Minimal risk - The probability and magnitude of harm or discomfort anticipated in ... Minor (in reference to a person) - In Virginia, means any person who has not reached the age of eighteen (18). In the Virginia ... and persons with severely disabling physical handicaps, may also be compromised in their ability to make decisions in their ... A person other than an individual (e.g., a corporation or agency) that uses one or more of its own employees to conduct an ...
UN Enable - Human Rights and Disabled Persons 5/6... in some regions of Thailand for mentally disabled persons and in India for the blind. Nepal has also recently trained a number ... persons E. Rights of disabled persons in respect of education, training and vocational guidance F. Rights of disabled persons ... of disabled persons, policies that promote the training and employment of disabled and non-disabled persons on an equal basis, ... disabled persons should be included. Disabled persons should be actively recruited, and when a disabled candidate and a non- ...
Ex-Vaccine Developer Reveals Lies the Vaccine Industry is Built Upon in InterviewHe could become mentally disabled.. Q: Is there any way to compare the relative frequency of these different outcomes? ... It is every person's responsibility to make up his mind. The medical cartel likes that bet. It is betting that the fear will ... One, the person gets the disease from the vaccine. He gets the disease which the vaccine is supposed to protect him from. ... If a person who gets a vaccine against hepatitis gets hepatitis, or gets some other disease, the automatic assumption is, this ...
Community and Social Services... service providers and service users on behalf of those who are mentally ill and/or developmentally disabled or persons with ... Using a person-centred approach, Community Living Kincardine and District assists individuals to participate fully in the life ... AVP encourages every person's innate power to positively transform themselves individually, thereby changing the world around ... They work to improve the lives of persons facing mental health issues by offering the training and support necessary to improve ...
Engaging physicians and leveraging professionalism: a key to success for quality measurement and improvement.Outbreak of influenza A (H3N2) in a residence for mentally disabled persons in Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2013. PPT Version , PDF ...
Reduced hypothalamic-pituitary and sympathoadrenal responses to hypoglycemia in women with fibromyalgia syndrome.Outbreak of influenza A (H3N2) in a residence for mentally disabled persons in Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2013. PPT Version , PDF ...
Low-volume resuscitation with a polymerized bovine hemoglobin-based oxygen-carrying solution (HBOC-201) provides adequate...Outbreak of influenza A (H3N2) in a residence for mentally disabled persons in Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2013. PPT Version , PDF ...
Mental Health Services | List of High Impact Articles | PPts | Journals | VideosOutbreak of influenza A (H3N2) in a residence for mentally disabled persons in Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2013. PPT Version , PDF ...
Choosing between small, likely rewards and large, unlikely rewards activates inferior and orbital prefrontal cortex.Outbreak of influenza A (H3N2) in a residence for mentally disabled persons in Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2013. PPT Version , PDF ...
Cost-effectiveness analysis of spinal cord stimulation in treatment of failed back surgery syndrome.Outbreak of influenza A (H3N2) in a residence for mentally disabled persons in Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2013. PPT Version , PDF ...
Multiple disabilitiesHomeless dumping: Homeless dumping is the practice of hospital employees or emergency services releasing homeless patients on the streets instead of placing them into the custody of family, a warming center or homeless shelter or retaining them in a hospital where they may require expensive medical care. Many homeless people who have mental health problems can no longer find a place in a psychiatric hospital since the trend towards mental health deinstitutionalization from the 1960s onwards.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingSelf-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Familial British dementia: Familial British dementia is a form of dementia. 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It is issued by the World Health Organisation.Postoperative cognitive dysfunction: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a short-term decline in cognitive function (especially in memory and executive functions) that may last from a few days to a few weeks after surgery. In rare cases, this disorder may persist for several months after major surgery.Cancer screeningMental disorderNetherlands national rollball team: Vishwaraj JadejaNeighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.Dysphoria: Dysphoria (from (dysphoros), δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a profound state of unease or dissatisfaction. In a psychiatric context, dysphoria may accompany depression, anxiety, or agitation.Nicholas II of WerleSan Diego County, California Probation: The San Diego County Probation Department is the body in San Diego County, California responsible for supervising convicted offenders in the community, either who are on probation, such as at the conclusion of their sentences, or while on community supervision orders.Plymouth Congregational Church (New Haven, Connecticut)Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Wisconsin Senate, District 4: The 4th District of the Wisconsin Senate is located in Southern Wisconsin, and is composed of parts of Milwaukee County.District MapTuberculosis managementInternational Disability and Development Consortium: The International Disability and Development Consortium (IDDC) is a global consortium of disability and development related organisations. The aim of IDDC is to promote inclusive development internationally, with a special focus on promoting human rights for all disabled people living in economically poor communities in lower and middle-income countries.The Complete Stevie Wonder: The Complete Stevie Wonder is a digital compilation featuring the work of Stevie Wonder. Released a week before the physical release of A Time to Love, the set comprises almost all of Wonder's officially released