Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Medicago truncatula: A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.Medicago: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It is distinct from Sweet Clover (MELILOTUS), from Bush Clover (LESPEDEZA), and from Red Clover (TRIFOLIUM).Sinorhizobium meliloti: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of sweet clover, MEDICAGO SATIVA, and fenugreek.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Nigella sativa: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains alpha-hederin, a triterpene saponin in the seeds, and is the source of black seed oil.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Melilotus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Sinorhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, nonsporeforming rods which usually contain granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Trifolium: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Entomophthora: A genus of fungi in the family Entomophthoraceae, order Entomorphthorales. They are primarily parasites of insects and spiders, but have been found to cause mycotic infections of the nose in man and horses.Avena sativa: A plant species of the family POACEAE that is widely cultivated for its edible seeds.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Pterocarpans: A group of compounds which can be described as benzo-pyrano-furano-benzenes which can be formed from ISOFLAVONES by internal coupling of the B ring to the 4-ketone position. Members include medicarpin, phaseolin, and pisatin which are found in FABACEAE.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Leghemoglobin: A hemoglobin-like oxygen-binding hemeprotein present in the nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants. The red pigment has a molecular weight approximately 1/4 that of hemoglobin and has been suggested to act as an oxido-reduction catalyst in symbiotic nitrogen fixation.Vicia sativa: A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The seed is used for food and contains THIOCYANATES such as prunasin, cyanoalanine, cyanogen, and vicine.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Entomophthorales: An order of fungi comprising mostly insect pathogens, though some infect mammals including humans. Strict host specificity make these fungi a focus of many biological control studies.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Triacetoneamine-N-Oxyl: Cyclic N-oxide radical functioning as a spin label and radiation-sensitizing agent.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Plant Root Nodulation: The formation of a nitrogen-fixing cell mass on PLANT ROOTS following symbiotic infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Lettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Lotus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. This genus was formerly known as Tetragonolobus. The common name of lotus is also used for NYMPHAEA and NELUMBO.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Medicago truncatula: Medicago truncatula (barrel medic or barrel medick or barrel clover) is a small annual legume native to the Mediterranean region that is used in genomic research. It is a low-growing, clover-like plant 10–60 cm tall with trifoliate leaves.Medicago lupulina: Medicago lupulina, commonly known as black medick, nonesuch, or hop clover, is a familiar lawn plant belonging to the legume or clover family. Plants of the genus Medicago, or bur clovers, are closely related to the true clovers (Trifolium) and sweet clover (Melilotus).Nod factorWeedy rice: Weedy rice, also known as red rice, is a variety of rice (Oryza) that produces far fewer grains per plant than cultivated rice and is therefore considered a pest. The name "weedy rice" is used for all types and variations of rice which show some characteristic features of cultivated rice and grow as weeds in commercial rice fields.Symbiosis Center of Health Care: Symbiosis Center of Health Care (SCHC) is an organization under Symbiosis Society which takes care of health of symbiosis family be it student or staff.http://www.Endodermis: The endodermis is the central, innermost layer of cortex in some land plants. It is made of compact living cells surrounded by an outer ring of endodermal cells that are impregnated with hydrophobic substances (Casparian Strip) to restrict apoplastic flow of water to the inside.Melilotus: Melilothus Homem. (1819)Diazotroph: Diazotrophs are bacteria and archaea that fix atmospheric nitrogen gas into a more usable form such as ammonia.Squamosa promoter binding protein: The SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like (SBP or SPL) family of transcription factors are defined by a plant-specific DNA-binding domain. The founding member of the family was identified based on its specific in vitro binding to the promoter of the snapdragon SQUAMOSA gene.RhizobiaTrifolium pratense: Trifolium