Mediterranean SeaSeawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Stenella: A genus comprised of spinner, spotted, and striped DOLPHINS, in the family Delphinidae. Schools of Stenella, that may number in the thousands, often associate with schools of TUNA, and are thus vulnerable to accidental harvesting.Atlantic OceanAlismatidae: A plant subclass of the class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) in the Chronquist classification system. This is equivalent to the Alismatales order in the APG classification system. It is a primitive group of more or less aquatic plants.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Sea Urchins: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Caves: Geological formations consisting of underground enclosures with access from the surface.Rhodospirillaceae: A family of phototrophic bacteria, in the order Rhodospirillales, isolated from stagnant water and mud.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Tuna: Common name for various species of large, vigorous ocean fishes in the family Scombridae.Morbillivirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where the virions of most members have hemagglutinin but not neuraminidase activity. All members produce both cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies. MEASLES VIRUS is the type species.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Morbillivirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus MORBILLIVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Infections mainly cause acute disease in their hosts, although in some cases infection is persistent and leads to degenerative conditions.Paracentrotus: A genus of SEA URCHINS in the family Echinidae found primarily on the western coasts of Ireland.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.SicilyDinoflagellida: Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.Roseobacter: A genus of obligately aerobic marine phototrophic and chemoorganotrophic bacteria, in the family RHODOBACTERACEAE.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Alteromonadaceae: A family of marine, gram-negative PROTEOBACTERIA including the genera ALTEROMONAS; Colwellia; Idiomarina; MARINOBACTER; MORITELLA; PSEUDOALTEROMONAS; and SHEWANELLA.Alphaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.Porifera: The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Sea Anemones: The order Actiniaria, in the class ANTHOZOA, comprised of large, solitary polyps. All species are carnivorous.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Bacteroidetes: A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)

*  Ulva (Chlorophyta, Ulvales) Biodiversity in the North Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean, Italy): Cryptic Species and New...

Ulva (Chlorophyta, Ulvales) Biodiversity in the North Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean, Italy): Cryptic Species and New ... Wolf, M. A., Sciuto, K., Andreoli, C. and Moro, I. (2012), Ulva (Chlorophyta, Ulvales) Biodiversity in the North Adriatic Sea ( ... Mediterranean, Italy): Cryptic Species and New Introductions. Journal of Phycology, 48: 1510-1521. doi: 10.1111/jpy.12005 ...

*  WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - Hirudinella ventricosa (Pallas, 1774) Baird, 1853

Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2010. A contribution to the application of European Union's Marine Strategy Framework ... Ionian Sea. Italian part of the Ionian Sea (origin: alien) [details]. New Zealand. New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone [details ... 2005). Annotated list of marine alien species in the Mediterranean with records of the worst invasive species. Mediterranean ... Hirudinella marina Garcin, 1730) Liu J.Y. [Ruiyu] (ed.). (2008). Checklist of marine biota of China seas. China Science Press. ...

*  ipernity: notebook from the mediterranean sea - by Jeanluc Nieto

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*  10,000 dead in Mediterranean sea since 2014, UNHCR says - General news -

10,000 dead in Mediterranean sea since 2014, UNHCR says, 1,000 more dead in Med 1st half this year, 3 weeks still to go, , ... 10,000 dead in Mediterranean sea since 2014, UNHCR says. 1,000 more dead in Med 1st half this year, 3 weeks still to go. 07 ... About 1,000 more people have died in the Mediterranean this year than last, with three weeks in June still to run, the UNHCR ... GENEVA - More than 10,000 migrants and refugees have died trying to reach Europe in the Mediterranean since the start of 2014, ...

*  What is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea? |

The largest island in the Mediterranean Sea is Sicily, which is located off the southern tip of the boot-shaped Italian cape. ... Do sharks live in the Mediterranean Sea?. A: According to, sharks live in the Mediterranean Sea but are seldom seen. ... The island overlooks the Tyrrhenian Sea, an arm of the Mediterranean Sea. Due to its geographical location, the Mediterranean ... Into what sea does the River Nile flow?. A: The River Nile drains into the Mediterranean Sea. It is the longest river on the ...