material, including single mixes, extended versions, remixes, and Workout Stevie Workout, a 1963 album which was shelved and replaced by With A Song In My Heart.VaccinationPsychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: The U.S.National Healthy Homes Hero Award: National Healthy Homes Hero Award is an award presented by a consortium of agencies at the United States' National Healthy Homes Conference. The first year this award was presented was in 2011.Contact tracing: In epidemiology, contact tracing is the identification and diagnosis of persons who may have come into contact with an infected person. For sexually transmitted diseases, this is generally limited to sexual partners and can fall under the heading of partner services.Al-Waleed (camp): Al-Waleed () is a makeshift Palestinian refugee camp in Iraq, near the border with Syria and the al-Tanf Crossing, and not far from the border with Jordan. It was set up in 2006 by Palestinian refugees stranded at the Iraqi-Syrian border The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has two field staff stationed in the camp.Home of the future: The home of the future, similar to the office of the future, is a concept that has been popular to explore since the early 20th century, or perhaps earlier. There have been many exhibits, such as at World's Fairs and theme parks, purporting to show how future homes will look and work, as well as standalone model "homes of the future" sponsored by builders, developers, or technology companies.Assistive technology service provider: Assistive technology service providers help individuals with disabilities acquire and use appropriate Assistive Technology (AT) to help them participate in activities of daily living, employment and education.List of nature centers in Alaska: This is a list of nature centers and environmental education centers in the state of Alaska.Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus: A newly identified and potentially treatable form of monogenic diabetes is the neonatal diabetes caused by activating mutations of the KCNJ11 gene, which codes for the Kir6.2 subunit of the beta cell KATP channel.HIV-positive people: HIV-positive people are people who have the human immunodeficiency virus HIV, the agent of the currently incurable disease AIDS.Mortality rate: Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.Jack London's San Francisco Stories: Jack London's San Francisco Stories is an anthology of Jack London short stories set in the San Francisco Bay Area. The book was edited by Matthew Asprey.Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status is a neuropsychological assessment initially introduced in 1998. It consists of ten subtests which give five scores, one for each of the five domains tested (immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, delayed memory).Wholesome Wave: Wholesome Wave is a U.S.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Influenza A virus subtype H1N1: Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish Flu.Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections: The Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) is an annual scientific meeting devoted to the understanding, prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and the opportunistic infections associated with AIDS. Thousands of leading researchers and clinicians from around the world convene in a different location in North America each year for the Conference.Interpersonal reflex: Interpersonal reflex is a term created by Timothy Leary and explained in the book, Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality: A functional theory and methodology for personality evaluation (1957).List of bus routes in Brooklyn: The Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) operates a number of bus routes in Brooklyn, New York, United States; one minor route is privately operated under a city franchise. Many of them are the direct descendants of streetcar lines (see list of streetcar lines in Brooklyn); the ones that started out as bus routes were almost all operated by the Brooklyn Bus Corporation, a subsidiary of the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation, until the New York City Board of Transportation took over on June 5, 1940.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Baden, Lower Saxony: Baden is a town near Bremen, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is known to Africanists and Phoneticians as the place where Diedrich Hermann Westermann was born and died.Rating scales for depression: A depression rating scale is a psychiatric measuring instrument having descriptive words and phrases that indicate the severity of depression for a time period. When used, an observer may make judgements and rate a person at a specified scale level with respect to identified characteristics.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.
(1/101) How disabling is depression? Evidence from a primary care sample. The Counselling Versus Antidepressants In Primary Care Study Group.
BACKGROUND: Major depression is an illness with a high prevalence and is most commonly seen and treated by general practitioners (GPs). AIM: To determine the level of disability in depressed patients seen in a primary care setting, and to investigate whether the level of disability was associated with the severity of the depression. METHOD: Prospective data collection, using the 36-item Shortened Form (SF-36), from the Medical Outcomes Study, as a measure of disability, and from the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) in a sample of depressed patients recruited from a Counselling versus Antidepressant in Primary Care (CAPC) study in the Trent Region. All patients met the research diagnostic criteria for major depression. RESULTS: Two hundred and fifty patients were assessed. These patients reported high levels of disability compared both with published norms and with other chronic physical illnesses. Increases in disability were especially noticeable in the domains of the SF-36 that were specific to mental illness. There was a significant correlation between scores on the SF-36 and the BDI. CONCLUSION: This study confirms that depressed patients in primary care report high levels of disability on the SF-36, and that the instrument is both specific to the domains expected to be affected by mental disorder and is sensitive to the severity of mood disturbance. (+info)
(2/101) Depression in the workplace: effects on short-term disability.
