Medicine, Chinese Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.Individualized Medicine: Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Nuclear Medicine: A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Medicine, Kampo: System of herbal medicine practiced in Japan by both herbalists and practitioners of modern medicine. Kampo originated in China and is based on Chinese herbal medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).Medicine: The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.History of MedicineClinical Medicine: The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Regenerative Medicine: A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.Emergency Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Medicine, Ayurvedic: The traditional Hindu system of medicine which is based on customs, beliefs, and practices of the Hindu culture. Ayurveda means "the science of Life": veda - science, ayur - life.Complementary Therapies: Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.Integrative Medicine: The discipline concerned with using the combination of conventional ALLOPATHIC MEDICINE and ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE to address the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of health and illness.Osteopathic Medicine: A medical discipline that is based on the philosophy that all body systems are interrelated and dependent upon one another for good health. This philosophy, developed in 1874 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still, recognizes the concept of "wellness" and the importance of treating illness within the context of the whole body. Special attention is placed on the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Sports Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the use of physical agents, mechanical apparatus, and manipulation in rehabilitating physically diseased or injured patients.Occupational Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.National Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.Drugs, Essential: Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.Environmental Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with environmental factors that may impinge upon human disease, and development of methods for the detection, prevention, and control of environmentally related disease.Medicine, Korean Traditional: Medical practice or discipline that is based on the knowledge, cultures, and beliefs of the people of KOREA.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Community Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Social Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the role of socio-environmental factors in the occurrence, prevention and treatment of disease.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Sleep Medicine Specialty: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and their causes.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Preventive Medicine: A medical specialty primarily concerned with prevention of disease (PRIMARY PREVENTION) and the promotion and preservation of health in the individual.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Defensive Medicine: The alterations of modes of medical practice, induced by the threat of liability, for the principal purposes of forestalling lawsuits by patients as well as providing good legal defense in the event that such lawsuits are instituted.Philosophy, MedicalOral Medicine: A branch of dentistry dealing with diseases of the oral and paraoral structures and the oral management of systemic diseases. (Hall, What is Oral Medicine, Anyway? Clinical Update: National Naval Dental Center, March 1991, p7-8)Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Disaster Medicine: Branch of medicine involved with management and organization of public health response to disasters and major events including the special health and medical needs of a community in a disaster.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.United StatesPlant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Reproductive Medicine: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of nuclear medicine services.Holistic Health: Health as viewed from the perspective that humans and other organisms function as complete, integrated units rather than as aggregates of separate parts.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Homeopathy: A system of therapeutics founded by Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), based on the Law of Similars where "like cures like". Diseases are treated by highly diluted substances that cause, in healthy persons, symptoms like those of the disease to be treated.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Medicine in ArtQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Specialization: An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Behavioral Medicine: The interdisciplinary field concerned with the development and integration of behavioral and biomedical science, knowledge, and techniques relevant to health and illness and the application of this knowledge and these techniques to prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Nonprescription Drugs: Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Pulmonary Medicine: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.Clinical Clerkship: Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Self Medication: The self administration of medication not prescribed by a physician or in a manner not directed by a physician.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Medicine, Arabic: Traditional Arabic methods used in medicine in the ARAB WORLD.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Military Medicine: The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Herb-Drug Interactions: The effect of herbs, other PLANTS, or PLANT EXTRACTS on the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of drugs.