pratense (red clover) is a herbaceous species of flowering plant in the bean family Fabaceae, native to Europe, Western Asia and northwest Africa, but planted and naturalised in many other regions.Entomophthora muscaeJohn o' Groats: John o' Groats (Gaelic: Taigh Iain Ghròt) is a village in the Canisby parish of Caithness, in the far north of Scotland. John o' Groats lies on Britain's northeastern tip, and is popular with tourists as one end of the longest distance between two inhabited British points, with Land's End in Cornwall lying 876 miles to the southwest.Lonchocarpus: Lonchocarpus is a plant genus in the legume family (Fabaceae). The species are called lancepods due to their fruit resembling an ornate lance tip or a few beads on a string.Glycinol (pterocarpan): Glycinol}}Plant perception (physiology): Plant perception is the ability of plants to sense and respond to the environment to adjust their morphology, physiology and phenotype accordingly. Other disciplines such as plant physiology, ecology and molecular biology are used to assess this ability.Coles PhillipsLeghemoglobin: Leghemoglobin (also leghaemoglobin or legoglobin) is a nitrogen or oxygen carrier, because naturally occurring oxygen and nitrogen interact similarly with this protein; and a hemoprotein found in the nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants. It is produced by legumes in response to the roots being colonized by nitrogen-fixing bacteria, termed rhizobia, as part of the symbiotic interaction between plant and bacterium: roots not colonized by Rhizobium do not synthesise leghemoglobin.Vicia sativa: Vicia sativa, known as the common vetch, garden vetch, tare or simply "the vetch", is a nitrogen fixing leguminous plant in the family Fabaceae. Although considered a weed when found growing in a cultivated grainfield, this [plant is often grown as green manure] or [[livestock fodder.Paddock: A paddock has two primary meanings in different parts of the English-speaking world. In Canada, the USA and UK, a paddock is a small enclosure used to keep horses.Tomato seed oil: Tomato seed oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of tomatoes.Aureusidin synthase: Aureusidin synthase (, AmAS1) is an enzyme with system name 2',4,4',6'-tetrahydroxychalcone 4'-O-beta-D-glucoside:oxygen oxidoreductase.Basidiobolus ranarum: Basidiobolus ranarum is a microscopic fungus in the order Entomophthorales.Canna Leaf Roller: Cannas are largely free of pests, but in the USA plants sometimes fall victim the Canna Leaf Roller, which can actually be two different insects. Larva of the Brazilian skipper butterfly (Calpodes ethlius), also known as the Larger Canna Leaf Roller, cut the leaves and roll them over to live inside while pupating and eating the leaf.Arbuscular mycorrhiza: An arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (plural mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas, a.k.Oxoammonium-catalyzed oxidation: Oxoammonium-catalyzed oxidation reactions involve the conversion of organic substrates to more highly oxidized materials through the action of an N-oxoammonium species. Nitroxides may also be used in catalytic amounts in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of a terminal oxidant.Chance seedling: A chance seedling is a plant that is the product of unintentional breeding. It may be a genetically unique individual with desirable characteristics that is then intentionally bred.Coniferyl aldehydeBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Nitrogen deficiencyMedicinal plants of the American West: Many plants that grow in the American West have use in traditional and herbal medicine.Fungicide use in the United States: A more accurate title for this page would be "Common plant pathogens to food crops in the United States".Lettuce big-vein disease: Lettuce big-vein disease causes leaf distortion and ruffling in affected lettuce plants.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Polysaccharide encapsulated bacteriaDry matter: The dry matter (or otherwise known as dry weight) is a measurement of the mass of something when completely dried.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Carbon–carbon bond: A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms. The most common form is the single bond: a bond composed of two electrons, one from each of the two atoms.Water supply in Miyakojima: The water supply in Miyakojima involves the history and development of the current water supply in Miyakojima, a small coral island with only one river, which is administered by Okinawa Prefecture, in Japan.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.CS-BLASTGemmatimonadetes: The Gemmatimonadetes are a family of bacteria, given their own phylum (Gemmatimonadetes). This bacterium makes up about 2% of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils; yet, there are currently only six cultured isolates.
(1/896) Mechanical maceration of alfalfa.