We analyzed data from two national surveys to estimate the short-term work disability associated with thirty-day major depression. Depressed workers were found to have between 1.5 and 3.2 more short-term work-disability days in a thirty-day period than other workers had, with a salary-equivalent productivity loss averaging between $182 and $395. These workplace costs are nearly as large as the direct costs of successful depression treatment, which suggests that encouraging depressed workers to obtain treatment might be cost-effective for some employers. (+info)
(3/101) Epidemiology and control of enterobiasis in a developmental center.
OBJECTIVE: To determine if enterobiasis could be controlled in a developmental center. DESIGN: Population-based study. Annual screening of all residents by perianal swabs for enterobiasis and on admission or discharge. Treatment of infected residents and their contacts with mebendazole, 100 mg orally, with two doses given 14 days apart. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of residents with enterobiasis and the cost of the program. RESULTS: The prevalence of enterobiasis fell rapidly and progressively, from 21% before mass medication to 1% after 3 years. CONCLUSION: Mass medication of residents with enterobiasis and their contacts was beneficial, harmless, and cost effective. (+info)
(4/101) Working with mentally ill homeless persons: should we respect their quest for anonymity?
In recent years, the homeless population has received much attention as authorities attempt to comprehend this phenomenon and offer solutions. When striving to establish a relationship with the homeless person, many problems arise. We encounter this dilemma when respecting the right of the mentally ill to dwell neglected in the streets and simultaneously observe their inability to comprehend provisions such as housing, shelter, medical and mental care which contribute to their human dignity. The polarities of autonomy versus involuntary treatment are highlighted when treating the homeless population. (+info)
(5/101) Serving street-dwelling individuals with psychiatric disabilities: outcomes of a psychiatric rehabilitation clinical trial.
OBJECTIVES: This study tested a psychiatric rehabilitation approach for organizing and delivering services to street-dwelling persons with severe mental illness. METHODS: Street-dwelling persons with severe mental illness were randomly assigned to the experimental program (called Choices) or to standard treatment in New York City. We assessed study participants at baseline and at 6-month intervals over 24 months, using measures of service use, quality of life, health, mental health, and social psychological status. The average deviation from baseline summary statistic was employed to assess change. RESULTS: Compared with persons in standard treatment (n = 77), members of the experimental group (n = 91) were more likely to attend a day program (53% vs 27%), had less difficulty in meeting their basic needs, spent less time on the streets (55% vs 28% reduction), and spent more time in community housing (21% vs 9% increase). They showed greater improvement in life satisfaction and experienced a greater reduction in psychiatric symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: With an appropriate service model, it is possible to engage disaffiliated populations, expand their use of human services, and improve their housing conditions, quality of life, and mental health status. (+info)
(6/101) Prevalence, comorbidity, disability and service utilisation. Overview of the Australian National Mental Health Survey.
BACKGROUND: Health planning should be based on data about prevalence, disability and services used. AIMS: To determine the prevalence of ICD-10 disorders and associated comorbidity, disability and service utilisation. METHOD: We surveyed a national probability sample of Australian households using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and other measures. RESULTS: The sample size was 10 641 adults, response rate 78%. Close to 23% reported at least one disorder in the past 12 months and 14% a current disorder. Comorbidity was associated with disability and service use. Only 35% of people with a mental disorder in the 12 months prior to the survey had consulted for a mental problem during that year, and most had seen a general practitioner. Only half of those who were disabled or had multiple comorbidity had consulted and of those who had not, more than half said they did not need treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The high rate of not consulting among those with disability and comorbidity is an important public health problem. As Australia has a universal health insurance scheme, the barriers to effective care must be patient knowledge and physician competence. (+info)
(7/101) Intellectual functioning and outcome of patients with severe psychotic illness randomised to intensive case management. Report from the UK700 trial.
BACKGROUND: Little research has been carried out on the benefits of intensive case management (ICM) for people with borderline IQ and severe mental illness. AIMS: To compare outcome and costs of care of patients with severe psychotic illness with borderline IQ to patients of normal IQ and to assess whether ICM is more beneficial for the former than for the latter. METHOD: The study utilises data from the UK700 multi-centre randomised controlled trial of case management. The main outcome measure was the number of days spent in hospital for psychiatric reasons. Secondary outcomes were costs of care and clinical outcome. RESULTS: ICM was significantly more beneficial for borderline-IQ patients than those of normal IQ in terms of reductions in days spent in hospital, hospital admissions, total costs and needs and increased satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: ICM appears to be a cost-effective strategy for a subgroup of patients with severe psychosis with cognitive deficits. (+info)
(8/101) Screening for Strongyloides infection among the institutionalized mentally disabled.