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Venereology: A branch of medicine which deals with sexually transmitted disease.Naturopathy: A drugless system of therapy, making use of physical forces such as air, light, water, heat, massage. Treatments are often diet- and nutrition-oriented with attention given to the patient's personal history and lifestyle. (From Cassileth, Alternative Medicine Handbook, 1998, p329)Molecular Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with understanding the biochemical basis of health and disease and involved in developing diagnostic and therapeutic methods that utilize MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Nobel PrizeHistory, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Physicians, Women: Women licensed to practice medicine.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Certification: Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.Spiritual Therapies: Mystical, religious, or spiritual practices performed for health benefit.Qi: The vital life force in the body, supposedly able to be regulated by acupuncture. It corresponds roughly to the Greek pneuma, the Latin spiritus, and the ancient Indian prana. The concept of life-breath or vital energy was formulated as an indication of the awareness of man, originally directed externally toward nature or society but later turned inward to the self or life within. (From Comparison between Concepts of Life-Breath in East and West, 15th International Symposium on the Comparative History of Medicine - East and West, August 26-September 3, 1990, Shizuoka, Japan, pp. ix-x)Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Forensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Geriatrics: The branch of medicine concerned with the physiological and pathological aspects of the aged, including the clinical problems of senescence and senility.Physicians, Family: Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Acupuncture Therapy: Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.Drug Therapy: The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Physician's Role: The expected function of a member of the medical profession.Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Technology, Radiologic: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.Ethnobotany: The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Acupuncture: The occupational discipline of the traditional Chinese methods of ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY for treating disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians.Great BritainPharmacogenetics: A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Rehabilitation: Restoration of human functions to the maximum degree possible in a person or persons suffering from disease or injury.Translational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.Naval Medicine: The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Medicine, Tibetan Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Tibetan culture.Yin-Yang: In Chinese philosophy and religion, two principles, one negative, dark, and feminine (yin) and one positive, bright, and masculine (yang), from whose interaction all things are produced and all things are dissolved. As a concept the two polar elements referred originally to the shady and sunny sides of a valley or a hill but it developed into the relationship of any contrasting pair: those specified above (female-male, etc.) as well as cold-hot, wet-dry, weak-strong, etc. It is not a distinct system of thought by itself but permeates Chinese life and thought. A balance of yin and yang is essential to health. A deficiency of either principle can manifest as disease. (Encyclopedia Americana)Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Physician Executives: Physicians who serve in a medical and administrative capacity as head of an organized medical staff and who also may serve as liaison for the medical staff with the administration and governing board.Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Professional Practice: The use of one's knowledge in a particular profession. It includes, in the case of the field of biomedicine, professional activities related to health care and the actual performance of the duties related to the provision of health care.Medical Staff, Hospital: Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.Western World: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across the wide geographical area of Europe, as opposed to the East, Asia, and Africa. The term was used by scholars through the late medieval period. Thereafter, with the impact of colonialism and the transmission of cultures, Western World was sometimes expanded to include the Americas. (Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Travel Medicine: Multidisciplinary field focusing on prevention of infectious diseases and patient safety during international TRAVEL. Key element of patient's pre-travel visit to the physician is a health risk assessment.Licensure, Medical: The granting of a license to practice medicine.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Accreditation: Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.Hospitalists: Physicians who are employed to work exclusively in hospital settings, primarily for managed care organizations. They are the attending or primary responsible physician for the patient during hospitalization.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Mind-Body Relations, Metaphysical: The relation between the mind and the body in a religious, social, spiritual, behavioral, and metaphysical context. This concept is significant in the field of alternative medicine. It differs from the relationship between physiologic processes and behavior where the emphasis is on the body's physiology ( = PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY).Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Hospital Departments: Major administrative divisions of the hospital.Organotherapy: Historically, the treatment of disease by the administration of animal organs or their extracts (after Brown-Sequard). At present synthetic preparations substitute for the extracts of a gland. