**Mathematics**: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

**Mathematical Concepts**: Numeric or quantitative entities, descriptions, properties, relationships, operations, and events.

**Achievement**: Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.

**Aptitude**: The ability to acquire general or special types of knowledge or skill.

**Interdisciplinary Studies**: Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.

**Learning Disorders**: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.

**Test Taking Skills**: Skills and strategies, unrelated to the traits a test is intended to measure, that may increase test takers' scores -- may include the effects of coaching or experience in taking tests. (ERIC Thesaurus)

**Test Anxiety Scale**: A self-reporting test consisting of items concerning fear and worry about taking tests and physiological activity, such as heart rate, sweating, etc., before, during, and after tests.

**Engineering**: The practical application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles. (Stedman, 25th ed)

**Biology**: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.

**Dyscalculia**: Impaired ability in numerical concepts. These inabilities arise as a result of primary neurological lesion, are syndromic (e.g., GERSTMANN SYNDROME ) or acquired due to brain damage.

**Underachievement**: Performance, usually in school work, poorer than that predicted from aptitude and/or intelligence testing.

**Problem Solving**: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.

**Reading**

**Technology**: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.

**Science**: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.

**Physics**: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

**Educational Measurement**: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.

**Knowledge**: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.

**Students**: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.

**Delaware**

**Intelligence**: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.

**Individuality**: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.

**Dyslexia**: A cognitive disorder characterized by an impaired ability to comprehend written and printed words or phrases despite intact vision. This condition may be developmental or acquired. Developmental dyslexia is marked by reading achievement that falls substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education. The disturbance in reading significantly interferes with academic achievement or with activities of daily living that require reading skills. (From DSM-IV)

**Aptitude Tests**: Primarily non-verbal tests designed to predict an individual's future learning ability or performance.

**Child Psychology**: The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.

**Education of Hearing Disabled**: The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.

**Child Development**: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.

**Natural Science Disciplines**: The sciences dealing with processes observable in nature.

**Concept Formation**: A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.

**Language Arts**: Skills in the use of language which lead to proficiency in written or spoken communication.

**Logic**: The science that investigates the principles governing correct or reliable inference and deals with the canons and criteria of validity in thought and demonstration. This system of reasoning is applicable to any branch of knowledge or study. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)

**Teaching**: The educational process of instructing.

**Curriculum**: A course of study offered by an educational institution.

**Schools**: Educational institutions.

**Intelligence Tests**: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.

**Intuition**: Knowing or understanding without conscious use of reasoning. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)

**Universities**: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.

**Comprehension**: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.

**Early Intervention (Education)**: Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)

**Cognition**: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.

**Educational Status**: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.

**Learning**: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.

**Education, Special**: Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.

**Genetic Pleiotropy**: A phenomenon in which multiple and diverse phenotypic outcomes are influenced by a single gene (or single gene product.)

**Education**: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.

**Physiology**: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.

**Language**: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.

**Models, Theoretical**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Deafness**: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.

**Research**: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)

**Models, Educational**: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.

**Memory, Short-Term**: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.

**Executive Function**: A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.

**Language Development**: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.

**Neuropsychological Tests**: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.

**Affective Symptoms**: Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.

**Adolescent Psychology**: Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.

**Longitudinal Studies**: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.

**Missouri**

**Task Performance and Analysis**: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.

**Cognition Disorders**: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.

**Models, Biological**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Twins**: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).

**Computational Biology**: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.

**Systems Biology**: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.

**History, 20th Century**: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.

**Statistics as Topic**: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.

**Computer Simulation**: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.

**Sex Factors**: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.

**Models, Statistical**: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.

**Nonlinear Dynamics**: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.

**Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity**: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)

**Algorithms**: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.

**Software**: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.

**Attention**: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.

**Models, Genetic**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Data Interpretation, Statistical**: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.