*  Stock Video: Mediterranean Sea ~ Buy Now #8623024 | Pond5

It is about 7 miles (11 km) wide and divides the Tyrrhenian Sea from ... ... Mediterranean Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, contemporary, geographical feature, natural lighting, no people, ocean, real time, sea, ship ... Mediterranean Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, contemporary, geographical feature, natural lighting, no people, ocean, real time, sea, ship ... It is about 7 miles (11 km) wide and divides the Tyrrhenian Sea from the western Mediterranean Sea. ...

*  Image 4735731: View on Mediterranean Sea and Mountains in Dubrovnik, Croatia from Crestock Stock Photos

View on Mediterranean Sea and Mountains in Dubrovnik, Croatia by anshar from Crestock Stock Photos ... Image Description: View on Mediterranean Sea and Mountains in Dubrovnik, Croatia Keywords:. adriatic, azure, background, bay, ... mediterranean, mountains, nature, old, outdoors, panorama, panoramic, picturesque, positive, scenery, scenic, sea, seascape, ...

*  Mediterranean Sea |

An intercontinental sea that stretches from the Atlantic Ocean on the west to Asia on the east and separates Europe from Africa ... Mediterranean Sea - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11). The Mediterranean is a large sea that separates Europe from Africa. It ... Mediterranean Sea - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea has been called the " ... Mediterranean Sea, an intercontinental sea that stretches from the Atlantic Ocean on the west to Asia on the east and separates ...

*  The ISME Journal - Abstract of article: Diversity of active marine picoeukaryotes in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea unveiled...

Here, we show using in situ molecular analyses of psbA transcripts that PPEs in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea are highly ... Diversity of active marine picoeukaryotes in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea unveiled using photosystem-II psbA transcripts. ...

*  Category:Islands of the Mediterranean Sea - Wikimedia Commons

For the Mediterranean island groups (archipelagoes), see: Category: Archipelagoes of the Mediterranean Sea. ... English: The Islands of the Mediterranean Sea - off the coasts of Southern Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa. * ... Media in category "Islands of the Mediterranean Sea". The following 8 files are in this category, out of 8 total. ... Category:Islands of the Mediterranean Sea. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository ...

*  Best Selling Mediterranean Sea Books

Get the best Mediterranean Sea books at our marketplace. ... Best Selling Mediterranean Sea Books. Favorites. *Best Sellers ... The Mediterranean Prescription: Meal Plans and Recipes to Help You Stay Slim and Healthy for the Rest of Your Life ... Sea

*  Revision history of "Mediterranean Sea" - Conservapedia

Mediterranean Countries). *(cur , prev). 19:45, 11 January 2012‎ PhilipN (Talk , contribs)‎ m . . (702 bytes) (+4)‎ . . ( ... Mediterranean Countries). *(cur , prev). 00:17, 12 January 2012‎ PhilipN (Talk , contribs)‎ . . (1,427 bytes) (+371)‎ . . ( ...

*  European Commission : CORDIS : Publications : Eolian inputs to the Mediterranean Sea

Eolian inputs to the Mediterranean Sea. Funded under: FP4-MAST 3 Additional information. Authors: GUERZONI S ET AL, CNR, 1st ... Bibliographic Reference: Extract: First European conference on progress on oceanography of the Mediterranean Sea, Rome, Italy, ...

*  Yacht Charter Mediterranean Sea | Israel | Yacht Charter Guide

Sea Gal. Aya Yam. Hertzlya Marina. Holiday 1. Israel Yacht. Tashoot Ltd. ... By utilizing the unique challenges placed by the sea, e.... Nicole Haboush Yacht Charters. Specializing in luxury power, sail, ...

*  LNG as an opportunity for maritime transport in the Mediterranean Sea

The workshop, "Italy, the hub of natural gas: LNG as an opportunity for maritime transport in the Mediterranean, in close ... ConferenzaGNL is the biennial Conference on LNG for transport in Italy and in the Mediterranean area. The next conference will ... of Sicily and Mediterranean region as part of the commitment of Italy to act as a hub for natural gas in the Euro-Mediterranean ...

* :: picture :: Egypt: Alexandria, Mediterranean Sea :: 9

design and content, copyright © , 2001-2017 , ~ 6030 visits daily , statistics ...

