Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Impulse Control Disorders: Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Mentally Ill Persons: Persons with psychiatric illnesses or diseases, particularly psychotic and severe mood disorders.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Psychopathology: The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Adjustment Disorders: Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.Mental Disorders Diagnosed in Childhood: Those psychiatric disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. These disorders can also be first diagnosed during other life stages.Combat Disorders: Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Neurotic Disorders: Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Borderline Personality Disorder: A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Tic Disorders: Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).United StatesPersonality Disorders: A major deviation from normal patterns of behavior.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Hospitals, Psychiatric: Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.Forensic Psychiatry: Psychiatry in its legal aspects. This includes criminology, penology, commitment of mentally ill, the psychiatrist's role in compensation cases, the problems of releasing information to the court, and of expert testimony.Insanity Defense: A legal concept that an accused is not criminally responsible if, at the time of committing the act, the person was laboring under such a defect of reason from disease of the mind as not to know the nature and quality of the act done or if the act was known, to not have known that what was done was wrong. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed)Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)International Classification of Diseases: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Sick Leave: An absence from work permitted because of illness or the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)War: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.Return to Work: Resumption of normal work routine following a hiatus or period of absence due to injury, disability, or other reasons.Dissociative Disorders: Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Suicidal Ideation: A risk factor for suicide attempts and completions, it is the most common of all suicidal behavior, but only a minority of ideators engage in overt self-harm.Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders: Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.Panic Disorder: A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Mental Competency: The ability to understand the nature and effect of the act in which the individual is engaged. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed).Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.IraqViolence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Helping Behavior: Behaviors associated with the giving of assistance or aid to individuals.Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute: A class of traumatic stress disorders that is characterized by the significant dissociative states seen immediately after overwhelming trauma. By definition it cannot last longer than 1 month, if it persists, a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (STRESS DISORDERS, POST-TRAUMATIC) is more appropriate.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Dysthymic Disorder: Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)Psychopharmacology: The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.Absenteeism: Chronic absence from work or other duty.Adolescent Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in individuals 13-18 years.Commitment of Mentally Ill: Legal process required for the institutionalization of a patient with severe mental problems.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.LebanonBrazilEmployment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.MoldovaAntidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Tranquilizing Agents: A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Insurance, Disability: Insurance designed to compensate persons who lose wages because of illness or injury; insurance providing periodic payments that partially replace lost wages, salary, or other income when the insured is unable to work because of illness, injury, or disease. Individual and group disability insurance are two types of such coverage. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p207)Deinstitutionalization: The practice of caring for individuals in the community, rather than in an institutional environment with resultant effects on the individual, the individual's family, the community, and the health care system.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.PrisonersNational Institute of Mental Health (U.S.): A component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with research, overall planning, promoting, and administering mental health programs and research. It was established in 1949.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Mid-Atlantic Region: A geographical area of the United States comprising the District of Columbia, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania.Dangerous Behavior: Actions which have a high risk of being harmful or injurious to oneself or others.Sex Offenses: Any violation of established legal or moral codes in respect to sexual behavior.Insurance, Psychiatric: Insurance providing benefits to cover part or all of the psychiatric care.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Bulimia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by a cycle of binge eating (BULIMIA or bingeing) followed by inappropriate acts (purging) to avert weight gain. Purging methods often include self-induced VOMITING, use of LAXATIVES or DIURETICS, excessive exercise, and FASTING.Precipitating Factors: Factors associated with the definitive onset of a disease, illness, accident, behavioral response, or course of action. Usually one factor is more important or more obviously recognizable than others, if several are involved, and one may often be regarded as "necessary". Examples include exposure to specific disease; amount or level of an infectious organism, drug, or noxious agent, etc.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Veterans: Former members of the armed services.Puerperal Disorders: Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.Psychotherapeutic Processes: Experiential, attitudinal, emotional, or behavioral phenomena occurring during the course of treatment. They apply to the patient or therapist (i.e., nurse, doctor, etc.) individually or to their interaction. (American Psychological Association: Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.Pensions: Fixed sums paid regularly to individuals.Compulsive Personality Disorder: Disorder characterized by an emotionally constricted manner that is unduly conventional, serious, formal, and stingy, by preoccupation with trivial details, rules, order, organization, schedules, and lists, by stubborn insistence on having things one's own way without regard for the effects on others, by poor interpersonal relationships, and by indecisiveness due to fear of making mistakes.Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Psychiatric Nursing: A specialty concerned with the application of psychiatric principles in caring for the mentally ill. It also includes the nursing care provided the mentally ill patient.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Prisons: Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Homicide: The killing of one person by another.Afghan Campaign 2001-: Multinational coalition military operation initiated in October 2001 to counter terrorism and bring security to AFGHANISTAN in collaboration with Afghan forces.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Alcohol-Induced Disorders: Disorders stemming from the misuse and abuse of alcohol.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Psychophysiologic Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ system, usually under AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM control. (American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988)Delusions: A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.Self-Injurious Behavior: Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Unemployment: The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.Iraq War, 2003-2011: An armed intervention involving multi-national forces in the country of IRAQ.Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Marijuana Abuse: The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.LondonNeuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.FinlandNorwayAdult Survivors of Child Abuse: Persons who were child victims of violence and abuse including physical, sexual, or emotional maltreatment.Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Rehabilitation, Vocational: Training of the mentally or physically disabled in work skills so they may be returned to regular employment utilizing these skills.Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Community Mental Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of psychologic and psychiatric services to people living in a neighborhood or community.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Qigong: An ancient Chinese system of postures, exercises, breathing techniques, and meditations designed to improve and enhance the body's QI.ChilePhilosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Empiricism: One of the principal schools of medical philosophy in ancient Greece and Rome. It developed in Alexandria between 270 and 220 B.C., the only one to have any success in reviving the essentials of the Hippocratic concept. The Empiricists declared that the search for ultimate causes of phenomena was vain, but they were active in endeavoring to discover immediate causes. The "tripod of the Empirics" was their own chance observations (experience), learning obtained from contemporaries and predecessors (experience of others), and, in the case of new diseases, the formation of conclusions from other diseases which they resembled (analogy). Empiricism enjoyed sporadic continuing popularity in later centuries up to the nineteenth. (From Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed, p186; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Psychoanalytic Theory: Conceptual system developed by Freud and his followers in which unconscious motivations are considered to shape normal and abnormal personality development and behavior.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Balkan Peninsula: A peninsula in Southeast EUROPE between the Adriatic and Ionian seas on the West and Aegean and Black Seas on the East. (from BritainDementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Literature, ModernData Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Psychoses, Alcoholic: A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Social Distance: The degree of closeness or acceptance an individual or group feels toward another individual or group.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.SwedenSleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Simethicone: A poly(dimethylsiloxane) which is a polymer of 200-350 units of dimethylsiloxane, along with added silica gel. It is used as an antiflatulent, surfactant, and ointment base.Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.