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Competency-Based Education: Educational programs designed to ensure that students attain prespecified levels of competence in a given field or training activity. Emphasis is on achievement or specified objectives.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Career Mobility: The upward or downward mobility in an occupation or the change from one occupation to another.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Medical Laboratory Science: The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Manipulation, Osteopathic: Musculoskeletal manipulation based on the principles of OSTEOPATHIC MEDICINE developed in 1874 by Dr Andrew Taylor Still.Libraries, MedicalSpecialty Boards: Organizations which certify physicians and dentists as specialists in various fields of medical and dental practice.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.International Educational Exchange: The exchange of students or professional personnel between countries done under the auspices of an organization for the purpose of further education.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Obstetrics: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.Medicine, Unani: A modified Greco-Arabic medical system flourishing today as unani medicine. It was the product of Arab physicians and scholars captivated by Greek philosophy, science, and medicine. It is practiced today in India and Pakistan, largely as a type of herbal medicine. (From Magner, A History of Medicine, 1992, p136)Colonialism: The aggregate of various economic, political, and social policies by which an imperial power maintains or extends its control over other areas or peoples. It includes the practice of or belief in acquiring and retaining colonies. The emphasis is less on its identity as an ideological political system than on its designation in a period of history. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Pharmacists: Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Economics, Medical: Economic aspects of the field of medicine, the medical profession, and health care. It includes the economic and financial impact of disease in general on the patient, the physician, society, or government.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Radiology Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Osteopathic Physicians: Licensed physicians trained in OSTEOPATHIC MEDICINE. An osteopathic physician, also known as D.O. (Doctor of Osteopathy), is able to perform surgery and prescribe medications.Diagnosis: The determination of the nature of a disease or condition, or the distinguishing of one disease or condition from another. Assessment may be made through physical examination, laboratory tests, or the likes. Computerized programs may be used to enhance the decision-making process.Professional Practice Location: Geographic area in which a professional person practices; includes primarily physicians and dentists.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)
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List of traditional Chinese medicines: In traditional Chinese medicine, there are roughly 13,000 medicinals used in China and over 100,000 medicinal prescriptions recorded in the ancient literature.Certain progress of clinical research on Chinese integrative medicine, Keji Chen, Bei Yu, Chinese Medical Journal, 1999, 112 (10), p.American Osteopathic Board of Internal MedicineNuclear medicine in Pakistan: The history of pursuing nuclear medicine goes back to 1956, when the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) was established under the executive order of the Prime Minister of Pakistan, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy. The PAEC, the scientific body who is responsible for establishing the nuclear power plants in the country, has sat up a Nuclear Medicines laboratory.Dorjee KhanduYokukansanBeaumont Leys: Beaumont Leys is a suburb and electoral ward in north-western Leicester, England. Locally, Beaumont Leys is usually used in reference to the large housing estate, built within the administrative division, centred on Strasbourg Drive.A Gypsy Good Time: A Gypsy Good Time is a 1992 noir detective novel by Vietnam veteran Gustav Hasford and the last novel he completed before his death in 1993, at age 45. It is written in the style of classic hardboiled detective fiction and was poorly received by book critics at the time for making too much use of the cliches of the genre.Mingmu Dihuang Wan: Mingmu Dihuang Pills () is a blackish-brown pill used in Traditional Chinese medicine to "nourish yin of the liver and the kidney, and to improve eyesight". State Pharmacopoeia Commission of the PRC (2005).Scottish Centre for Regenerative Medicine: The Scottish Centre for Regenerative Medicine (SCRM) is a stem cell research centre at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland, dedicated to the study and development of new regenerative treatments for human diseases. The £54 million facility is part of a total £600 million joint investment in stem cell biology and medicine by the Scottish Government and the University of Edinburgh.List of emergency medicine courses: This list of emergency medicine courses contains programs often required to be taken by emergency medical providers, including emergency medical technicians, paramedics, and emergency physicians.Bestbets: BestBETS (Best Evidence Topic Reports) is a system designed by emergency physicians at Manchester Royal Infirmary, UK. It was conceived as a way of allowing busy clinicians to solve real clinical problems using published evidence.Maharishi Vedic Approach to Health: Maharishi Vedic Approach to Health (MVAH) (also known as Maharishi Ayurveda or Maharishi Vedic Medicine) is a form of alternative medicine founded in the mid-1980s by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, who developed the Transcendental Meditation technique (TM). Distinct from traditional ayurveda, it emphasizes the role of consciousness, and gives importance to positive emotions.Medical intuitive: A medical intuitive is an alternative medicine practitioner who claims to use their self-described intuitive abilities to find the cause of a physical or emotional condition. Other terms for such a person include medical clairvoyant, medical psychic or intuitive counselor.Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine: The Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal on ayurvedic medicine. It was established in 2010.American Osteopathic Board of Neurology and Psychiatry: United StatesLarry LemakAssociation of Academic Physiatrists: The Association of Academic Physiatrists (AAP) is an organization of faculty, researchers, and others interested in supporting the advancement of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) academics. The Association currently has 1,100 members.Occupational Medicine (journal): Occupational Medicine is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering occupational medicine, including occupational health psychology and organizational psychology that is published eight times per year by Oxford University Press. It covers "work-related injury and illness, accident and illness prevention, health promotion, occupational disease, health education, the establishment and implementation of health and safety standards, monitoring of the work environment, and the management of recognized hazards".Indian Veterinary Research InstituteCollege of Practitioners of PhytotherapyDalian PX protest: The Dalian PX protest (locally called the 8-14 event; ) was a peaceful public protest in People's Square, Dalian, to protest against a paraxylene (PX) chemical factory—Dalian Fujia Dahua Petrochemical (大連福佳大化石油化工)—built in Dalian city. The protest took place in August 14, 2011.List of drugsUnited States Army Research Institute of Environmental MedicineYakchimList of medical schools in the United KingdomIndian Journal of Community Medicine: The Indian Journal of Community Medicine is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal published by Medknow Publications on behalf of the Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine. The journal publishes articles on family health care, epidemiology, biostatistics, public health administration, health care delivery, national health problems, medical anthropology, and social medicine.Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine: The Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine is part of Tulane University of the U.S.Syllabus: A syllabus (pl. syllabi) is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in an education or training course.Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health: The Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health is a peer-reviewed public health journal that covers all aspects of epidemiology and public health. It is published by the BMJ Group.The Flash ChroniclesDaesun Jinrihoe: Daesun Jinrihoe (Also transliterated as Daesunjinrihoe, Daesun Chillihoe, Taesunchillihoe, Daesoonjinrihoe, Daesoon Jinrihoe and Taesŏn Chillihoe) is a Korean new religious movement, founded in April 1969 by Park Han-gyeong (박한경) (1918–96). It is a splinter of the syncretic religion founded by Gang Il-Sun (1871–1909, also known as Chungsan Kang).General Medicine Faculty of RostGMU (Rostov State Medical University): Rostov State Medical University, Faculty of General Medicine - Located in Rostov city center with 20 departments, each departments has its own clinics with numbers of beds.Spanking Shakespeare: Spanking Shakespeare (2007) is the debut novel by Jake Wizner. It is a young adult novel that tells the story of the unfortunately named Shakespeare Shapiro and his struggles in high school, dating and friendship.Leiden International Medical Student ConferencePhytomedicineInstruments used in preventive medicine: Instruments used specially in preventive medicine are as follows:Medicinal plants of the American West: Many plants that grow in the American West have use in traditional and herbal medicine.Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, and Oral Radiology: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, and Oral Radiology is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal that covers research in oral surgery, medicine, pathology, radiology, and endodontics published by Mosby. It was previously published as Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodonthics.Becky JamesIsaac Ashkenazi: Isaac Ashkenazi (born 1957 in Israel) is an Israeli Professor of Disaster Medicine at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Israel and a consultant to Harvard University. He is considered one of the world’s foremost experts in medical preparedness for complex emergencies and disasters.Newington Green Unitarian ChurchList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,PKU 3rd People's Hospital: PKU 3rd People's Hospital (),full name: Peking University Third Hospital (alias: Sanyuan Hospital), abbreviation: PUTH. Peking University Third Hospital (PUTH) was founded in 1958 under the supervision of the Ministry of Health.RightOnCanada.ca: RightOnCanada.ca is an independent research and advocacy group based in Ottawa, Canada and is affiliated with the Rideau Institute.Homeopathy in New Zealand: __NOTOC__Systematic Protein Investigative Research EnvironmentProphet Jeremiah (Michelangelo): The Prophet Jeremiah is one of the seven Old Testament prophets painted by the Italian High Renaissance master Michelangelo (c. 1542–1545) on the Sistine Chapel ceiling.