*  United Nations News Centre - Blue economy needed to protect Mediterranean Sea and world's oceans - UN official

Blue economy needed to protect Mediterranean Sea and world's oceans - UN official. Countries call for blue economy to protect ... 10 February 2012 The Mediterranean Sea is a "key pillar" for the development of the countries in the region, a senior United ... "A 'blue' economy in the Mediterranean and elsewhere would be a big step on the right path," he said.. The world's marine ... The call came as delegates from 22 Mediterranean and European Union countries brought their three-day meeting on safeguarding ...

*  European Commission : CORDIS : Publications : A coupled physical - biological 1D model for the central Mediterranean Sea

A coupled physical - biological 1D model for the central Mediterranean Sea. Funded under: FP4-MAST 3 ... Bibliographic Reference: Extract: First European conference on progress on oceanography of the Mediterranean Sea, Rome, Italy, ...

*  TOMB RAIDER: UNDERWORLD - PLAYSTATION 2 WALKTHROUGH - Niflheim - Mediterranean Sea - Part 2

Right above the sea monster's head, there's a conveniently placed spiked platform. That will definitely come in handy. Lara ...


EBooks > Ancient Mediterranean and Europe > THE STORY OF ROME FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE END OF THE REPUBLIC > CHAPTER XVII ... gean Sea, on the road between Europe and Asia, the Via Egnatia, which ran then as now from Dyrrachium and Apollonia in ...

*  Pushing fun to the extreme -

But you don't see very much sea life in these caves,' he says. ... Cave diving in Turkey, along the Mediterranean coast.. 'I think ...

*  A TIME'S MEMORY: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Germany [thirty-one #poultry and #wildbirds #outbreaks] (#OIE, Feb...

WHO, Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office. *WHO, South East Asia Regional Office. *WHO, Western Pacific Regional Office ... SEA OTTERS (2) * SEALS (11) * SEASONAL INFLUENZA (2887) * SEASTAR WASTING DISEASE (1) ...

*  ADS Bibliographic Codes: Refereed Publications

Deep Sea Research DSRA Deep Sea Research A DSROA Deep Sea Research and Oceanographic Abstracts DSRB Deep Sea Research B DSRI ... Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry MekGS Mekhanika Giroskopicheskikh Sistem MekKM Mekhanika Kompozitnykh Materialov ... Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research DSRII Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 1981LNP 146 ... Journal of Sea Research JSedR Journal of Sedimentary Research JSeis Journal of Seismology JSemi Journal of Semiconductors JSGeo ...

*  Acropora elseyi

This species is widespread, found in the Red Sea, south-west and northern Indian Ocean, the central Indo-Pacific, Australia, ... 2007) supporting the prediction that disease levels will be increasing with higher sea surface temperatures. Escalating ... and the Red Sea. These starfish voracious predators of reef-building corals, with a preference for branching and tabular corals ... Southeast Asia, Japan and the East China Sea, the oceanic west Pacific, the central Pacific, and Johnston Atoll. It is also ...

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... the upscale coastal towns of Monterey and Carmel by the Sea are great for shopping and dining. ...