*  Shrink Rap: Does "coming out" with your psychiatric diagnosis help?

One thing that makes me very angry is any mental health professional acting like it is no big deal to be labeled with a mental ... At one meeting I exclaimed that I had a mood disorder but I was not a lunatic or dangerous, and they should watch their hateful ... I believe the secrecy contributes to making the mental health problem even worse. I know it has caused my mental health to be ... Mental Health Parity Watchsite. FUSE Health Strategies. U.S. Addiction Hotline: 1-800-662-HELP. U.S. Suicide Hotline: 1-800-273 ...

*  Cultures in psychiatric nosology: the CCMD-2-R & international classification of mental disorders

Disorders, Second Edition, Revised (CCMD-2-R, 1995), by assuming the theor ... This essay reviews the Chinese Classification of Mental ... psychosis, qigong induced mental disorders), deletions (e.g., ... This essay reviews the Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders, Second Edition, Revised (CCMD-2-R, 1995), by assuming the ... Cultures in psychiatric nosology: the CCMD-2-R & international classification of mental disorders. * ...

*  DMOZ - Health: Medicine: Medical Specialties: Psychiatry: Clinics and Practitioners: United States

Bracken Mental Health A Garland, Texas psychiatric practice that focuses on medication management. The website offers basic ... Psychiatrist located in New York City specializing in the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders, addictions, attention ... Scottsdale Mental Healthcare Scottsdale, Arizona psychiatrist whose website gives information and contact numbers for the ... Provides links to information about several types of mental illness, his curriculum vitae, and the ability to make appointments ...

*  Alphabetical List of Mental Disorders

... : This list comes from a wide variety of sources including the DSM-IV, DSM 5, ICD-10, and ... Mental Disorders / Psychological Disorders Starting With J *Joubert syndrome. Mental Disorders / Psychological Disorders ... Voyeuristic Disorder. Mental Disorders / Psychological Disorders Starting With W *There Are Currently No Disorders Starting ... List of Psychological Disorders , Substance Abuse Disorders , Childhood Disorders. Alphabetical List of Mental Disorders / ...

*  Mental Disorder Mothers conversations - Circle of Moms

I want to create a community that allows the mommies that are dealing with any kind of mental disorder to be able to... ... I have hit up every mental disorder, bi-polar, mental illness, moms with disabilities community out there. I will talk with ... I want to create a community that allows the mommies that are dealing with any kind of mental disorder to be able to talk to ... Started by Shannin on 03/19/2011 in Mental Disorder Mothers. Last update on 03/19/2011 by Shannin ...