BACKGROUND: Strongyloidiasis is an intestinal helminthic infection common among the mentally disabled population and can cause persistent occult infection before resulting in disseminated, possibly fatal disease. METHODS: Two cases of strongyloidiasis are described. The literature was searched using the key words "Strongyloides" and "mass screening." RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Strongyloidiasis is clinically important and well documented in the mentally disabled populations both in endemic and nonendemic regions of North America. It has a substantial latent phase during which screening can be conducted, and its treatment with thiabendazole is convenient, effective, and reasonably well tolerated. Although strongyloidiasis is usually incidentally detected by findings of eosinophilia during routine blood screening, peripheral eosinophilia occurs only in 50% to 80% of infected persons and is extremely nonspecific for Strongyloides infection. Given the high cost of critical care for a patient with disseminated disease, screening mentally disabled populations in institutional settings for strongyloidiasis by administering the Strongyloides stercoralis antibody ELISA appears justifiable, particularly if risk factors for hyperinfection syndrome are used to select a subpopulation to be screened. (+info)
- The estimated incidence rate is 100 per 100,000 persons with 52,000 annual deaths. (nih.gov)
- The highest incidence is among persons 15 to 24 years of age and 75 years and older, with an additional less striking peak in incidence in children ages 5 and younger. (nih.gov)
- Persons with psychiatric illnesses or diseases, particularly psychotic and severe mood disorders. (labome.org)
- To answer this question, Whitaker turned to government documents recording the number of patients who received treatment for mental illness and the number of patients disabled by mental illness, and he turned to neuroscientific evidence of how these drugs work. (ahrp.org)
- This study examined the frequency with which persons in the community with psychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, and both types of disorders are victims of violence. (labome.org)
- 2006) demonstrated that both the general public and mental health professionals indicated a greater desire for social distance from a person with schizophrenia than from a person with depression or no psychiatric symptoms. (prezi.com)
- The statement provides state-of-the-art information regarding effective rehabilitation measures for persons who have suffered a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and presents the conclusions and recommendations of the consensus panel regarding these issues. (nih.gov)
- Persons with disabilities having difficulty accessing information on this page may contact us for assistance. (nih.gov)
- 207. Experience has shown that therapy which involves the isolation of disabled persons not only prevents their full integration into their social milieu but in most cases aggravates existing disabilities or causes new ones. (un.org)
- Ability First Ottawa works to assist persons with disabilities to reach their goals in employment skills, recreation, social skills and art. (charityvillage.com)
- To encourage and inspire persons with disabilities to reach their full potential and dreams. (charityvillage.com)
- Thus, they explore an alternative approach currently in development in Australia that promotes community-based treatment for chronically mentally ill persons without judicial intervention. (labome.org)
- Further, while we recognize that a form cannot dictate good treatment in and of itself, the use of the form we will describe allows teams and professionals to look at all elements of the individual's supports and how they work together to support the person. (thenadd.org)
- NEW) (a) The Commissioner of Social Services shall implement and administer, within available appropriations, a program of transitionary rental assistance for private housing for persons who are employed at the time they exhaust time-limited benefits under the temporary family assistance program and who have income which exceeds the payment standard under said program. (ct.gov)
- This program enables lawyers and law students work together to represent involuntarily detained persons at tribunals who are unable to represent themselves. (charityvillage.com)
- To calculate the number of persons disabled by mental illness in 1987 and 2003, Whitaker counted those receiving disability payments under SSI or SSDI (Supplemental Security Income or Social Security Disability Insurance). (ahrp.org)
- At the social level, there has also been an extremely positive development as increasing importance is attached to the integration of disabled persons in the community. (un.org)
- Human rabies immune globulin (HRIG) continues to be recommended (20 IU/Kg) on day 0 for persons not considered previously immunized for rabies as defined in the 2008 ACIP recommendations . (southernnevadahealthdistrict.org)
- 205. Possibly one of the most striking aspects is the realization of the joint responsibility of governments, the community and disabled persons themselves for achieving these aims. (un.org)
- Whitaker examines the unprecedented increase in disabling mental illness in the US since the introduction of those drugs. (ahrp.org)
- 206. It is therefore important to point out in this introduction that, while joint responsibility may be the dominant concept behind the World Programme of Action, the principal obligation to remove obstacles impeding or hindering the integration and full participation of disabled persons lies with Governments. (un.org)
- Between 1987 and 2000, the number of disabled mentally ill in the United States increased from 3.331 million people to 5.726 million. (ahrp.org)
- That is an increase of 149,739 people per year, or 410 people newly disabled by mental illness every day (Table 3). (ahrp.org)
- In this context, there is no doubt that one of the most notable features of the Decade has been the leading role played by non-governmental organizations headed by disabled people, and the acknowledgement of their status as experts in their own affairs. (un.org)
- For making bibliographic reference to consensus statement no. 109 in the electronic form displayed here, it is recommended that the following format be used: Rehabilitation of Persons With Traumatic Brain Injury. (nih.gov)