List of drainage basins by area: The list of drainage basins by area identifies basins (also known as watersheds or catchments), sorted by area, which drain to oceans, mediterranean seas, rivers, lakes and other water bodies. All basins larger than are included as well as selected smaller basins.Deep chlorophyll maximum: A deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) is a subsurface maximum in the concentration of chlorophyll in the ocean or a lake. A DCM is not always present--sometimes there is more chlorophyll at the surface than at any greater depth--but it is a common feature of most aquatic ecosystems.In Memory of Celtic Frost: In Memory of... Celtic Frost is a Celtic Frost tribute album released in 1996.Posidonia ShaleNatural Park of El FondoSea urchin injury: Sea urchin injuries are caused by contact with sea urchins, and are characterized by puncture wounds inflicted by the animal's brittle, fragile spines.Anoxic event: Oceanic anoxic events or anoxic events (anoxia conditions) refer to intervals in the Earth's past where portions of oceans become depleted in oxygen (O2) at depths over a large geographic area. During some of these events, euxinia develops - euxinia refers to anoxic waters that contain hydrogen sulfide.Bungonia Caves: Bungonia Caves is the name given to a series of caves near the city of Goulburn, New South Wales Australia.Continuous Plankton Recorder: The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey is one of the longest running marine biological monitoring programmes in the world. Started in 1931 by Sir Alister Hardy, the CPR has provided marine scientists with their only measure of plankton communities on a pan-oceanic scale.Pacific bluefin tunaEcosystemAmplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis: Amplified rDNA (Ribosomal DNA) Restriction Analysis is the extension of the technique of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) to the gene encoding the small (16s) ribosomal subunit of bacteria. The technique involves an enzymatic amplification using primers directed at the conserved regions at the ends of the 16s gene, followed by digestion using tetracutter Restriction enzymes.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Elizabeth of Carinthia, Queen of Sicily: Elizabeth of Carinthia (1298-1352) was an influential queen and royal family member in the Kingdom of Sicily, who lived and ruled in a tumultuous time. In 1323, she married Peter II of Sicily and became the Queen of Sicily.Lingulodinium polyedrum: Lingulodinium polyedrum is the name for a motile dinoflagellate (synonym Gonyaulax polyedra), which produces a dinoflagellate cyst called Lingulodinium machaerophorum (synonym Hystrichosphaeridium machaerophorum).Terebra oculata: Terebra oculata is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Terebridae, the auger snails.Alkalimonas: Alkalimonas is a genus in the phylum Proteobacteria (Bacteria).DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Soil salinity control: Soil salinity control relates to controlling the problem of soil salinity and reclaiming salinized agricultural land.White band disease: White band disease is a coral disease that affects acroporid corals and is distinguishable by the white band of dead coral tissue that it forms. The disease completely destroys the coral tissue of Caribbean acroporid corals, specifically elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata) and staghorn coral (A.Geolocation software: In computing, geolocation software is used to deduce the geolocation (geographic location) of another party. For example, on the Internet, one geolocation approach is to identify the subject party's IP address, then determine what country (including down to the city and post/ZIP code level), organization, or user the IP address has been assigned to, and finally, determine that party's location.Baltic sculpin: The Baltic sculpinBaltic sculpin (Cottus microstomus) at EOL (Cottus microstomus) is a species of sculpin, a European freshwater fish in the Cottidae family. It is widespread in the Dniester drainage (Black Sea basin), Odra and Vistula drainages (southern Baltic basin), most likely extending further east to Gulf of Finland.Saccharophagus degradans: Saccharophagus degradans (formerly Microbulbifer degradans) is a gram-negative, marine bacterium shown to degrade a number of complex polysaccharides as energy source. S.Pelagibacter ubique: Pelagibacter, with the single species P. ubique, was isolated in 2002 and given a specific name, although it has not yet been validly published according to the bacteriological code.Mesohyl: The mesohyl, formerly known as mesenchyme or as mesoglea, is the gelatinous matrix within a sponge. It fills the space between the external pinacoderm and the internal choanoderm.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.PhytoplanktonAnthopleurin: Anthopleurin is a toxin from the venom of the sea anemones Anthopleura xanthogrammica and Anthopleura elegantissima. These anemones use anthopleurin as a pheromone to quickly withdraw their tentacles in the presence of predators.Bodega Marine Reserve: Bodega Marine Reserve is a nature reserve and marine reserve on the coast of northern California, located in the vicinity of the Bodega Marine Laboratory on Bodega Head. It is a unit of the University of California Natural Reserve System, that is administered by the University of California, Davis.Alkaliflexus: Alkaliflexus is a genus in the phylum Bacteroidetes (Bacteria).Nankai Trough gas hydrate site: Nankai Methane Hydrate Site (or Japanese Methane Hydrate R&D Program at Nankai, Nankai Trough Methane Hydrate Site) is located in the Nankai Trough, Japan.

(1/286) Sulfitobacter mediterraneus sp. nov., a new sulfite-oxidizing member of the alpha-Proteobacteria.