*  Classifying Mental Disorders Tutorial | Sophia Learning

We explain Classifying Mental Disorders with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple ... Axis II is comprised of personality disorders and mental retardation, as these are different than the disorders classified ... such as anxiety or mood disorders, like depression. This basically includes all of the mental disorders you can think of except ... These are disorders such as antisocial personality disorder, or specific issues of mental retardation. ...

*  Debt, income and mental disorder in the general population | Psychological Medicine | Cambridge Core

... income and mental disorder in the general population - Volume 38 Issue 10 - R. Jenkins, D. Bhugra, P. Bebbington, T. Brugha, M ... Debt, income and mental disorder in the general population. * R. Jenkins (a1), D. Bhugra (a2), P. Bebbington (a3), T. Brugha ( ... Of those with mental disorder, 23% were in debt (compared with 8% of those without disorder), and 10% had had a utility ... Pothen M, Kuruvilla A, Philip K, Joseph A, Jacob KS (2003). Common mental disorders among primary care attenders in Vellore, ...

*  A comparison of DSM and ICD classifications of mental disorder | BJPsych Advances

... mental disorders are regarded as disorders of brain circuits. These circuit disorders can be tested by electrophysiology, ... Most disorders in medicine are classified using the ICD (initiated in Paris in 1900). Mental and behavioural disorders are ... The section concerned with psychiatric disorders is called 'Mental and Behavioural Disorders'. This classification is used to ... Main subgroups of psychiatric disorder in both DSM and ICD. * Organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders ...

*  VA alerts doctors to malaria-drug concerns -

The Department of Veterans Affairs is warning doctors to watch for long-term mental problems and other health effects from an ... William Manofsky, who served in the Iraq war and said he experienced seizures, balance problems and mental disorders as a ... About 25,000 U.S. soldiers took mefloquine during the Somalia operation, and a number have complained of long-term mental and ... WASHINGTON, June 24 (UPI) -- The Department of Veterans Affairs is warning doctors to watch for long-term mental problems and ...

*  Topic Index - Mental Health Disorders | Johns Hopkins Medicine Health Library

... seeking mental health treatment, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, personality disorders, schizophrenia, ... Detailed information on mental health disorders, including the psychiatric evaluation, the psychiatric treatment team, ... Johns Hopkins And Salk Co-lead $15 Million Initiative To Unravel Bipolar Disorder And Schizophrenia ...,P00763

*  Do you know the complications associated with mental illness? | HealthCentral

Take this quiz and find out if you understand the risks for mental illness. ... Recently there have been a lot of studies linking mental health disorders to other serious conditions. ... True or False: Having bipolar disorder increases the chances of abusing drugs and alcohol. Correct Answer: True ... All of these are linked to mental illness. When mental illness goes untreated, the results can be devestating physiclally and ...

*  Psychiatric illness in dialysis patients

A review found the following mental disorders were frequently observed:Affective disorders, particularly depressionOrganic ... Psychiatric illness is common among patients with chronic disorders, particularly in those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD ... A review found the following mental disorders were frequently observed [1]: ... Anxiety disorders in adults treated by hemodialysis: a single-center study. Am J Kidney Dis 2008; 52:128. ...

*  8 | NZ Transport Agency

The government's Mental Health Strategy seeks to address this and reduce the negative impact of mental disorders by ensuring ... Very few people who experience mental disorder or suicidal ideation are subject to the Mental Health (Compulsory Assessment and ... 8.2 Severe chronic mental disorders. Summary table. The table below summarises the information outlined in this section. ... Mental disorder that may impair an individual's ability to drive safely. Whether an individual should or should not drive will ...

*  The impact of eye movements and tones on disturbing memories involving PTSD and other mental disorders

... Journal. Journal of ... and 32 patients with other mental disorders, and (2) whether the results would differ between both groups. In a therapeutic ... for resolving disturbing memories underlying a broader range of mental health problems than PTSD alone. ... during recall of negative memories in 32 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), ...

*  Mental Disorders Common, but Few Get Treatment, Study Finds -

... suffer from a mental disorder at some point during a year, only 28 percent of them seek help, according to the most ... close to nine million of those with mental disorders develop the problem for the first time. Another eight million suffer a ... comprehensive study of the nation's mental health ever conducted. The study, based on intensive interviews of 20,000 men and ... Most care for those with mental disorders comes from doctors rather than mental health specialists; 43 percent of those seeking ...