Maceration is an intensive forage-conditioning process that can increase field drying rates by as much as 300%. Because maceration shreds the forage and reduces its rigidity, improvements in bulk density, silage compaction, and ensiling characteristics have been observed. Macerating forage also increases the surface area available for microbial attachment in the rumen, thereby increasing forage digestibility and animal performance. Feeding trials with sheep have shown increases in DMI of 5 to 31% and increases in DM digestibility of from 14 to 16 percentage units. Lactation studies have demonstrated increases in milk production and BW gain for lactating Holstein cows; however, there is a consistent decrease in milk fat percentage when dairy cattle are fed macerated forage. In vitro studies have shown that maceration decreases lag time associated with NDF digestion and increases rate of NDF digestion. In situ digestibility studies have shown that maceration increases the size of the instantly soluble DM pool and decreases lag time associated with NDF digestion, but it may not consistently alter the rate or extent of DM and NDF digestion. (+info)
(2/896) Novel genes induced during an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis formed between Medicago truncatula and Glomus versiforme.
Many terrestrial plant species are able to form symbiotic associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Here we have identified three cDNA clones representing genes whose expression is induced during the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis formed between Medicago truncatula and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus versiforme. The three clones represent M. truncatula genes and encode novel proteins: a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase-related protein, a putative arabinogalactan protein (AGP), and a putative homologue of the mammalian p110 subunit of initiation factor 3 (eIF3). These genes show little or no expression in M. truncatula roots prior to formation of the symbiosis and are significantly induced following colonization by G. versiforme. The genes are not induced in roots in response to increases in phosphate. This suggests that induction of expression during the symbiosis is due to the interaction with the fungus and is not a secondary effect of improved phosphate nutrition. In situ hybridization revealed that the putative AGP is expressed specifically in cortical cells containing arbuscules. The identification of two mycorrhiza-induced genes encoding proteins predicted to be involved in cell wall structure is consistent with previous electron microscopy data that indicated major alterations in the extracellular matrix of the cortical cells following colonization by mycorrhizal fungi. (+info)
(3/896) NADH-glutamate synthase in alfalfa root nodules. Genetic regulation and cellular expression.
NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT; EC 126.96.36.199) is a key enzyme in primary nitrogen assimilation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) root nodules. Here we report that in alfalfa, a single gene, probably with multiple alleles, encodes for NADH-GOGAT. In situ hybridizations were performed to assess the location of NADH-GOGAT transcript in alfalfa root nodules. In wild-type cv Saranac nodules the NADH-GOGAT gene is predominantly expressed in infected cells. Nodules devoid of bacteroids (empty) induced by Sinorhizobium meliloti 7154 had no NADH-GOGAT transcript detectable by in situ hybridization, suggesting that the presence of the bacteroid may be important for NADH-GOGAT expression. The pattern of expression of NADH-GOGAT shifted during root nodule development. Until d 9 after planting, all infected cells appeared to express NADH-GOGAT. By d 19, a gradient of expression from high in the early symbiotic zone to low in the late symbiotic zone was observed. In 33-d-old nodules expression was seen in only a few cell layers in the early symbiotic zone. This pattern of expression was also observed for the nifH transcript but not for leghemoglobin. The promoter of NADH-GOGAT was evaluated in transgenic alfalfa plants carrying chimeric beta-glucuronidase promoter fusions. The results suggest that there are at least four regulatory elements. The region responsible for expression in the infected cell zone contains an 88-bp direct repeat. (+info)
(4/896) Induction of a protective antibody response to foot and mouth disease virus in mice following oral or parenteral immunization with alfalfa transgenic plants expressing the viral structural protein VP1.
The utilization of transgenic plants expressing recombinant antigens to be used in the formulation of experimental immunogens has been recently communicated. We report here the development of transgenic plants of alfalfa expressing the structural protein VP1 of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV). The presence of the transgenes in the plants was confirmed by PCR and their specific transcription was demonstrated by RT-PCR. Mice parenterally immunized using leaf extracts or receiving in their diet freshly harvested leaves from the transgenic plants developed a virus-specific immune response. Animals immunized by either method elicited a specific antibody response to a synthetic peptide representing amino acid residues 135-160 of VP1, to the structural protein VP1, and to intact FMDV particles. Additionally, the immunized mice were protected against experimental challenge with the virus. We believe this is the first report demonstrating the induction of a protective systemic antibody response in animals fed transgenic plants expressing a viral antigen. These results support the feasibility of producing edible vaccines in transgenic forage plants, such as alfalfa, commonly used in the diet of domestic animals even for those antigens for which a systemic immune response is required. (+info)
(5/896) Supplemental cracked corn for steers fed fresh alfalfa: I. Effects on digestion of organic matter, fiber, and starch.
