Medical Subject Headings: Controlled vocabulary thesaurus produced by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. It consists of sets of terms naming descriptors in a hierarchical structure that permits searching at various levels of specificity.Subject Headings: Terms or expressions which provide the major means of access by subject to the bibliographic unit.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Catalogs, LibraryNational Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Abbreviations as Topic: Shortened forms of written words or phrases used for brevity.MEDLARS: A computerized biomedical bibliographic storage and retrieval system operated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLARS stands for Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, which was first introduced in 1964 and evolved into an online system in 1971 called MEDLINE (MEDLARS Online). As other online databases were developed, MEDLARS became the name of the entire NLM information system while MEDLINE became the name of the premier database. MEDLARS was used to produce the former printed Cumulated Index Medicus, and the printed monthly Index Medicus, until that publication ceased in December 2004.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Unified Medical Language System: A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.Databases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.Automatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Natural Language Processing: Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Chronology as Topic: The temporal sequence of events that have occurred.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Cataloging: Activities performed in the preparation of bibliographic records for CATALOGS. It is carried out according to a set of rules and contains information enabling the user to know what is available and where items can be found.United StatesSoftware: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Libraries, MedicalOptic Flow: The continuous visual field seen by a subject through space and time.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.

*  Medical Subject Headings - Wikipedia

Medical Subject Headings − poznatije po skraćenici MeSH − je tzv. kontrolirani rječnik za indeksiranje knjiga i članaka iz ... Medical Subject Heading Home] provided by National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (U.S.) ... Preuzeto iz "" ...

*  "Forensic mental illness and other policy misadventures. Commentary on "extending assertive community treatment to criminal...

Medical Subject Headings. *Case Management; *Community Mental Health Services; Crime; Evidence-Based Medicine; Forensic ...

*  "The meaning of health: understanding functional limitations" by Anita L....

Medical Subject Headings. Activities of Daily Living; Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Female; *Health; Humans; *Insurance, Health; ...

*  "Endothelial function predicts positive arterial-venous fistula remodeling in subjects with stage IV and V chronic kidney...

Medical Subject Headings. Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical; Brachial Artery; Brachiocephalic Veins; Endothelium, Vascular; Kidney ... Endothelial function predicts positive arterial-venous fistula remodeling in subjects with stage IV and V chronic kidney ... "Endothelial function predicts positive arterial-venous fistula remodeling in subjects with stage IV and V chronic kidney ...

*  "Mitosis and the Life Cycle: A Metaphor for the Transformation of the Research Librarian" by Sally A....

Medical Subject Headings. Science; Biomedical Research; Libraries, Medical; Library Services; Lamar Soutter Library; Librarians ... Setting/Participants/Resources: The Lamar Soutter Library at the University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS) formally ...

*  "Pancreatic resection: a key component to reducing racial disparities in pancreatic adenocarcinoma" by Melissa M....

Medical Subject Headings. Adenocarcinoma; *African Americans; Aged; *European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; *Healthcare ... Lynn H. Harrison, Jr., University of Massachusetts Medical School * Jennifer F. Tseng, University of Massachusetts Medical ... Shimul A. Shah, University of Massachusetts Medical School * ... Joshua S. Hill, University of Massachusetts Medical School * ... Jessica P. Simons, University of Massachusetts Medical School * ... Sing Chau Ng, University of Massachusetts Medical School * ...

*  "Cost-effectiveness of transesophageal echocardiography to determine the duration of therapy for intravascular catheter...

Medical Subject Headings. Anti-Bacterial Agents; Bacteremia; Catheters, Indwelling; Cost of Illness; Cost-Benefit Analysis; ...

*  "Sets Definable Over Finite Fields: Their Zeta-Functions" by Catarina I....

Medical Subject Headings. Mathematical Concepts Disciplines. *Biostatistics, *Epidemiology, *Health Services Research, * ...

*  "The Agitated Patient" by Michael S....

Medical Subject Headings. Emergency Service, Hospital; Violence; Aggression; Patients Disciplines. *Emergency Medicine ... At the time of publication, Edwin Boudreaux was not yet affiliated with the University of Massachusetts Medical School. ...

*  "John F. Stockwell Papers, 1966-2006: A Finding...