*  Adult Psychopathology | University of Chicago - SSA

... and diagnosis of the adult psychiatric disorders described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 ... mental illness in older adults, and discussion of the major categories of drugs used in treating psychiatric disorders. This ... Additional topics include how to conduct a diagnostic and psychosocial evaluation, cultural factors in mental illness, ...

*  More Kids Have Mental Disorders, Report Says [AUDIO]

Childhood mental disorders are on the rise, with one in five kids dealing with some kind of a problem, according to the Centers ... More Kids Have Mental Disorders, Report Says [AUDIO]. Filed Under. : alcohol. , children. , Drugs. , Health. , mental health. ... Childhood mental disorders are on the rise, with one in five kids dealing with some kind of a problem, according to the Centers ... Attention deficit disorder is the most common mental health problem among the young, with almost 7 percent of the 12 to 18's ...

*  Mental Disorders Overview Tutorial | Sophia Learning

This lesson will discuss major classifications of mental disorders, focusing on DSM-IV Axes 1 and 2.,/p, ... We explain Mental Disorders Overview with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple teachers ... Adjustment Disorder A mental disorder where a person has trouble coping with ordinary stress, or cannot adjust, which results ... Narcissistic Personality Disorder A personality disorder marked by long-term feelings of self-centeredness, thinking ideas are ...

*  The Single Best Strategy To Use For mental health practitioners

Unfortunately, by this time the disorder has progressed to a serious stage.. If he tells us that he has racing thoughts and ... Should your consumer has known healthcare disorders at some time the thing is her, commence there. Take a look at the ... Get a radical heritage of visits to Physicians and mental health clinicians. What have been the results? Has there been a ... The fast advancement of genetic testing can expose somebody's vulnerability to mental Conditions. DNA is a series of molecules ...

*  7 Major Classifications of Mental Disorders Treatment | Addict Help

There are 7 major categories of mental disorders mental disorder learn what we know about them and why we have a long to go to ... Treatment Services For Mental Disorders. The options for treating a mental disorder are about as varied as the options for ... 7 Major Categories Of Mental Disorders. Many mental disorders can be categorized based on similar symptoms or causes. The most ... Dissociative Disorders - Genetic disorders where patients frequently experience episodes of mental detachment from reality, ...

*  Ismene Leonida Petrakis, MD > Psychiatry | Yale School of...

... and the presence of comorbid mental disorders confers a poorer prognosis. Further, individuals with comorbid mental diseases ... Nevertheless, patients with substance dependence and comorbid mental disorders constitute the majority of patients in clinical ... Connecticut Mental Health Center , Mental Health Services Research, Division of , Neuroscience Research Training Program (NRTP) ... In fact, there is some evidence that patients with comorbid disorders may be less likely to get the treatment they need, ...

*  mental disorder

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*  Parrots' behaviors mirror human mental disorders

... WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. - The bird doing loop-the-loops in the cage and pulling ... Some animal behaviors closely mirror human mental disorders, so Joseph Garner, a Purdue assistant professor of animal sciences ... then we may have a whole new range of model animals for studying human mental disorders." ...

*  Research in Mental Disorder | The BMJ

Research in Mental Disorder. Br Med J 1939; 1 doi: (Published 22 April 1939) Cite this ...

*  Project MUSE - Clinicians' Folk Taxonomies of Mental Disorders

... folk taxonomies of mental disorder and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Expert and novice ... This study suggests important differences between the way clinicians conceptualize mental disorders and the organization of the ... Cluster analysis showed that clinicians preserved DSM higher order categories (e.g., mood disorders) but not the Axis I-Axis II ...