Analysis of PCR products of 16S rDNA of 680 isolates from Mediterranean Sea mesocosm experiments with taxon-specific 16S rDNA oligonucleotides revealed that 262 isolates belonged to the alpha subclass of the class Proteobacteria. Partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis of selected isolates and oligonucleotide probing with a Sulfitobacter-specific 16S rDNA probe affiliated 33 strains to the genus Sulfitobacter. Analysis of the HaeIII digest pattern of 16S rDNA revealed the presence of two groups; while 30 strains showed a pattern identical with that obtained for Sulfitobacter pontiacus DSM 10014T, a second group of three strains had a unique pattern that was different from that of the type strain. Five isolates of group 1 and one isolates of group 2, strain CH-B427T, were selected for detailed taxonomic analysis. All six isolates closely resembled the type strain Sulfitobacter pontiacus DSM 10014T in physiological reactions. However, strain CH-B427T differed quantitatively in the composition of fatty acids from Sulfitobacter pontiacus DSM 10014T and showed only 98.2% 16S rDNA sequence similarity with strain DSM 10014T. DNA-DNA reassociation value obtained for strains DSM 10014T and CH-B427T revealed 46% similarity. Based on the results of DNA-DNA reassociation and discrete differences in the nucleotide composition of 16S rDNA, a new species of the genus Sulfitobacter is proposed, designated Sulfitobacter mediterraneus sp. nov., the type strain being strain CH-B427T (= DSM 12244T).  (+info)

(2/286) Biomarker evidence for widespread anaerobic methane oxidation in Mediterranean sediments by a consortium of methanogenic archaea and bacteria. The Medinaut Shipboard Scientific Party.

Although abundant geochemical data indicate that anaerobic methane oxidation occurs in marine sediments, the linkage to specific microorganisms remains unclear. In order to examine processes of methane consumption and oxidation, sediment samples from mud volcanoes at two distinct sites on the Mediterranean Ridge were collected via the submersible Nautile. Geochemical data strongly indicate that methane is oxidized under anaerobic conditions, and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses indicate that this reaction is facilitated by a consortium of archaea and bacteria. Specifically, these methane-rich sediments contain high abundances of methanogen-specific biomarkers that are significantly depleted in (13)C (delta(13)C values are as low as -95 per thousand). Biomarkers inferred to derive from sulfate-reducing bacteria and other heterotrophic bacteria are similarly depleted. Consistent with previous work, such depletion can be explained by consumption of (13)C-depleted methane by methanogens operating in reverse and as part a consortium of organisms in which sulfate serves as the terminal electron acceptor. Moreover, our results indicate that this process is widespread in Mediterranean mud volcanoes and in some localized settings is the predominant microbiological process.  (+info)

(3/286) Mucins and molluscan calcification. Molecular characterization of mucoperlin, a novel mucin-like protein from the nacreous shell layer of the fan mussel Pinna nobilis (Bivalvia, pteriomorphia).

A cDNA expression library constructed from mantle tissue mRNA of the Mediterranean fan mussel Pinna nobilis was screened with antibodies raised against the acetic acid-soluble shell matrix of the same species. This resulted in the isolation of a 2138-base pair cDNA, containing 13 tandem repeats of 93 base pairs. The deduced protein has a molecular mass of 66.7 kDa and a isoelectric point of 4.8. This protein, which is enriched in serine and proline residues, was overexpressed, purified, and used for producing polyclonal antibodies. Immunological in situ and in vitro tests showed that the protein is localized in the nacreous aragonitic layer of P. nobilis, but not in the calcitic prisms. Because this protein of the nacre of P. nobilis exhibits some mucin-like characteristics, we propose the name mucoperlin. This is the first paper reporting the cloning of a molluscan mucin and the first molecular evidence for the involvement of a mucin in molluscan calcification. This finding corroborates our previous hypothesis that some of the proteinaceous constituents of the molluscan shell matrix would derive from mucins, common to many metazoan lineages of the late Precambrian (Marin, F., Smith, M., Isa, Y., Muyzer, G. and Westbroek, P. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 93, 1554-1559). The adaptation of an ancestral mucin to a new function, the regulation of the mineralization process, may be one of the molecular events, among others, that would explain the simultaneous emergence of organized calcification in many metazoan lineages during the Cambrian explosion.  (+info)

(4/286) Viral density and virus-to-bacterium ratio in deep-sea sediments of the Eastern Mediterranean.