**Sex Characteristics**: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.

**Anxiety**: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.

**Program Evaluation**: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.

**Regression Analysis**: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.

**Socioeconomic Factors**: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.

**Predictive Value of Tests**: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.

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#### Fighting Lymph Cancer with **Mathematics** - CWI Amsterdam

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#### **Mathematics** As the Most Misunderstood Subject - Slashdot

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**Bill Parry (mathematician)**

**P-adic Hodge theory**: In mathematics, p-adic Hodge theory is a theory that provides a way to classify and study p-adic Galois representations of characteristic 0 local fieldsIn this article, a local field is complete discrete valuation field whose residue field is perfect. with residual characteristic p (such as Qp).

**Migratory aptitude**: Migratory aptitude is the relative ability of a migrating group to migrate in a rearrangement reaction. This can be affected by the leaving group (whichever gives a more stable carbocation)depends upon the electron density of the migrating group i.

**Q Division Studios**: Q Division Studios is a recording studio located in Somerville, Massachusetts, United States, at the heart of the Boston area's music scene. Founded in 1986, Q Division was originally located at 443 Albany Street in Boston, but moved to its current two-studio facility in 2000.

**Learning Disability Coalition**: The Learning Disability Coalition is a group of fourteen organisations which campaigns to secure better funding for social care for people with learning disabilities in England.Coalition was formed in May 2007.

**Fast and Realistic OpenGL Displayer**: FROG (The Fast & Realistic OpenGl Displayer) is a generic framework dedicated to visualize events in a given geometry. It has been written in C++ and use OpenGL cross-platform libraries.

**Yellowdog Creative Project Management**: Yellowdog Creative Project Management (also known as 'Yellowdog CPM' or just 'Yellowdog') is an independent record label, project management platform, tour management and promotions representing a variety of artists and bands. The business trades in the United Kingdom, France, Netherlands, Italy, Sweden, Ireland & United States.

**Birse Civils**: Birse Civils is a civil engineering company based in North Yorkshire, England. It was formerly a separate civil engineering company simply known as Birse Group, but is now owned by Balfour Beatty.

**Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology**: The Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology is a Polish scientific research organization and a part of Polish Academy of Sciences headquartered in Warsaw, Poland. Founded in 1918, it is a leading institution in the country in the field of neurobiology, molecular biology and biochemistry.

**Dyscalculia**

**Spalding Method**

**Medical sign**: A medical sign is an objective indication of some medical fact or characteristic that may be detected by a physician during a physical examination of a patient. For example, whereas paresthesia is a symptom (only the person experiencing it can directly observe their own tingling feeling), erythema is a sign (anyone can confirm that the skin is redder than usual).

**The Republican War on Science**: The Republican War on Science is a 2005 book by Chris C. Mooney, an American journalist who focuses on the politics of science policy.

**Index of physics articles (J)**: The index of physics articles is split into multiple pages due to its size.

**Cigarette smoking among college students**: The rates of college students smoking in the United States have fluctuated for the past twenty years. Majority of lifelong smokers begin smoking habits before the age of 24, which makes the college years a crucial time in the study of cigarette consumption.

**Delaware lunar sample displays**: The Delaware lunar sample displays are two commemorative plaques consisting of small fragments of moon specimen brought back with the Apollo 11 and Apollo 17 lunar missions and given in the 1970s to the people of the state of Delaware by United States President Richard Nixon as goodwill gifts.

**Evolution of human intelligence**: The evolution of human intelligence refers to a set of theories that attempt to explain how human intelligence has evolved and are closely tied to the evolution of the human brain and to the origin of language.

**Dyslexia**: (developmental),

**Medical school in the United Kingdom**: In the United Kingdom, medical school generally refers to a department within a university which is involved in the education of future medical practitioners. All leading British medical schools are state-funded and their core purpose is to train doctors on behalf of the National Health Service.

**International Deaf Education Association**: The International Deaf Education Association (IDEA) is an organization focused on educating the deaf in Bohol, Philippines initiated by the United States Peace Corps, under the leadership of Dennis Drake. The organization is a non-profit establishment that provides education to the impoverished and neglected deaf and blind children in the Philippines.

**David Rees Griffiths**: David Rees Griffiths (November 6, 1882 – December 17, 1953), also known by his bardic name of Amanwy, was a Welsh poet, and an older brother of politician Jim Griffiths.