The effect of supplementation with different levels of cracked corn on the sites of OM, total dietary fiber (TDF), ADF, and starch digestion in steers fed fresh alfalfa indoors was determined. Six Angus steers (338 +/- 19 kg) fitted with cannulas in the rumen, duodenum, and ileum consumed 1) alfalfa (20.4% CP, 41.6% NDF) ad libitum (AALF); 2), 3), and 4) AALF supplemented (S) with .4, .8, or 1.2%, respectively, of BW of corn; or 5) alfalfa restricted at the average level of forage intake of S steers (RALF), in a 5 x 5 Latin square design. Total OM intake was lower (P < .01) in steers fed RALF than in those fed AALF but level of forage intake did not affect sites of OM, TDF, or starch digestion (P > .05). Forage OM intake decreased (P < .01) linearly (8,496 to 5,840 g/d) but total OM intake increased (P = .03) linearly (8,496 to 9,344 g/d) as corn increased from .4 to 1.2% BW. Ruminal apparent and true OM disappearance was not affected, but OM disappearing in the small intestine increased (P < .01) linearly with increasing levels of corn. Total tract OM digestibility (71.2 to 76.2%) and the proportion of OM intake that was digested in the small intestine (15.4 to 24.5%) increased (P < .01) linearly as corn increased. The TDF and ADF intakes decreased (P < .01) linearly as level of corn increased. Total tract TDF and ADF digestibilities were not different among treatments (average 62.9 and 57.8%, respectively). Starch intake and starch digested in the rumen and small and large intestine increased (P < .01) linearly with increasing corn level. Ruminal pH and VFA concentrations decreased and increased (P < .01), respectively, with increasing corn. Supplementation with corn increased OM intake, decreased forage OM intake, and increased the proportion of OM that was digested in the small intestine, but fiber digestion was not affected. (+info)
(6/896) Supplemental cracked corn for steers fed fresh alfalfa: II. Protein and amino acid digestion.
The effects of different levels of cracked corn on N intake, ruminal bacterial CP synthesis, and duodenal flows and small intestinal digestion of amino acids (AA) in steers fed fresh alfalfa indoors were determined. Angus steers (n = 6; average BW 338 +/- 19 kg) cannulated in the rumen, duodenum, and ileum were fed each of five diets over five periods in a Latin square design with an extra animal. Steers consumed 1) alfalfa (20.4% CP, 41.6% NDF) ad libitum (AALF); 2), 3), and 4) AALF supplemented (S) with three levels of corn (.4, .8, or 1.2% of BW, respectively), or 5) alfalfa restricted (RALF) to the average forage intake of S steers. Average N intake and duodenal flow of nonammonia N (NAN) were greater (P < .01) in S than in RALF steers. Greater duodenal flows of NAN in S compared with RALF were due to a trend toward higher (P = .06) flows of both bacterial and dietary N. Levels of corn decreased (P < .01) linearly N intake and increased (P < .01) linearly duodenal flow of NAN owing to a numerical linear increase in nonbacterial N (P = .15) with no increase in bacterial N flow. Duodenal NAN flows as percentages of N intake increased (P < .01) linearly (69.3 to 91.0%) as corn increased. Ruminal NH3 N concentration, ruminal CP degradability, and the proportion of bacterial N in duodenal NAN were decreased (P < .01) linearly as corn increased. Efficiency of net microbial CP synthesis was not affected (P > .05) by treatment (average 42.6 and 30.9 g N/kg of OM apparently or truly digested in the rumen, respectively). Small intestinal disappearance of total N and individual AA, except for threonine and lysine, and small intestinal digestibility of N and individual AA, except for methionine, histidine, and proline, increased (P < .01) linearly with level of corn and were greater (P < .01) in S than in RALF steers. Supplementing corn to steers fed fresh alfalfa reduced ruminal N losses and CP degradability and increased the duodenal flow and the small intestinal disappearance and digestibility of total N and total, essential, and nonessential AA. (+info)
(7/896) Fractionation of fiber and crude protein in fresh forages during the spring growth.