... collectively known as University of Massachusetts Medical Center (UMMC). ... and Associate Professor of Hospital Administration at the University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS). This collection ... Medical Subject Headings. Stockwell, John F.; Academic Medical Centers; University of Massachusetts Medical School; University ... and Associate Professor of Hospital Administration at the University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS). This collection ...

*  Medical Subject Headings, version francaise | SIFR BioPortal

Le MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) est le thésaurus de référence dans le domaine biomédical. La NLM (U.S. National Library of Medicine), qui l'a construit et le met à jour chaque année, l'utilise pour indexer et permettre d'interroger ses bases de données, notamment MEDLINE/PubMed. L'Inserm, qui est le partenaire français de la NLM depuis 1969, a traduit le MeSH en 1986, et met à jour la version française chaque année depuis lors. Dans le cadre d'un accord de coopération avec l'Inserm, l'Inist-CNRS (Institut de l'information scientifique et technique du CNRS) contribue à la mise à jour de la version française depuis 2004 ...

*  Medical Subject Headings - Home Page

Our main purpose is to provide a hierarchically-organized terminology for indexing and cataloging of biomedical information such as MEDLINE/PUBmed and other NLM databases. We also distribute pharmaceutical information through our RxNorm database, and manage the curation of the UMLS and SnoMed database.. ...

*  La indización en el Sistema Nacional de Información de Ciencias Médicas. Parte I. El Medical Subject Headings (MESH) - E-LIS...

Se describen el propósito, alcance, instrucciones de trabajo, procedimiento documentado y requerimientos generales de la indización, vigentes en el Sistema Nacional de Información de Ciencias Médicas (SNICM). Se exponen los detalles correspondientes al tesauro MeSH: estructura, componentes, así como las reglas y principios que rigen su utilización.. ...

*  FAQ: Medical Statistics

National Library of Medicine® (NLM®) reference librarians created an annotated subject guide on Health Statistics and Numerical Data. The subject guide includes specific Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms) to search for in PubMed and links to data on:. ...

*  MMRRC Neuroscience Models

The MMRRC has 440 neuroscience related models categorized by 700 major Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms. To see the individual models for each MeSH term with links to strain details and ordering information please click the links below. The number in parentheses indicated the number of models in each category.. ...

*  2.2.b Teaching Tip - ACRLwiki

Conduct a brainstorming exercise with your students. Demonstrate the number and quality of results with only one term as opposed to a collection of synonyms and related words. Create a short controlled vocabulary worksheet for your students. Use less intuitive examples, where the controlled vocabulary term is less common. For example, the Medical Subject Heading for "bunion" is "hallux valgus." Compare search results from keyword and controlled vocabulary searches to illustrate the effectiveness of controlled vocabulary. ...

*  DigitalNC

Library of Congress Subject Headings [TAPE 1, SIDE A] [START OF TAPE 1, SIDE A] ELIZABETH GRITTER: I was wondering. I remember with the class you said that we should ask our parents about when their moment of like racial consciousness was. I was ...