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Ovide F. PomerleauList of pharmaceutical compound number prefixes: This list of pharmaceutical compound number prefixes details a pharmaceutical drug labeling standard. Pharmaceutical companies produce a large number of compounds, which cannot all be given names.PimpleEclectic Materia Medica: Eclectic Materia Medica is a materia medica written by the eclectic medicine doctor Harvey Wickes Felter (co-author with John Uri Lloyd of King's American Dispensatory). This was the last, articulate, but in the end, futile attempt to stem the tide of Standard Practice Medicine, the antithesis of the model of the rural primary care "vitalist" physician that was the basis for Eclectic medicine.Donald Guthrie (physician)Pulmonology: Pulmonology is a medical speciality that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract.ACP: Pulmonology: Internal Medicine Subspecialty.Mark Siegler: Mark Siegler (born June 20, 1941) is an American physician who specializes in internal medicine. He is the Lindy Bergman Distinguished Service Professor of Medicine and Surgery at the University of Chicago.Enlightenment Intensive: An Enlightenment Intensive is a group retreat designed to enable a spiritual enlightenment experience within a relatively short time. Devised by Americans Charles (1929–2007) and Ava Berner in the 1960s,http://www.Samuel Bard (physician): Samuel Bard (April 1, 1742 – May 24, 1821) was an American physician. He founded the first medical school in New York.Andrew Dickson WhiteMuhammad Aqa-Kermani: Muhammad Aqa-Kermani () also written Aqkirmani was an 18th century Persian physician from Kerman, Iran.Discoverer 23United States Army Medical Research Unit-Brazil: The United States Army Medical Research Unit-Brazil (USAMRU-B) was a "Special Foreign Activity" of the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research headquartered in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil with several satellite labs in the Brazilian hinterland.National Research Council (2000), Strategies to Protect the Health of Deployed U.Parchment repair: The repair and mending of parchment has taken place for thousands of years. Methods from the earliest hand stitching of tears to today's use of modern equipment to mend and fill parchment show the importance that has been placed on its preservation and conservation.British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease: The British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers six times a year in the field of Cardiovascular medicine. The journal's editors are Clifford J Bailey (Aston University), Ian Campbell (Victoria Hospital) and Christoph Schindler (Dresden University of Technology).Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Venereology: Venereology is a branch of medicine with the study and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. The name derives from Roman goddess Venus, associated with love, beauty and fertility.Naturopathy: Naturopathy or naturopathic medicine is a form of alternative medicine employing a wide array of "natural" modalities, including homeopathy, herbalism, and acupuncture, as well as diet (nutrition) and lifestyle counseling. Naturopaths favor a holistic approach with non-invasive treatment and generally avoid the use of surgery and drugs.Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine (abbreviated J Cell Mol Med or JCMM) is a bi-monthly, peer-reviewed, scientific journal published by Wiley-Blackwell in association with the Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine. The journal focuses on translational medicine, spanning disease-oriented basic research in molecular and cellular biology and pre-clinical investigations into molecular and cellular therapeutics.Rosalyn Sussman YalowGreenpoint Renaissance Enterprise Corporation: The Greenpoint Renaissance Enterprise Corporation (GREC) is a consortium of neighborhood organizations in North Brooklyn that serves to facilitate and advocate the activities for city initiatives, as well as coordinate community involvement in the neighborhood of the former Greenpoint Hospital Complex.Lang, Frank.Mercuriade: Mercuriade was an Italian physician, surgeon and medical author in the 14th century. She is one of the few woman physicians known from the Middle Ages.British Pediatric Association Classification of Diseases: The British Pediatric Association Classification of Diseases is a system of diagnostic codes used for pediatrics.Oncology Nursing Certification Corporation: The Oncology Nursing Certification Corporation (ONCC) was established for the development, administration, and evaluation of a program for certification in oncology nursing. Incorporated in 1984 and governed by a board of directors, ONCC is the certifying body for oncology nursing and meets standards established by the Accreditation Board for Specialty Nursing Certification and the National Commission for Certifying Agencies.
(1/1122) Problems with implementing guidelines: a randomised controlled trial of consensus management of dyspepsia.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility and benefit of developing guidelines for managing dyspepsia by consensus between general practitioners (GPs) and specialists and to evaluate their introduction on GPs' prescribing, use of investigations, and referrals. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial of effect of consensus guidelines agreed between GPs and specialists on GPs' behaviour. SETTING: Southampton and South West Hampshire Health District, United Kingdom. SUBJECTS: 179 GPs working in 45 practices in Southampton district out of 254 eligible GPs, 107 in the control group and 78 in the study group. MAIN MEASURES: Rates of referral and investigation and costs of prescribing for dyspepsia in the six months before and after introduction of the guidelines. RESULTS: Consensus guidelines were produced relatively easily. After their introduction referral rates for upper gastrointestinal symptoms fell significantly in both study and control groups, but no significant change occurred in either group in the use of endoscopy or radiology, either in terms of referral rates, patient selection, or findings on investigation. No difference was observed between the control and study group in the number of items prescribed, but prescribing costs rose by 25% (from 2634 pounds to 3215 pounds per GP) in the study group, almost entirely due to an increased rate of prescription of ulcer-healing agents. CONCLUSION: Developing district guidelines for managing dyspepsia by consensus between GPs and specialists was feasible. However, their acceptance and adoption was variable and their measured effects on some aspects of clinical behaviour were relatively weak and not necessarily associated with either decreased costs or improved quality of care. (+info)
(2/1122) Registrars' and senior registrars' perceptions of their audit activities.
OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the level and quality of audit activity among junior doctors, their attitudes to audit, and their views on its educational value. DESIGN: Postal questionnaire survey in April 1991. SETTING: Yorkshire region. SUBJECTS: All 610 registrars and senior registrars recorded as employed in the region. MAIN MEASURES: Grade, current specialty, details of last audit participated in and its educational usefulness, and attitude to audit. RESULTS: 255 (41.8%) completed questionnaires were returned, 148 from registrars and 101 from senior registrars; grade was not indicated in six. 27 respondents were in general medicine, 26 in general surgery, 30 in anaesthetics, and 36 in psychiatry; other specialties had fewer than 20 respondents. About a fifth (54) of respondents, most in psychiatry (19/36, 53%), had not participated in audit. Among the 201 who had participated, the audit topics covered most components of care (access to services (47, 23%), communication (51, 25%), and appropriateness (158, 79%) and effectiveness (157, 78%) of treatment); only 84 (41%) audits set standards, and in only half of them had the doctors been involved in doing so. Doctors responsible for gathering data and those responsible for collating and reporting data found their experience significantly less useful than those who were not. 172 (86%) respondents considered that audit had helped patient care. Suggested improvements to the educational value of audit were mostly for better methods but included requests for less "witch hunting," better feedback, more training, more time, and more participation by consultants. CONCLUSIONS: The educational value of audit to junior doctors could be improved by better audit methods, guidance, and feedback. (+info)
(3/1122) Diabetes care: who are the experts?
OBJECTIVES: To identify issues that patients and professionals consider important in diabetes care and differences in their priorities for care and to determine patients' and professionals' judgements of the relative importance of their chosen priorities. DESIGN: Structured group interviews using the nominal group technique. SETTING: Five district health authorities on Tyneside. SUBJECTS: Five nominal groups: expert (seven), non-expert (seven) health care professionals; insulin dependent (four), non-insulin dependent patients (eight); and carers of diabetic patients (eight). MAIN MEASURES: Items important in diabetes care to each nominal group (themes of care), ranked into a series of "top 10" items for each group, and allocated a score according to relative importance to individual members; scores were standardised by individual weighting and group weighting for comparison within and between groups. RESULTS: Patients and professionals agreed that information given to patients, interaction between professionals and patients, patient autonomy, and access were important for good diabetes care, but the importance assigned to each differed. Thus the professionals emphasised empathy and aspects of good communication and patients the desire to know enough to live a "normal" life. Differences were also found within the patient groups; these related to changes in patients' needs at specific points in the development of their illness and in their orientations to care. CONCLUSION: Patients differ from professionals in their orientation to diabetes care, and they can, and should, be involved in setting priorities for care. Since these priorities are dynamic further work is needed to explore the nature of patient satisfaction with diabetes care. (+info)
(4/1122) Patterns of anti-inflammatory therapy in the post-guidelines era: a retrospective claims analysis of managed care members.
Published and widely disseminated guidelines for the care and management of asthma characterize asthma as a chronic, inflammatory disease and propose specific recommendations for therapy with inhaled anti-inflammatory medications. In a retrospective analysis of medical and pharmacy claims data of approximately 28,000 asthmatic members from five managed care settings, the dominant pattern of pharmacologic therapy that emerged was the use of bronchodilators without inhaled anti-inflammatory drug therapy. In addition, a significant proportion of asthmatic patients received no prescription drug therapy for asthma. Less than one third of asthmatic patients received any anti-inflammatory therapy and the majority of these received one or two prescriptions per year. Specialist physicians were two to three times more likely than non-specialists during a study period of 1 year to prescribe an anti-inflammatory medication, and were half as likely to have their asthmatic patients experience an emergency department or hospital event. This database analysis suggests that greater conformity with guidelines and/or access to specialist physician care for asthmatic members will lead to improved patient outcomes. (+info)
(5/1122) Referrals by general internists and internal medicine trainees in an academic medicine practice.