The composition of the fiber and CP of alfalfa, bromegrass, and endophyte-free and -infected tall fescue forages was compared during the spring growth from vegetative to reproductive stages. Forages were sampled from April 27 to June 6 in 1994, and from April 27 to June 11 in 1995, with 11 and 12 harvest dates, respectively. Total dietary fiber (TDF) was fractionated into insoluble and soluble fiber (SF). The CP of the forages was fractionated into nonprotein N (A), soluble CP (B1), insoluble CP that was soluble in neutral detergent (B2), CP insoluble in neutral detergent but soluble in acid detergent (B3), and CP insoluble in acid detergent (C). Effects of year, forage species, and harvest dates (day as a covariable) were included in the model. Across harvest dates, alfalfa (A) had lower (P < .01) TDF and higher (P < .01) SF concentrations than grasses (GR) (A: 49.9 and 14.4% and GR: 60.4 and 4.5% [OM basis] for TDF and SF, respectively). Alfalfa had higher (P < .01) CP (20.6% DM) than GR (15.3%). The rate of decrease in CP (% DM) across days was higher (P < .01) for bromegrass (-.4%/d) than for the other forages (-.29%/d). Fraction A (% of CP) was not different (P = .24) among forages (22.5%), but B1 was higher (P < .01) in A (17.1%) than in GR (13.2%). The B2 fraction (% of CP) was higher (P < .01) in A compared with GR (51.6 vs 45.9%, respectively). Alfalfa had lower (P < .01) B3 (3.0% of CP) than bromegrass (18.6%) and tall fescue (13.2%). Fraction C was not different (P = .23) among forages (3.8%). Fractions A, B1, and C (% of CP) did not change (P > .05) across days for all forages. Fraction B2 (% of CP) decreased across days in A (-.21%/d) but was not affected in GR. Fraction B3 (% of CP) increased (P < .05) in A (.1%/d), decreased in endophyte-infected tall fescue (-.20%/d), and did not change (P > .05) in the other forages. Crude protein and fiber composition were affected more by forage species than by maturity. The CP and NDF concentrations were more affected by maturity. Insoluble fractions but not soluble fractions of CP were affected by maturity. (+info)
(8/896) Degradation of two protein sources at three solids retention times in continuous culture.
Effects of solids retention times (SRT) of 10, 20, and 30 h on protein degradation and microbial metabolism were studied in continuous cultures of ruminal contents. Liquid dilution rate was constant across all retention times at .12 h(-1) (8.3 h mean retention time). Two semipurified diets that contained either soybean meal (SBM) or alfalfa hay (ALFH) as the sole nitrogen source were provided in amounts that decreased as SRT was increased. Digestion coefficients for DM, NDF, and ADF increased with increasing SRT. Digestion coefficients for nonstructural carbohydrates were higher in the SBM diet than in the ALFH diet but were not affected by SRT. Protein degradation in the ALFH diet averaged 51% and was unaffected by retention time. In the SBM diet, digestion of protein was 77, 78, and 96% at 10-, 20-, and 30-h retention times, respectively. Microbial efficiency decreased with increasing SRT and was greater for the SBM than for the ALFH diet. Efficiencies ranged from 30.6 to 35.7 and 20.8 to 29.2 g of N/kg of digested DM for the SBM and ALFH diets, respectively, as SRT decreased from 30 to 10 h. The diaminopimelic acid content of the microbes increased as SRT increased, indicating that changes in microbial species occurred owing to passage rates. From these results, we concluded that the digestibility decreases associated with increased ruminal turnover rates may be less for nonstructural carbohydrates and protein than for the fiber fractions. (+info)