**RWTH Aachen Faculty of Mathematics, Computer science, and Natural sciences**: thumbnail|200px|Institute for physical chemistry

**Print permanence**: Print permanence refers to the longevity of printed material, especially photographs, and preservation issues. Over time, the optical density, color balance, lustre, and other qualities of a print will degrade.

**Trace theory**: In mathematics and computer science, trace theory aims to provide a concrete mathematical underpinning for the study of concurrent computation and process calculi. The underpinning is provided by an algebraic definition of the free partially commutative monoid or trace monoid, or equivalently, the history monoid, which provides a concrete algebraic foundation, analogous to the way that the free monoid provides the underpinning for formal languages.

**Logic gate**: In electronics, a logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more logical inputs, and produces a single logical output. Depending on the context, the term may refer to an ideal logic gate, one that has for instance zero rise time and unlimited fan-out, or it may refer to a non-ideal physical deviceJaeger, Microelectronic Circuit Design, McGraw-Hill 1997, ISBN 0-07-032482-4, pp.

**Syllabus**: A syllabus (pl. syllabi) is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in an education or training course.

**St. Vrain Valley School District**

**Nils Wogram**: Nils Wogram (born November 7, 1972 in Braunschweig, Germany) is a jazz trombonist, composer and bandleader. He counts as one of the most important jazz musicians in Europe.

**Antenor Orrego Private University**

**Slab serif**: In typography, a slab serif (also called mechanistic, square serif, antique or Egyptian) typeface is a type of serif typeface characterized by thick, block-like serifs. Serif terminals may be either blunt and angular (Rockwell), or rounded (Courier).

**Cognitive skill**: Cognitive functioning is a term referring to a human’s ability to process to (thoughts) that should not deplete on a large scale in healthy individuals. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to learn new information, speech, understanding of written material.

**Special education in the United Kingdom**: 'Special Educational Needs' is an umbrella term for an aspect of UK school education focusing on students primarily with learning difficulties and/or disability. In school documents, it is abbreviated to 'SEN' / 'SEND' – these abbreviations are also used in Commonwealth countries such as Australia and Singapore.

**Pleiotropy (drugs)**: In pharmacology, pleiotropy refers to a drug's actions, usually unanticipated, other than those for which the agent was specifically developed. It may include adverse effects which are detrimental ones, but is often used to denote additional beneficial effects.

**Alexander Walker (physiologist)**: Alexander Walker (1779—1852) was a Scottish physiologist, aesthetician, encyclopaedist, translator, novelist, and journalist.

**Daniel Kane (linguist)**: Daniel Kane is an Australian linguist, one of the world's foremost authorities on the extinct Jurchen and Khitan languages and their scripts.

**Von Neumann regular ring**: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.

**Prelingual deafness**: A prelingual deaf individual is someone who was born with a hearing loss, or whose hearing loss occurred before they began to speak. Infants usually start saying their first words around one year.

**Andrew Dickson White**

**Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function**: The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), developed by Gerard Gioia, Ph.D.

**Language pedagogy**: Language education may take place as a general school subject, in a specialized language school, or out of school with a rich selection of proprietary methods online and in books, CDs and DVDs. There are many methods of teaching languages.

**Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status**: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status is a neuropsychological assessment initially introduced in 1998. It consists of ten subtests which give five scores, one for each of the five domains tested (immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, delayed memory).

**Timothy's Law**: Timothy's Law is the reference used for a New York state statute signed into law on December 22, 2006 by Governor George E. Pataki which took effect January 1, 2007.

**University of Missouri Health Care**: University of Missouri Health System is an academic health system located in Columbia, Missouri. It is owned by the University of Missouri System.

**Postoperative cognitive dysfunction**: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a short-term decline in cognitive function (especially in memory and executive functions) that may last from a few days to a few weeks after surgery. In rare cases, this disorder may persist for several months after major surgery.

**Matrix model**: == Mathematics and physics ==

**Twin reversed arterial perfusion**

**PSI Protein Classifier**: PSI Protein Classifier is a program generalizing the results of both successive and independent iterations of the PSI-BLAST program. PSI Protein Classifier determines belonging of the found by PSI-BLAST proteins to the known families.