Viruses are now recognized as a key component in pelagic systems, but their role in marine sediment has yet to be assessed. In this study bacterial and viral densities were determined at nine deep-sea stations selected from three main sites (i.e., the Sporades Basin, the Cretan Sea, and the Ierapetra Trench at depths of 1,232, 1,840, and 4,235 m, respectively) of the Eastern Mediterranean. The three areas were characterized by different phytopigment and biopolymeric carbon concentrations and by changes in the protein and carbohydrate pools. A gradient of increasing trophic conditions was observed from the Sporades Basin (North Aegean) to the Ierapetra Trench (South Aegean). Viral densities (ranging from 1 x 10(9) to 2 x 10(9) viruses ml of sediment(-1)) were significantly correlated to bacterial densities (n = 9, r(2) = 0.647) and reached values up to 3 orders of magnitude higher than those generally reported for the water column. However, the virus-to-bacterium density ratio in deep-sea sediments was about 1 order of magnitude lower (range of 2 to 5, with a modal value of 2.6) than in pelagic environments. Virus density decreased vertically with depth in sediment cores at all stations and was below detection limits at the 10-cm depth of the abyssal sediments of the Ierapetra Trench. Virus density in the sediment apparently reflected a gradient of particle fluxes and trophic conditions, displaying the highest values in the Sporades Basin. The low virus-to-bacterium ratios and their inverse relationship with station depth suggest that the role played by viruses in controlling deep-sea benthic bacterial assemblages and biogeochemical cycles is less relevant than in pelagic systems.  (+info)

(5/286) Functional exoenzymes as indicators of metabolically active bacteria in 124,000-year-Old sapropel layers of the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

Hydrolytic exoenzymes as indicators of metabolically active bacteria were investigated in four consecutive sapropel layers collected from bathyal sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. For comparison, the organic carbon-poor layers between the sapropels, sediment from the anoxic Urania basin, and sediments of intertidal mud flats of the German Wadden Sea were also analyzed. The sapropel layers contained up to 1.5. 10(8) bacterial cells cm(-3), whereas cell numbers in the intermediate layers were lower by a factor of 10. In sapropels, the determination of exoenzyme activity with fluorescently labeled substrate analogues was impaired by the strong adsorption of up to 97% of the enzymatically liberated fluorophores (4-methylumbelliferone [MUF] and 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin [MCA]) to the sediment particles. Because all established methods for the extraction of adsorbed fluorophores proved to be inadequate for sapropel sediments, we introduce a correction method which is based on the measurement of equilibrium adsorption isotherms for both compounds. Using this new approach, high activities of aminopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase were detected even in a 124,000-year-old sapropel layer, whereas the activity of beta-glucosidase was low in all layers. So far, it had been assumed that the organic matter which constitutes the sapropels is highly refractory. The high potential activities of bacterial exoenzymes indicate that bacteria in Mediterranean sapropels are metabolically active and utilize part of the subfossil kerogen. Since a high adsorption capacity was determined not only for the low-molecular-weight compounds MUF and MCA but also for DNA, the extraordinarily strong adsorption of structurally different substrates to the sapropel matrix appears to be the major reason for the long-term preservation of biodegradable carbon in this environment.  (+info)

(6/286) Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a unique multipotent polyphenol oxidase from Marinomonas mediterranea.

Marinomonas mediterranea is a recently isolated melanogenic marine bacterium containing laccase and tyrosinase activities. These activities are due to the expression of two polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), a blue multicopper laccase and an SDS-activated tyrosinase. The gene encoding the first one, herein denominated M. mediterranea PpoA, has been isolated by transposon mutagenesis, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Its predicted amino acid sequence shows the existence of a signal peptide and four copper-binding sites characteristic of the blue multicopper proteins, including all fungal laccases. In addition, two additional putative copper-binding sites near its N-terminus are also present. Recombinant expression in E. coli of this protein clearly demonstrates its multipotent capability, showing both laccase-like and tyrosinase-like activities. This is the first prokaryotic laccase sequenced and the first PPO showing such multipotent catalytic activity. The expression of several truncated products indicates that the four copper-binding sites typical of blue multicopper proteins are essential for the laccase activity of this enzyme. However, the last two of these sites are not necessary for tyrosine hydroxylase activity as this activity is retained in a truncated product containing the first two sites as well as the extra histidine-rich clusters close to the N-terminus of the protein.  (+info)

(7/286) Vibrio lentus sp. nov., isolated from Mediterranean oysters.