List of hematologic conditions: There are many conditions of or affecting the human hematologic system — the biological system that includes plasma, platelets, leukocytes, and erythrocytes, the major components of blood and the bone marrow.Johannes BalzliDalian PX protest: The Dalian PX protest (locally called the 8-14 event; ) was a peaceful public protest in People's Square, Dalian, to protest against a paraxylene (PX) chemical factory—Dalian Fujia Dahua Petrochemical (大連福佳大化石油化工)—built in Dalian city. The protest took place in August 14, 2011.Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum: The Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum (formerly Cross-Language Evaluation Forum), or CLEF, is an organization promoting research in multilingual information access (currently focusing on European languages). Its specific functions are to maintain an underlying framework for testing information retrieval systems and to create repositories of data for researchers to use in developing comparable standards.Acronym: An acronym is an abbreviation used as a word which is formed from the initial components in a phrase or a word. Usually these components are individual letters (as in NATO or laser) or parts of words or names (as in Benelux).The Searchers discography: A discography of The SearchersInternational Committee on Aeronautical Fatigue and Structural IntegritySemantic translation: Semantic translation is the process of using semantic information to aid in the translation of data in one representation or data model to another representation or data model. Semantic translation takes advantage of semantics that associate meaning with individual data elements in one dictionary to create an equivalent meaning in a second system.Statutory auditor: Statutory auditor is a title used in various countries to refer to a person or entity with an auditing role, whose appointment is mandated by the terms of a statute.VisionxBritish Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease: The British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers six times a year in the field of Cardiovascular medicine. The journal's editors are Clifford J Bailey (Aston University), Ian Campbell (Victoria Hospital) and Christoph Schindler (Dresden University of Technology).Dragomir R. Radev: Dragomir R. Radev is a University of Michigan computer science professor and Columbia University computer science adjunct professor working on natural language processing and information retrieval.Translational bioinformatics: Translational Bioinformatics (TBI) is an emerging field in the study of health informatics, focused on the convergence of molecular bioinformatics, biostatistics, statistical genetics, and clinical informatics. Its focus is on applying informatics methodology to the increasing amount of biomedical and genomic data to formulate knowledge and medical tools, which can be utilized by scientists, clinicians, and patients.Sunday Bloody SundayInternet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.The Ecstasy Business: The Ecstasy Business, first published by The Dial Press in 1967, was the seventh book by the American satirist and political novelist Richard Condon. Already internationally famous at the time of its publication, primarily because of his 1959 Manchurian Candidate, this book was, somewhat surprisingly given his background, his first Hollywood novel.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Mac OS X Server 1.0Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.University of Sydney Library: The University of Sydney Library is the library system of the University of Sydney. According to its publications, it is the largest academic library in the southern hemisphere (circa 2005), with a print collection of over 5.Reflected-wave switching: Reflected-wave switching is a signalling technique used in backplane computer buses such as PCI.Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System: The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) provides clinicians and researchers access to reliable, valid, and flexible measures of health status that assess physical, mental, and social well–being from the patient perspective. PROMIS measures are standardized, allowing for assessment of many patient-reported outcome domains—including pain, fatigue, emotional distress, physical functioning and social role participation—based on common metrics that allow for comparisons across domains, across chronic diseases, and with the general population.

(1/187) Gene indexing: characterization and analysis of NLM's GeneRIFs.

We present an initial analysis of the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Gene Indexing initiative. Gene Indexing occurs at the time of indexing for all 4600 journals and over 500,000 articles added to PubMed/MEDLINE each year. Gene Indexing links articles about the basic biology of a gene or protein within eight model organisms to a specific record in the NLM's LocusLink database of gene products. The result is an entry called a Gene Reference Into Function (GeneRIF) within the LocusLink database. We analyzed the numbers of GeneRIFs produced in the first year of GeneRIF production. 27,645 GeneRIFs were produced, pertaining to 9126 loci over eight model organisms. 60% of these were associated with human genes and 27% with mouse genes. About 80% discuss genes with an established MeSH Heading or other MeSH term. We developed a prototype functional alerting system for researchers based on the GeneRIFs, and a strategy to find all of the literature related to genes. We conclude that the Gene Indexing initiative adds considerable value to the life sciences research community.  (+info)

(2/187) The dimensions of indexing.

Indexing of documents is an important strategy intended to make the literature more readily available to the user. Here we describe several dimensions of indexing that are important if indexing is to be optimal. These dimensions are coverage, predictability, and transparency. MeSH terms and text words are compared in MEDLINE in regard to these dimensions. Part of our analysis consists in applying AdaBoost with decisions trees as the weak learners to estimate how reliably index terms are being assigned and how complex the criteria are by which they are being assigned. Our conclusions are that MeSH terms are more predictable and more transparent than text words.  (+info)

(3/187) Developing optimal search strategies for detecting clinically sound causation studies in MEDLINE.