**List of systems biology conferences**: Systems biology is a biological study field that focuses on the systematic study of complex interactions in biological systems, thus using a new perspective (integration instead of reduction) to study them. Particularly from year 2000 onwards, the term is used widely in the biosciences.

**The Flash Chronicles**

**Regularized canonical correlation analysis**: Regularized canonical correlation analysis is a way of using ridge regression to solve the singularity problem in the cross-covariance matrices of canonical correlation analysis. By converting \operatorname{cov}(X, X) and \operatorname{cov}(Y, Y) into \operatorname{cov}(X, X) + \lambda I_X and \operatorname{cov}(Y, Y) + \lambda I_Y, it ensures that the above matrices will have reliable inverses.

**Interval boundary element method**: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.

**Inverse probability weighting**: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.

**Nonlinear system**: In physics and other sciences, a nonlinear system, in contrast to a linear system, is a system which does not satisfy the superposition principle – meaning that the output of a nonlinear system is not directly proportional to the input.

**Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder**

**Clonal Selection Algorithm**: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.

**Mac OS X Server 1.0**

**Gary H. Posner**: Gary H. Posner (born c.

**Hypervigilance**: Hypervigilance is an enhanced state of sensory sensitivity accompanied by an exaggerated intensity of behaviors whose purpose is to detect threats. Hypervigilance is also accompanied by a state of increased anxiety which can cause exhaustion.

**Standard evaluation framework**

**Regression dilution**: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.

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**Hidden genetic variability within electromorphs in finite populations.**

The amount of hidden genetic variability within electromorphs in finite populations is studied by using the infinite site model and stepwise mutation model simultaneously. A formula is developed for the bivariate probability generating function for the number of codon differences and the number of electromorph state differences between two randomly chosen cistrons. Using this formula, the distribution as well as the mean and variance of the number of codon differences between two identical or nonidentical electromorphs are studied. The distribution of the number of codon differences between two randomly chosen identical electromorphs is similar to the geometric distribution but more leptokurtic. Studies are also made on the number of codon differences between two electromorphs chosen at random one from each of two populations which have been separated for an arbitrary number of generations. It is shown that the amount of hidden genetic variability is very large if the product of effective population size and mutation rate is large. (+info)

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**The Lewontin and Krakauer test on quantitative characters.**

It is shown that LEWONTIN and KRAKAUER's test could also be applied to quantitative characters that do not show important dominance and epistatic genetic variances. The design of experiments for this purpose and the error of the estimation of F are discussed. (+info)

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**Mapping of the homothallic genes, HM alpha and HMa, in Saccharomyces yeasts.**

Two of the three homothallic genes, HM alpha and HMa, showed direct linkage to the mating-type locus at approximately 73 and 98 strans (57 and 65 centimorgans [cM], respectively, whereas, the other, HO, showed no linkage to 25 standard markers distributed over 17 chromosomes including the mating-type locus. To determine whether the HM alpha and HMa loci located on the left or right side of the mating-type locus, equations for three factor analysis of three linked genes were derived. Tetrad data were collected and were compared with expected values by chi 2 statistics. Calculations indicated that the HM alpha gene is probably located on the right arm at 95 strans (65 cM) from the centromere and the HMa locus at approximately 90 strans (64 cM) on the left arm of chromosome III. (+info)

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**Somatic recording of GABAergic autoreceptor current in cerebellar stellate and basket cells.**