Twelve phenotypically similar marine bacteria have been studied by means of ribotyping, DNA-DNA hybridization and cultural and physiological characterization. Phylogenetic analysis has been performed of the 16S and 23S rRNA genes of two representative strains. Phylogenetically, they belong to the Vibrio/Photobacterium branch of the gamma-Proteobacteria and they share all of the properties that define the genus Vibrio. The strains represent a new Vibrio species that is phenotypically similar to Vibrio splendidus. However, resistance to the vibriostatic agent 0129 and production of acid from several carbohydrates allow differentiation between V. splendidus and the proposed new species. The DNA G+C content of the proposed type strain is 44.0 mol %. The name Vibrio lentus sp. nov. is proposed for the new species and strain 40M4T (= CECT 5110T = DSM 13757T) is the type strain.  (+info)

(8/286) Microbial communities in the chemocline of a hypersaline deep-sea basin (Urania basin, Mediterranean Sea).

The Urania basin is a hypersaline sulfidic brine lake at the bottom of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Since this basin is located at a depth of approximately 3,500 m below the sea surface, it receives only a small amount of phytoplankton organic carbon. In the present study, the bacterial assemblages at the interface between the hypersaline brine and the overlaying seawater were investigated. The sulfide concentration increased from 0 to 10 mM within a vertical interval of 5 m across the interface. Within this chemocline, the total bacterial cell counts and the exoenzyme activities were elevated. Employing 11 cultivation methods, we isolated a total of 70 bacterial strains. The 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of 32 of the strains were identical to environmental sequences detected in the chemocline by culture-independent molecular methods. These strains were identified as flavobacteria, Alteromonas macleodii, and Halomonas aquamarina. All 70 strains could grow chemoorganoheterotrophically under oxic conditions. Sixty-six strains grew on peptone, casein hydrolysate, and yeast extract, whereas only 15 strains did not utilize polymeric carbohydrates. Twenty-one of the isolates could grow both chemoorganotrophically and chemolithotrophically. While the most probable numbers in most cases ranged between 0.006 and 4.3% of the total cell counts, an unusually high value of 54% was determined above the chemocline with media containing amino acids as the carbon and energy source. Our results indicate that culturable bacteria thriving at the oxic-anoxic interface of the Urania basin differ considerably from the chemolithoautotrophic bacteria typical of other chemocline habitats.  (+info)

Tyrrhenian Sea

  • The Tyrrhenian Basin, that part of the Mediterranean known as the Tyrrhenian Sea , lies between Italy and the islands of Sardinia and Corsica. (
  • It is about 7 miles (11 km) wide and divides the Tyrrhenian Sea from the western Mediterranean Sea. (
  • The island overlooks the Tyrrhenian Sea, an arm of the Mediterranean Sea. (


  • The Mediterranean Sea is the world's largest inland body of water and is bordered by three continents: Asia, Africa and Europe. (

Ionian Sea

  • The Ionian Basin, in the area known as the Ionian Sea , lies to the south of Italy and Greece , where the deepest sounding in the Mediterranean, about 16,000 feet (4,900 metres), has been recorded. (

Adriatic Sea

  • The Adriatic Sea , northwest of the main body of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, is bounded by Italy to the west and north and by Slovenia , Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina , Montenegro , and Albania to the east. (


  • Mediterranean Sea , an intercontinental sea that stretches from the Atlantic Ocean on the west to Asia on the east and separates Europe from Africa. (
  • The Islands of the Mediterranean Sea - off the coasts of Southern Europe , Western Asia , and Northern Africa . (

Aegean Sea

  • and the island of Crete separates the Levantine Basin from the Aegean Sea , which comprises that part of the Mediterranean Sea north of Crete and bounded on the west and north by the coast of Greece and on the east by the coast of Turkey. (
  • The Aegean Sea contains the numerous islands of the Grecian archipelago. (