Mental disorderSchizophreniaSocial anxiety disorderBipolar disorderBrexpiprazoleNational Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Substance-related disorderOneirology: Oneirology (; from Greek [oneiron, "dream"; and -λογία], ["the study of") is the scientific study of [[dream]s. Current research seeks correlations between dreaming and current knowledge about the functions of the brain, as well as understanding of how the brain works during dreaming as pertains to memory formation and mental disorders.Comorbidity: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.DSM-IV Codes (alphabetical): __FORCETOC__Claustrophobia: Claustrophobia is the fear of having no escape and being in closed or small space or room It is typically classified as an anxiety disorder and often results in panic attack, and can be the result of many situations or stimuli, including elevators crowded to capacity, windowless rooms, and even tight-necked clothing. The onset of claustrophobia has been attributed to many factors, including a reduction in the size of the amygdala, classical conditioning, or a genetic predisposition to fear small spaces.Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorderCross-cultural psychiatry: Cross-cultural psychiatry, transcultural psychiatry, or cultural psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry concerned with the cultural context of mental disorders and the challenges of addressing ethnic diversity in psychiatric services. It emerged as a coherent field from several strands of work, including surveys of the prevalence and form of disorders in different cultures or countries; the study of migrant populations and ethnic diversity within countries; and analysis of psychiatry itself as a cultural product.Relationship obsessive–compulsive disorder: In psychology, relationship obsessive–compulsive disorder (ROCD) is a form of obsessive-compulsive disorder focusing on intimate relationships (whether romantic or non-romantic). Such obsessions can become extremely distressing and debilitating, having negative impacts on relationships functioning.Religion and schizophrenia: == Background ==KleptomaniaClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Teenage suicide in the United States: Teenage suicide in the United States remains comparatively high in the 15 to 24 age group with 10,000 suicides in this age range in 2004, making it the third leading cause of death for those aged 15 to 24. By comparison, suicide is the 11th leading cause of death for all those age 10 and over, with 33,289 suicides for all US citizens in 2006.Developmental psychopathology: Developmental psychopathology is the study of the development of psychological disorders, such as psychopathy, autism, schizophrenia and depression, with a lifecourse perspective.Cicchetti, D.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Adjustment disorderCombat stress reaction: Combat stress reaction (CSR) is a term used within the military to describe acute behavioral disorganization seen by medical personnel as a direct result of the trauma of war. Also known as "combat fatigue" or "battle neurosis", it has some overlap with the diagnosis of acute stress reaction used in civilian psychiatry.Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities: Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the field of special education. The editors-in-chief are Alisa K.Relationship Development Intervention: Relationship Development Intervention (RDI) is a trademarked proprietary treatment program for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), based on the belief that the development of dynamic intelligence is the key to improving the quality of life for individuals with autism. The program's core philosophy is that individuals with autism can participate in authentic emotional relationships if they are exposed to them in a gradual, systematic way.The Newtown Neurotics: The Newtown Neurotics (later just The Neurotics) are an English punk rock/post-punk group formed in 1979. They are noted for their openly political music.Research Society on Alcoholism: The Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) is a learned society of over 1600 active members based in Austin, Texas. Its objective is to advance research on alcoholism and the physiological and cognitive effects of alcohol.Girl, Interrupted: Girl, Interrupted is a best-sellingThe Unconfessional Confessionalist, Time Magazine, July 11, 1994 1993 memoir by American author Susanna Kaysen, relating her experiences as a young woman in a psychiatric hospital in the 1960s after being diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. The memoir's title is a reference to the Vermeer painting Girl Interrupted at her Music.Tic disorderRating scales for depression: A depression rating scale is a psychiatric measuring instrument having descriptive words and phrases that indicate the severity of depression for a time period. When used, an observer may make judgements and rate a person at a specified scale level with respect to identified characteristics.Skyland Trail: Skyland Trail is a private, not-for profit organization in Atlanta, Georgia offering treatment to adults with mental illness. Skyland Trail specializes in treating adults with Bipolar Disorder, Schizophrenia, Depression, and Dual Diagnosis.Narcotics and Psychotropics Control Law: The Narcotics and Psychotropics Control Law (麻薬及び向精神薬取締法 Mayaki oyobi kousei shin'yaku torishimari hou) is a law enacted in Japan in 1953 to control most narcotic and psychotropic drugs.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Personality disorder not otherwise specifiedHypervigilance: Hypervigilance is an enhanced state of sensory sensitivity accompanied by an exaggerated intensity of behaviors whose purpose is to detect threats. Hypervigilance is also accompanied by a state of increased anxiety which can cause exhaustion.Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.Community mental health service: Community mental health services (CMHS), also known as Community Mental Health Teams (CMHT) in the United Kingdom, support or treat people with mental disorders (mental illness or mental health difficulties) in a domiciliary setting, instead of a psychiatric hospital (asylum). The array of community mental health services vary depending on the country in which the services are provided.David Budescu: David Budescu is a psychologist and academic. He is the Anne Anastasi Professor of Psychometrics and Quantitative Psychology at Fordham University.Two Rivers Psychiatric Hospital: Two Rivers Behavioral Health System is a psychiatric hospital located in Kansas City, Missouri.Graham Young: Graham Fredrick Young (7 September 1947 – 1 August 1990) was an English serial killer who used poison to kill his victims. He was sent to Broadmoor Hospital in 1962 after poisoning several members of his family, killing his stepmother.InsanityInternational Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems: The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, usually called by the short-form name International Classification of Diseases (ICD), is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes". The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.Postoperative cognitive dysfunction: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a short-term decline in cognitive function (especially in memory and executive functions) that may last from a few days to a few weeks after surgery. In rare cases, this disorder may persist for several months after major surgery.Martin Weaver: Martin Weaver is a psychotherapist, author and media writerSick leave: Sick leave (or paid sick days or sick pay) is time off from work that workers can use to stay home to address their health and safety needs without losing pay. Paid sick leave is a statutory requirement in many nations around the world.List of military conflicts spanning multiple wars: Early histories of a war typically describe the war as it was declared by the states involved. It is not uncommon for later historians to group together a series of wars over a long period or spread over several theaters as part of a broader conflict or strategic campaign.Dissociative disorder not otherwise specifiedHistory of psychopathy: Psychopathy, from psych (soul or mind) and pathy (suffering or disease), was coined by German psychiatrists in the 19th century and originally just meant what would today be called mental disorder, the study of which is still known as psychopathology. By the turn of the century 'psychopathic inferiority' referred to the type of mental disorder that might now be termed personality disorder, along with a wide variety of other conditions now otherwise classified.Reduplicative paramnesia: Reduplicative paramnesia is the delusional belief that a place or location has been duplicated, existing in two or more places simultaneously, or that it has been 'relocated' to another site. It is one of the delusional misidentification syndromes and, although rare, is most commonly associated with acquired brain injury, particularly simultaneous damage to the right cerebral hemisphere and to both frontal lobes.Panic Disorder Severity Scale: The Panic Disorder Severity Scale is a questionnaire developed for measuring the severity of panic disorder. The clinician-administered PDSS is intended to assess severity and considered a reliable tool for monitoring of treatment outcome.Epidemiological method: The science of epidemiology has matured significantly from the times of Hippocrates and John Snow. The techniques for gathering and analyzing epidemiological data vary depending on the type of disease being monitored but each study will have overarching similarities.United States Military Academy class ringDamage to Baghdad during the Iraq War: The city of Baghdad suffered significant damage during the Iraq War.Anti-abortion violence: Anti-abortion violence is violence committed against individuals and organizations that provide abortion. Incidents of violence have included destruction of property, in the form of vandalism; crimes against people, including kidnapping, stalking, assault, attempted murder, and murder; and crimes affecting both people and property, including arson and bombings.Acute stress reactionHalfdan T. MahlerDysthymiaInternational Psychopharmacology Algorithm Project: The International Psychopharmacology Algorithm Project (IPAP) is a non-profit corporation whose purpose is to "enable, enhance, and propagate" use of algorithms for the treatment of some Axis I psychiatric disorders.Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: The Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering pediatric psychiatry. It is published by Elsevier and is the official journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.Involuntary commitment: Involuntary commitment or civil commitment is a legal process through which an individual with symptoms of severe mental illness is court-ordered into treatment in a psychiatric hospital (inpatient) or in the community (outpatient).Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Felony murder rule (Florida): In the state of Florida, the common law felony murder rule has been codified in Florida Revised Statutes § 782.04.Beit Beirut: Beit Beirut (; literally "the house of Beirut") is a museum and urban cultural center that was scheduled to open in 2013 in Beirut's Ashrafieh neighborhood. The cultural center is in the restored Barakat building, also known as the "Yellow house", a historic landmark designed by Youssef Aftimus.University of CampinasIntegrated catchment management: Integrated catchment management is a subset of environmental planning which approaches sustainable resource management from a catchment perspective, in contrast to a piecemeal approach that artificially separates land management from water management.List of birds of Moldova: This is a list of the bird species recorded in Moldova. The avifauna of Moldova include a total of around 300 species, none of which are endemic.