BACKGROUND: Clinical end users of MEDLINE must be able to retrieve articles that are both scientifically sound and directly relevant to clinical practice. The use of methodologic search filters has been advocated to improve the accuracy of searching for such studies. These filters are available for the literature on therapy and diagnosis, but strategies for the literature on causation have been less well studied. OBJECTIVE: To determine the retrieval characteristics of methodologic terms in MEDLINE for identifying methodologically sound studies on causation. DESIGN: Comparison of methodologic search terms and phrases for the retrieval of citations in MEDLINE with a manual hand search of the literature (the gold standard) for 162 core health care journals. METHODS: 6 trained, experienced research assistants read all issues of 162 journals for the publishing year 2000. Each article was rated using purpose and quality indicators and categorized into clinically relevant original studies, review articles, general papers, or case reports. The original and review articles were then categorized as 'pass' or 'fail' for methodologic rigor in the areas of therapy/quality improvement, diagnosis, prognosis, causation, economics, clinical prediction, and review articles. Search strategies were developed for all categories including causation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy of the search strategies. RESULTS: 12% of studies classified as causation met basic criteria for scientific merit for testing clinical applications. Combinations of terms reached peak sensitivities of 93%. Compared with the best single term, multiple terms increased sensitivity for sound studies by 15.5% (absolute increase), but with some loss of specificity when sensitivity was maximized. Combining terms to optimize sensitivity and specificity achieved sensitivities and specificities both above 80%. CONCLUSION: The retrieval of causation studies cited in MEDLINE can be substantially enhanced by selected combinations of indexing terms and textwords.  (+info)

(4/187) Developing optimal search strategies for detecting sound clinical prediction studies in MEDLINE.

BACKGROUND: The gaining interest in the use of clinical prediction guides as an aid for helping clinicians make effective front-line decisions, together with the increasing emphasis on evidence-based practice, underscores the need for accurate identification of sound clinical prediction studies. Despite the growing use of clinical prediction guides, little work has been done on identifying optimal literature search filters for retrieving these types of studies. The current study extends our earlier work, on developing optimal search strategies, to include clinical prediction guides. OBJECTIVE: To develop optimal search strategies for detecting methodologically sound clinical prediction studies in MEDLINE in the publishing year 2000. DESIGN: Comparison of the retrieval performance of methodologic search strategies in MEDLINE with a manual review ("gold standard") of each article for each issue of 162 core health care journals for the year 2000. METHODS: 6 experienced research assistants who had been trained and intensively calibrated reviewed all issues of 162 journals for the publishing year 2000. Each article was classified for format, interest, purpose, and methodologic rigor. Search strategies were developed for all purpose categories, including studies of clinical prediction guides. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The sensitivity (recall), specificity, precision, and accuracy of single and combinations of search terms. RESULTS: 39% of original studies classified as a clinical prediction guide were methodologically sound. Combinations of terms reached peak sensitivities of 95%. Compared with the best single term, a three-term strategy increased sensitivity for sound studies by 17% (absolute increase), but with some loss of specificity when sensitivity was maximized. When search terms were combined to optimize sensitivity and specificity, these values reached or were close to 90%. CONCLUSION: Several search strategies can enhance the retrieval of sound clinical prediction studies.  (+info)

(5/187) Automated knowledge extraction for decision model construction: a data mining approach.

Combinations of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and Subheadings in MEDLINE citations may be used to infer relationships among medical concepts. To facilitate clinical decision model construction, we propose an approach to automatically extract semantic relations among medical terms from MEDLINE citations. We use the Apriori association rule mining algorithm to generate the co-occurrences of medical concepts, which are then filtered through a set of predefined semantic templates to instantiate useful relations. From such semantic relations, decision elements and possible relationships among them may be derived for clinical decision model construction. To evaluate the proposed method, we have conducted a case study in colorectal cancer management; preliminary results have shown that useful causal relations and decision alternatives can be extracted.  (+info)

(6/187) Toward (semi-)automatic generation of bio-medical ontologies.

The design and construction of domain specific ontologies and taxonomies requires allocation of huge resources in terms of cost and time. These efforts are human intensive and we need to explore ways of minimizing human involvement and other resources. In the biomedical domain, we seek to leverage resources such as the UMLS Metathesaurus and NLP-based applications such as MetaMap in conjunction with statistical clustering techniques, to (partially) automate the process. This is expected to be useful to the team involved in developing MeSH and other biomedical taxonomies to identify gaps in the existing taxonomies, and to be able to quickly bootstrap taxonomy generation for new research areas in biomedical informatics.  (+info)

(7/187) Visual mapping for medical concepts.