Patient referral from generalists to specialists is a critical clinic care process that has received relatively little scrutiny, especially in academic settings. This study describes the frequency with which patients enrolled in a prepaid health plan were referred to specialists by general internal medicine faculty members, general internal medicine track residents, and other internal medicine residents; the types of clinicians they were referred to; and the types of diagnoses with which they presented to their primary care physicians. Requested referrals for all 2,113 enrolled prepaid health plan patients during a 1-year period (1992-1993) were identified by computer search of the practice's administrative database. The plan was a full-risk contract without carve-out benefits. We assessed the referral request rate for the practice and the mean referral rate per physician. We also determined the percentage of patients with diagnoses based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, who were referred to specialists. The practice's referral request rate per 100 patient office visits for all referral types was 19.8. Primary care track residents referred at a higher rate than did nonprimary care track residents (mean 23.7 vs. 12.1; P < .001). The highest referral rate (2.0/100 visits) was to dermatology. Almost as many (1.7/100 visits) referrals were to other "expert" generalists within the practice. The condition most frequently associated with referral to a specialist was depression (42%). Most referrals were associated with common ambulatory care diagnoses that are often considered to be within the scope of generalist practice. To improve medical education about referrals, a better understanding of when and why faculty and trainees refer and don't refer is needed, so that better models for appropriate referral can be developed. (+info)
(6/1122) Subspecialist referrals in an academic, pediatric setting: rationale, rates, and compliance.
Appropriate referrals reduce healthcare costs and enhance patient satisfaction. We evaluated the subspecialty referral pattern of a managed care general pediatric office over a 4-month period. Three-hundred-forty-six referrals (267 meeting inclusion criteria) to 24 subspecialties were generated during 4,219 office visits, with five subspecialties receiving 59% of the referrals. The main objective of each referral was management (100), diagnostic assistance (75), special procedure (63), or a combination (29). Patients kept less than half of the referral appointments, with the highest (80%) and lowest (28%) compliance rates observed in cardiology and ophthalmology, respectively. Appointments made within four weeks of the referral were more likely to be kept than those with greater lag time (P = 0.001). The subspecialists prepared written, post-consultation responses to the referring physician in 73% of cases. Presumptive and post-consultation diagnoses were congruent in 78% of those cases in which both diagnoses were noted. Overall, the managed care format enabled our practice to track referral outcomes. The subspecialists' written responses also allowed for an educational exchange between physicians. Compliance with referral appointments is a substantial problem that needs to be addressed. (+info)
(7/1122) Attitudes and behavioral intentions regarding managed care: a comparison of academic and community physicians.
Physicians' attitudes toward managed care and the impact of these attitudes on behaviors that affect patient care are important factors in managed care reform. In addition, the attitudes of academic physicians may influence their willingness to reform medical education in an effort to prepare students to practice under managed care. Although it is a conventional opinion that the academic health center and its academic physicians are antagonistic toward managed care, there has not been a direct comparison of the attitudes of these physicians to those of practicing community physicians. We used a self-administered questionnaire to assess attitudes toward managed care and behavioral intentions regarding practices related to managed care; a sample of academic physicians (n = 129) was compared with a sample of community physicians (n = 307). Community physicians were less negative in their evaluations of the quality of care in a managed care environment, but no differences were identified between the two groups with regard to the cost-effectiveness, inevitability, or need to adapt to managed care. Academic specialists were more likely than academic primary care physicians to rate managed care as something to which they needed to adapt. Community physicians were less likely to report a willingness to change their referral patterns. Aggregating across practice type, we also uncovered systematic differences between primary care and specialist physicians. The data suggest that opinions about quality and cost-containment in managed care are significant correlates of intentions to change practice behaviors. (+info)
(8/1122) The economic functions of carve outs in managed care.