(1/7369) Failing firefighters: a survey of causes of death and ill-health retirement in serving firefighters in Strathclyde, Scotland from 1985-94.

During the decade beginning 1 January 1985, 887 full-time firefighters, all male, left the service of Strathclyde Fire Brigade (SFB). There were 17 deaths--compared to 64.4 expected in the Scottish male population aged 15-54 years--giving a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 26, and 488 ill-health retirements (IHR). None of the deaths was attributable to service, the major causes being: myocardial infarction--five, (expected = 17.3; SMR = 29); cancers--three (colon, kidney and lung) (expected = 13.6; SMR = 22); road traffic accidents--two (expected = 4.17; SMR = 48) and suicide--two (expected = 4.9; SMR = 41). Amalgamating the deaths and IHRs showed that the six most common reasons for IHR were musculoskeletal (n = 202, 40%), ocular (n = 61, 12.1%), 'others' (n = 58, 11.5%), injuries (n = 50, 9.9%), heart disease (n = 48, 9.5%) and mental disorders (n = 45, 8.9%). Over 300 IHRs (over 60%) occurred after 20 or more years service. When the IHRs were subdivided into two quinquennia, there were 203 and 302 in each period. Mean length of service during each quinquennium was 19.4 vs. 21.3 years (p = 0.003) and median length was 21 years in both periods; interquartile range was 12-26 years in the first and 17-27 years in the second period (p = 0.002), but when further broken down into diagnostic categories, the differences were not statistically significant, with the exception of means of IHRs attributed to mental disorders (14.5 vs. 19 years, p = 0.03).  (+info)

(2/7369) Integrated visualization of functional and anatomic brain data: a validation study.