  • The study of seabed sediment cores drilled in 1970 and 1975 initially seemed to reinforce an earlier theory that about 6 million years ago the Mediterranean was a dry desert nearly 10,000 feet (3,000 metres) below the present sea level and covered with evaporite salts. (


  • A submarine ridge between the island of Sicily and the African coast with a sill depth of about 1,200 feet (365 metres) divides the Mediterranean Sea into western and eastern parts. (


  • The eastern basin is strongly affected by rapid sea level rise in the period 1993-2001 with rates of 5-10 mm/yr which are probably related to the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT). (


  • Operators and industry experts gathered at an event held by the World Energy Council's Italian member committee to discuss the state of maritime uses and infrastructures for liquefied natural gas (LNG), with particular focus on the Strait of Sicily and Mediterranean region as part of the commitment of Italy to act as a hub for natural gas in the Euro-Mediterranean region. (


  • Due to its geographical location, the Mediterranean has long been established as the crossroads between African and European cultures. (


  • The largest island in the Mediterranean Sea is Sicily, which is located off the southern tip of the boot-shaped Italian cape. (


  • The 9 longest tide-gauge records in the Mediterranean Sea are compared with the output of a barotropic model forced by atmospheric pressure and wind. (


  • and the depth of the sill, or submarine ridge separating the Atlantic from the Alborán Sea, is about 1,050 feet (320 metres). (
  • High ridges at Gibraltar were assumed to have blocked the entry of Atlantic waters until about 5.5 million years ago, when these waters broke through to flood the Mediterranean. (
  • During the same period the model shows sea level reduction of −0.4 to −0.7 mm/yr linked with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). (
  • The objective of this study was to understand how ocean acidification would affect the initial life stages of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus , a common species that is widely distributed in the Mediterranean Sea and the NE Atlantic. (


  • To the southeast it is connected with the Red Sea by the Suez Canal . (


  • The eastern Mediterranean is subdivided into two major basins. (
  • Until the 1960s the Mediterranean was thought to be the main existing remnant of the Tethys Sea , which formerly girdled the Eastern Hemisphere . (
  • After the removal of the meteorological influence from the sea level records the resulting trends are ~0.3 ± 0.4 mm/yr at the western Mediterranean and ~1.3 ± 0.4 mm/yr at the eastern Mediterranean. (
  • Here, we show using in situ molecular analyses of psbA transcripts that PPEs in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea are highly diverse, probably very active, and dominated by groups belonging to the red algal lineages, Haptophyta, Heterokontophyta (also called Stramenopiles), and Cryptophyta. (
  • A review of opisthobranch species from Lebanon (eastern Mediterranean Sea), based on literature records (scattered throughout various papers published over a period of more than 150 years) and recently collected material (1999-2002 within the CEDRE framework and other samples), is presented, yielding a total number of 35 taxa identified to species level. (


  • Covering an area of around 965,000 square miles, the sea is interspersed with numerous islands, including several island nations. (
  • ConferenzaGNL is the biennial Conference on LNG for transport in Italy and in the Mediterranean area. (


  • The workshop, " Italy, the hub of natural gas: LNG as an opportunity for maritime transport in the Mediterranean , in close collaboration with ConferenzaGNL, was hosted by the Italian Navy in Augusta on 13 May. (


  • Between 1958 and 2001 the tide-gauges indicate sea level trends of −0.4 to 0.7 mm/yr. (


  • Ibiza, one of the Balearic Islands, in the western Mediterranean Sea off the east coast of Spain. (


  • What is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea? (
  • What French island is located in the Mediterranean? (


  • Countries call for blue economy to protect the Mediterranean. (
  • 10 February 2012 The Mediterranean Sea is a "key pillar" for the development of the countries in the region, a senior United Nations official said today, warning that continued degradation of the aquatic environment could put its entire ecology at risk. (
  • The call came as delegates from 22 Mediterranean and European Union countries brought their three-day meeting on safeguarding and promoting a clean and healthy Mediterranean environment to a close in Paris. (


  • Studies employing the theory of seafloor spreading that have been undertaken since the late 20th century, however, have suggested that the present Mediterranean seafloor is not part of the older (200 million years) Tethys floor. (