Patch-clamp recordings were performed from stellate and basket cells in rat cerebellar slices. Under somatic voltage clamp, short depolarizing pulses were applied to elicit action potentials in the axon. After the action potential, a bicuculline- and Cd2+-sensitive current transient was observed. A similar response was obtained when eliciting axonal firing by extracellular stimulation. With an isotonic internal Cl- solution, the peak amplitude of this current varied linearly with the holding potential, yielding an extrapolated reversal potential of -20 to 0 mV. Unlike synaptic or autaptic GABAergic currents obtained in the same preparation, the current transient had a slow rise-time and a low variability between trials. This current was blocked when 10 mM BAPTA was included in the recording solution. In some experiments, the current transient elicited axonal action potentials. The current transient was reliably observed in animals aged 12-15 d, with a mean amplitude of 82 pA at -70 mV, but was small and rare in the age group 29-49 d. Numerical simulations could account for all properties of the current transient by assuming that an action potential activates a distributed GABAergic conductance in the axon. The actual conductance is probably restricted to release sites, with an estimated mean presynaptic current response of 10 pA per site (-70 mV, age 12-15 d). We conclude that in developing rats, stellate and basket cell axons have a high density of GABAergic autoreceptors and that a sizable fraction of the corresponding current can be measured from the soma. (+info)

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**Transport of solutes through cartilage: permeability to large molecules.**

A review of the transport of solutes through articular cartilage is given, with special reference to the effect of variations in matrix composition. Some physiological implications of our findings are discussed. Also, results of an experimental study of the permeability of articular cartilage to large globular proteins are presented. Because of the very low partition coefficients of large solutes between cartilage and an external solution new experimental techniques had to be devised, particularly for the study of diffusion. The partition coefficients of solutes were found to decrease very steeply with increase in size, up to serum albumin. There was, however, no further decrease for IGG. The diffusion coefficient of serum albumin in cartilage was relatively high (one quarter of the value in aqueous solution). These two facts taken together suggest that there may be a very small fraction of relatively large pores in cartilage through which the transport of large molecules is taking place. The permeability of cartilage to large molecules is extremely sensitive to variations in the glycosaminoglycan content: for a threefold increase in the latter there is a hundredfold decrease in the partition coefficient. For cartilage of fixed charge density around 0-19 m-equiv/g, there is no penetration at all of globular proteins of size equal to or larger than serum albumin. (+info)

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**Teaching coin summation to the mentally retarded.**

A procedure to teach four mild and moderately retarded persons to sum the value of coin combinations was tested. Subjects were first taught to count a single target coin, and then to sum that coin in combination with coins previously trained. Five American coins and various combinations were trained. Modelling, modelling with subject participation, and independent counting by the subject constituted the training sequence. The subjects improved from a mean pretest score of 29% to 92% correct at posttest. A four-week followup score showed a mean of 79% correct. A multiple-baseline design suggested that improvement in coin-counting performance occurred only after the coin was trained. The results indicate that this procedure has potential for teaching the retarded to sum combinations of coinds in 5 to 6 hr of instruction. (+info)

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**The changing criterion design.**

This article describes and illustrates with two case studies a relatively novel form of the multiple-baseline design called the changing criterion design. It also presents the design's formal requirements, and suggests target behaviors and circumstances for which the design might be useful. (+info)

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**Regulation of AMP deaminase from chicken erythrocytes. A kinetic study of the allosteric interactions.**

The allosteric properties of AMP deaminase [EC 3.5.4.6] from chicken erythrocytes have been qualitatively and quantitatively accounted for by the concerted transition theory of Monod et al., on the assumption that this enzyme has different numbers of binding sites for each ligand. Theoretical curves yield a satisfactory fit for all experimental saturation functions with respect to activation by alkali metals and inhibition by Pi, assuming that the numbers of binding sites for AMP, alkali metals, and Pi are 4, 2, and 4, respectively. The enzyme was inhibited by concentrations of ATP and GTP below 0.1 and 0.25 mM, respectively, whereas activation of the enzyme was observed at ATP and GTP concentrations above 0.4 and 1.5 mM, respectively. These unusual kinetics with respect to ATP and GTP could be also accounted for by assuming 2 inhibitory and 4 activating sites for each ligand. (+info)

#### dyscalculia

- Ronit Bird's Dyscalculia Resource Book has been described as "a must-have for any school's mathematics and resource centre" . (dyscalculia.org.uk)

#### education

- Given the firm neurological evidence that childhood education in music, in mathematics, in language, and in pretty-much everything else, even in sports, leads to changes taking place in the actual physical structure of the brain, it strikes me as silly beyond words to imagine that our brains evolved to cope with conditions in the African savannah! (wordpress.com)