Two-dimensional SPECT display and three methods for integrated visualization of SPECT and MRI patient data are evaluated in a multiobserver study to determine whether localization of functional data can be improved by adding anatomical information to the display. METHODS: SPECT and MRI data of 30 patients were gathered and presented using four types of display: one of SPECT in isolation, two integrated two-dimensional displays and one integrated three-dimensional display. Cold and hot spots in the peripheral cortex were preselected and indicated on black-and-white hard copies of the image data. Nuclear medicine physicians were asked to assign the corresponding spots in the image data on the computer screen to a lobe and a gyrus and give a confidence rating for both localizations. Interobserver agreement using kappa statistics and average confidence ratings were assessed to interpret the reported observations. RESULTS: Both the interobserver agreement and the confidence of the observers were greater for the integrated two-dimensional displays than for the two-dimensional SPECT display. An additional increase in agreement and confidence was seen with the integrated three-dimensional display. CONCLUSION: Integrated display of SPECT and MR brain images provides better localization of cerebral blood perfusion abnormalities in the peripheral cortex in relation to the anatomy of the brain than single-modality display and increases the confidence of the observer.  (+info)

(3/7369) Investigating fatigue of less than 6 months' duration. Guidelines for family physicians.

OBJECTIVE: To develop an evidence-based systematic approach to assessment of adult patients who present to family physicians complaining of fatigue of less than 6 months' duration. The guidelines present investigative options, making explicit what should be considered in all cases and what should be considered only in specific situations. They aim to provide physicians with an approach that, to the extent possible, is based on evidence so that time and cost are minimized and detection and management of the cause of the fatigue are optimized. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to 1997 using the key words "family practice" and "fatigue." Articles about chronic fatigue syndrome were excluded. Articles with level 3 evidence were found, but no randomized trials, cohort studies, or case-control studies were found. Articles looking specifically at the epidemiology, demographics, investigations, and diagnoses of patients with fatigue were chosen. Articles based on studies at referral and specialty centres were given less weight than those based on studies in family physicians' offices. MAIN MESSAGE: Adherence to these guidelines will decrease the cost of investigating the symptom of fatigue and optimize diagnosis and management. This needs to be proved in practice, however, and with research that produces level 1 and 2 evidence. CONCLUSIONS: Adults presenting with fatigue of less than 6 months' duration should be assessed for psychosocial causes and should have a focused history and physical examination to determine whether further investigations should be done. The guidelines outline investigations to be considered. The elderly require special consideration. These guidelines have group validation, but they need to be tested by more physicians in various locations and types of practices.  (+info)

(4/7369) Some neurobiological aspects of psychotherapy. A review.

Ever since the idea was accepted that memory is associated with alterations in synaptic strength, studies on the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the plastic changes in neurons have attracted wide interest in the scientific community. This article explores the process of memory consolidation leading to persistent modifications in synaptic plasticity as a mechanism by which psychotherapy facilitates changes in the permanent storage of information acquired throughout the individual's life. The psychobiological interrelationships of affect, attachment, and memory offer a perspective regarding the etiology and treatment of clinical disturbances of affect. Analogies between brain physiology and modes of psychotherapy provide the foundation for a review of psychiatric disorders involving the inability to control fear, obsessions, compulsions, and delusions, all of which respond to psychotherapeutic interventions.  (+info)

(5/7369) A critical approach to stress-related disorders in African Americans.

This article outlines an integrative, dynamic approach to stress and is, in part, a response to emergent debates within social science research and practice that suggest that African Americans are currently experiencing the reverberating psychological effects of slavery and oppression. It is the product of the work of an African-American mental health think tank situated at the Community Mental Health Council, Chicago, Illinois. We suggest the need to attend to biopsychosocial, environmental, and cultural factors that inform both exposure and responses to stress. Finally, consideration is given to matters of resiliency.  (+info)

(6/7369) Behavioral health benefits in employer-sponsored health plans, 1997.