This paper considers the economic functions of contracting separately for a portion of the insurance risk, offering both the payer's (i.e., employer's) and the health plan's perspective. Four major forms of carve outs are discussed: (1) payer specialty carve outs from all health plans; (2) payer specialty carve outs from only indemnity and preferred provider organization arrangements; (3) individual health plan carve outs to specialty vendors; and (4) group practice carve outs to specialty organizations. The paper examines whether carving out care fosters the payer's goal of delivering reasonable healthcare efficiently, how adverse selection affects the provision of healthcare, and the costs of providing this specialized care. (+info)
- News, Reports and Networking for the Business, Education, Policy and Practice of Integrative Medicine, CAM and Integrated Health Care. (theintegratorblog.com)
- The Institute for Integrative Medicine, LLC (TheIFIM) is an International, online, evidence-based Integrative Medicine education institution, providing a university-based platform teaching licensed Healthcare Practioners conventional medical care along with evidence-based integrative, functional, and complementary methods to evaluate and treat the cause of health challenges. (newswiretoday.com)
- Our Ayurvedic Medicines like Kidney Stone Ayurvedic Medicine provides quick relief and have no side effects. (stoneayurvedicmedicine.com)
- With a deep knowledge of Ayurveda and modern processing technology, we bring quality products that show the healing power of natural and traditional medicine. (stoneayurvedicmedicine.com)
- Ayurveda is used today as a generic term for traditional Indian medicine. (appbrain.com)
- By combining organoleptic (sense-based) empirical medicine with religious ritual perspectives, Ayurveda is a complete medical system. (appbrain.com)
- Ayurvedic, medicine, herbal is an overview of the wonders of ayurvedic pharmacology: how Ayurveda understands plants, how it prepares them and how these preparations are used. (appbrain.com)
- Ayurvedic , also referred to as Ayurveda medicine originated in India and is one of the oldest medical systems on the planet. (fitday.com)
- For many people in the West, they have begun to study and practice Ayurvedic medicine on their own, with and without traditional practitioners. (fitday.com)
- Because the West doesn't officially recognize Ayurvedic medicine, there are no officially licensed practitioners. (fitday.com)
- It is important to note that while Ayurvedic medicine relies on herbs and natural ingredients, some of them may interact and interfere with Western medications so it is important that you let your doctors know about all therapies and supplements that you are using. (fitday.com)
- Many Ayurvedic medicine practioners may be licensed in other fields, such as massage therapy, which are considered complimentary medicine and overlap both Eastern and Western medical practices. (fitday.com)
- Please join me in thanking Integrator sponsors NCMIC Group , Alternative Medicine Integration Group , Inner Harmony Group , Institute for Health and Productivity Management , Integrative Practitioner/Integrative Healthcare Symposium and Lucy Gonda for making this service possible. (theintegratorblog.com)
- Ayurvedic medicine certainly works well for offering fast and effective respite from this health problem. (imrightyourwrong.com)
- As interest in health and wellness has increased in the Western world, Ayurvedic medicine has become something of a trend. (fitday.com)
- While health care providers in many facilities do provide patients with adequate information about nuclear medicine procedures, there's room for improvement, says a study supported by the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality that appears in the December Journal of Nuclear Medicine. (medindia.net)
- For the study, 89 health care professionals (including doctors, nuclear medicine technologists, radiation safety officers and physicists) were interviewed at large and small hospitals and outpatient-only clinics. (medindia.net)
- Although India and other countries approve of Ayurvedic medicine and studies, Ayurvedic medicine typically doesn't have enough well-controlled clinical trials and systematic research reviews to be considered valid in Western medical practices. (fitday.com)
- Patients at different developmental stages of hepatitis B related liver fibrosis are respectively diagnosed and treated by Traditional Chinese medicine to determine optional diagnosis and treatment plan of traditional Chinese medicine to screen the advantage-treated population and to establish a treatment program, which can save national medical resources, for clinical application of Traditional Chinese medicine Diagnosis and Treatment blocking and reversing hepatitis B-related liver fibrosis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This study shows that while many do provide information and special instructions to patients, there is still room for improvement and increased awareness,' said the professor and chair of the Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, at the University of Alberta, and director of oncologic imaging at Cross Cancer Institute in Edmonton, Canada. (medindia.net)
- At Washington University, we have three preprinted wallet-size travel cards (radioiodine, sestamibi/thallium, miscellaneous) that we give to patients who receive therapeutic doses of I-131 or who are planning to travel in the days to weeks following a diagnostic procedure,' said Royal, a professor of radiology at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and associate director of nuclear medicine at its Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology. (medindia.net)
- Many people that don't get relief from Western medicine will explore Ayurvedic medicine as an alternative or may integrated Ayurvedic treatments into their lifestyle regimen. (fitday.com)
- Ayurvedic medicine for jaundice is supposed to offer respite from this problem inside a safe and natural and organic way. (imrightyourwrong.com)
- There are specific herbal or perhaps naturally sourced ingredients which may be used under ayurvedic medicine for jaundice in order to eliminate this problem naturally. (imrightyourwrong.com)