Concept relationships are traditionally defined in human-generated vocabulary lists such as the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). This poster describes a prototype system that automatically generates concept relationships from the medical literature. The system is directly connected to the PUBMED search engine. For any given medical concept, the system will generate two styles of visual maps from MEDLINE in real time. Users can use the maps to explore concept relationships or construct better search queries interactively.  (+info)

(8/187) Automated indexing of the Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB).

The Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB), produced and maintained by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), contains over 4600 records on potentially hazardous chemicals. To enhance information retrieval from HSDB, NLM has undertaken the development of an automated HSDB indexing protocol as part of its Indexing Initiative. The NLM Indexing Initiative investigates methods whereby automated indexing may partially or completely substitute for human indexing. The poster's purpose is to describe the HSDB Automated Indexing Project.  (+info)


  • Medical Subject Headings − poznatije po skraćenici MeSH − je tzv. (
  • Medical Subject Heading Home] provided by National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (U.S. (
  • adjustments to the MeSH® (Medical Subject Headings) or Publication Types (PT) data. (
  • This maintenance is primarily for making changes to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) on existing MEDLINE citations to conform to the forthcoming year's version of MeSH, and also involves other global changes such as those to Supplementary Concept Names. (
  • When the year-end processing activities are complete, the new version of MEDLINE, with the new year's MeSH Headings, is loaded into PubMed, and the regular MEDLINE/PubMed update schedule resumes. (
  • The annual update to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH®), the NLM controlled vocabulary used for subject indexing and retrieval, is implemented in a new Entrez MeSH Database and a new MeSH Browser . (
  • this includes both the MeSH Heading (MH) element and the Name of Substance (NM) element and the Enzyme Commission/CAS Registry Number (RN) element. (
  • Each year, MeSH Headings are added to the vocabulary as new concepts are replaced with more up-to-date terminology and some MeSH Headings are deleted with no replacement. (
  • During year-end processing, NLM makes the corresponding changes in the MeSH Headings on the MEDLINE citations. (
  • These follow-on adjustments are largely the addition of more MeSH headings or supplementary concept record Names of Substances (NM) to help refine retrieval. (
  • Generally, NLM does not retrospectively re-index MEDLINE citations with new MeSH Headings. (
  • PubMed's Automatic Term Mapping (ATM) expands an untagged subject search to include both MeSH Term and Text Word(s), and may retrieve relevant citations indexed before the introduction of a new MeSH term. (
  • Students are guided through accessing the database through the UA Library catalog, using limits and advanced search features to maximize relevancy of results, understanding Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, and interpreting records. (
  • This interactive tutorial is designed to introduce students to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and their use in searching the PubMed database. (
  • Skills taught include using MeSH headings and subheadings to limit search results, accessing and evaluating MeSH records through the MeSH database, and using an article's MeSH terms to determine relevancy. (


  • The John F. Stockwell Papers chronicles Stockwell's career as the first director of University Hospital, Associate Dean for Administrative Affairs, and Associate Professor of Hospital Administration at the University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS). (
  • This collection also documents the early history of UMMS and University Hospital, collectively known as University of Massachusetts Medical Center (UMMC). (


  • National Library of Medicine ® (NLM ® ) reference librarians created an annotated subject guide on Health Statistics and Numerical Data . (


  • You can use the MedlinePlus Medical Dictionary for definitions of the terms below. (


  • Please submit an abstract of no more than 200 words, based on a subject which represents original work. (


  • Healthcare professionals typically look at a person's medical history, symptoms, physical exam, and laboratory test results in order to make a diagnosis. (


  • The paper must avoid headings, acknowledgements, names or institutions or anything that may reveal the author's identity. (


  • Beyond the changes resulting from replaced headings, year-end processing includes additional adjustments. (


  • Training grade doctors, young scientists and medical students (not above Specialist Registrar, Grade B Clinical Scientist or equivalent grade) with an immunological or allergy component of their clinical research. (


  • Finding and Using Health Statistics for a self-study course on the subject. (


  • Setting/Participants/Resources: The Lamar Soutter Library at the University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS) formally established a Research and Scholarly Communication Services department in January 2009. (


  • Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. (