Data for 1997 show that three-quarters or more of employer-sponsored health plans continue to place greater restrictions on behavioral health coverage than on general medical coverage. The nature of these restrictions varies by plan type. Some improvement in the treatment of mental health/substance abuse (MH/SA) benefits in employer plans may be occurring, however. Comparisons with data from 1996 show that the proportion of plans with benefits for "alternative" types of MH/SA services, such as nonhospital residential care, has increased. Further, the proportion with special limitations on these benefits shows a modest decrease.  (+info)

(7/7369) Mental health/medical care cost offsets: opportunities for managed care.

Health services researchers have long observed that outpatient mental health treatment sometimes leads to a reduction in unnecessary or excessive general medical care expenditures. Such reductions, or cost offsets, have been found following mental health treatment of distressed elderly medical inpatients, some patients as they develop major medical illnesses, primary care outpatients with multiple unexplained somatic complaints, and nonelderly adults with alcoholism. In this paper we argue that managed care has an opportunity to capture these medical care cost savings by training utilization managers to make mental health services more accessible to patients whose excessive use of medical care is related to psychological factors. For financial reasons, such policies are most likely to develop within health care plans that integrate the financing and management of mental health and medical/surgical benefits.  (+info)

(8/7369) An integrated map of chromosome 18 CAG trinucleotide repeat loci.

Expansions of trinucleotide CAG repeats have been demonstrated in at least eight neurodegenerative disorders, and suggested to occur in several others, including bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Chromosome 18 loci have been implicated in bipolar disorder pedigrees by linkage analysis. To address this putative link between chromosome 18 CAG trinucleotide repeats and neuropsychiatric illness, we have screened a chromosome 18 cosmid library (LL18NCO2" AD") and identified 14 novel candidate loci. Characterisation of these loci involved repeat flank sequencing, estimation of polymorphism frequency and mapping using FISH as well as radiation hybrid panels. These mapped trinucleotide loci will be useful in the investigation of chromosome 18 in neurodegenerative or psychiatric conditions, and will serve to integrate physical and radiation hybrid maps of chromosome 18.  (+info)


  • Today, the definition has broadened to include many adults, and has been refined into two conditions: ADD and ADHD (attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder). (
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood disorder in which problems with focusing disrupt a normal life. (
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood disorders and can continue through adolescence and adulthood. (


  • The Scientific or Scholarly Rationale: Clinical experience and anecdotal reports have demonstrated EFT to be effective for a wide range of behavioral disorders, including PTSD. (
  • This study will test the effectiveness of a new behavioral treatment, called the Child Life and Attention Skills Program, for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, inattentive type. (


  • Includes detailed information on local clinics that provide access to somatoform disorder specialists, as well as advice and content on somatoform ailments, psychologists, and psychosomatic diseases. (


  • The common feature of all these disorders is symptom amplification . (
  • Below you'll find some of the most common types of mental health providers. (


  • A great many soldiers are returning from Iraq and Afghanistan with symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). (
  • In general, the more severe your symptoms or complex your diagnosis, the more expertise and training you need to look for in a mental health provider. (


  • Somatoform disorders include a number of different problems all placed in this one category. (
  • These include somatization disorder , conversion disorder , hypochondriasis , body dysmorphic disorder , and factitious disorder . (
  • Other types of advanced practice nurses who provide mental health services include a clinical nurse specialist (C.N.S.), a certified nurse practitioner (C.N.P) or a doctorate of nursing practice (D.N.P. (


  • If you prefer a social worker, look for a licensed clinical social worker (L.C.S.W.) or a licensed independent clinical social worker (L.I.C.S.W.) with training and experience specifically in mental health. (
  • Participants will receive a list of referrals for clinical services as needed, including professional organizations, support groups, and the community mental health system. (


  • Originally, the term attention deficit disorder (ADD) referred to children who were incapable of concentrating at school. (


  • And after briefly describing each condition, they offer some treatment guidelines with the hope that someday we will have specific guidelines for each different disorder, rather than general management techniques. (
  • Mental health providers are professionals who diagnose mental health conditions and provide treatment. (

health issues

  • A psychiatric-mental health nurse (P.M.H.N.) is a registered nurse with training in mental health issues. (


  • That's the basis of this article on somatoform disorders . (


  • Most mental health providers treat a range of conditions, but one with a specialized focus may be more suited to your needs. (


  • Be sure that the professional you choose is licensed to provide mental health services. (


  • Vague complaints of muscle or joint pain, fatigue, stomach problems, numbness and tingling, headaches, and so on are typical physical complaints associated with somatoform disorders. (


  • The lack of any evidence that there's anything physically wrong to explain these disorders has led some experts to suggest dropping somatoform disorders as a real diagnosis. (