Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Neuroendocrinology: The study of the anatomical and functional relationships between the nervous system and the endocrine system.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Oxytocin: A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.Receptors, Oxytocin: Cell surface proteins that bind oxytocin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Oxytocin receptors in the uterus and the mammary glands mediate the hormone's stimulation of contraction and milk ejection. The presence of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in neurons of the brain probably reflects an additional role as a neurotransmitter.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Sucking Behavior: Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Paternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Animals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Preoptic Area: Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.Anxiety, Separation: Anxiety experienced by an individual upon separation from a person or object of particular significance to the individual.Chlordiazepoxide: An anxiolytic benzodiazepine derivative with anticonvulsant, sedative, and amnesic properties. It has also been used in the symptomatic treatment of alcohol withdrawal.Peripartum Period: The period shortly before, during, and immediately after giving birth.Maternal Deprivation: Prolonged separation of the offspring from the mother.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Septum of Brain: GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Infant Care: Care of infants in the home or institution.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Clozapine: A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Quinpirole: A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Amphetamines: Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.Periaqueductal Gray: Central gray matter surrounding the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT in the MESENCEPHALON. Physiologically it is probably involved in RAGE reactions, the LORDOSIS REFLEX; FEEDING responses, bladder tonus, and pain.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Survival: Continuance of life or existence especially under adverse conditions; includes methods and philosophy of survival.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Housing, AnimalCallithrix: A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Epilepsy, Absence: A childhood seizure disorder characterized by rhythmic electrical brain discharges of generalized onset. Clinical features include a sudden cessation of ongoing activity usually without loss of postural tone. Rhythmic blinking of the eyelids or lip smacking frequently accompanies the SEIZURES. The usual duration is 5-10 seconds, and multiple episodes may occur daily. Juvenile absence epilepsy is characterized by the juvenile onset of absence seizures and an increased incidence of myoclonus and tonic-clonic seizures. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p736)Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A: A serotonin receptor subtype found widely distributed in peripheral tissues where it mediates the contractile responses of variety of tissues that contain SMOOTH MUSCLE. Selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists include KETANSERIN. The 5-HT2A subtype is also located in BASAL GANGLIA and CEREBRAL CORTEX of the BRAIN where it mediates the effects of HALLUCINOGENS such as LSD.Receptors, Vasopressin: Specific molecular sites or proteins on or in cells to which VASOPRESSINS bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys. The V1 receptor can be subdivided into V1a and V1b (formerly V3) receptors.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Animals, LaboratoryReproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Serotonin Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate SEROTONIN RECEPTORS. Many serotonin receptor agonists are used as ANTIDEPRESSANTS; ANXIOLYTICS; and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.

*  Bisphenol-A exposure during pregnancy and lactation affects maternal behavior in rats.

Exposure of mothers to BPA modified their behavior, reducing specific components of maternal behavior, both active and passive ... could alter maternal behavior. An appropriate methodology was applied to reveal differences in the behavior of dams directed to ... Maternal Behavior / drug effects*. Phenols / pharmacology*. Pregnancy. Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects*. Rats. Rats, Sprague- ... This experiment shows that maternal behavior is affected by a prolonged exposure to a low dose of BPA during pregnancy and ...

*  Dimensions of maternal parenting and infants' autonomic functioning interactively predict early internalizing behavior problems

Internalizing Behaviors Internalizing behaviors were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; Achenbach & Rescorla, ... The role of maternal behavior in the relation between shyness and social reticence in early childhood and social withdrawal in ... The development of adolescents' internalizing behavior: longitudinal effects of maternal sensitivity and child inhibition. ... Childhood internalizing behaviors, including anxious and withdrawn behaviors, are thought to develop as a result of both ...

*  Maternal Antibodies from Mothers of Children with Autism Alter Brain Growth and Social Behavior Development in the Rhesus...

Maternal Antibodies from Mothers of Children with Autism Alter Brain Growth and Social Behavior Development in the Rhesus ...

*  Prepregnancy maternal overweight increases the risk of both early and late preterm delivery. - :

Mental Health and Behavior. 09/19/2017 Mental Health and Behavior Behavioral therapy increases connectivity in brains of people ... Maternal obesity is a growing public health problem worldwide. It is known that women with excess weight have a higher risk of ... Home Pregnancy and Childbirth Prepregnancy maternal overweight increases the risk of both early and late preterm delivery. ... The findings in this study support the hypothesis that high pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index increases the risk of ...

*  Births by Maternal Behaviors - 3-Year Aggregations - Datasets -

Births by Maternal Behaviors - 3-Year Aggregations. Data and Resources. * CSV Births by Maternal Behaviors - 3-Year ... Births by Maternal Behaviors - 3-Year Aggregations reports the 3-year average number and percentage of births in certain ... categories by maternal behavior characteristics (smoking status during pregnancy and initiation of prenatal care). ...

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Used - ethology and animal behavior Books, science and mathematics - Browse and buy books online at best price on, ... Mother Nature Maternal Instincts & How They Shape the Human Species. Sarah Blaffer Hrdy. $10.98 $22.00. ... Development & Evolution Of Behavior Essays in Memory of T C Schneirla. Lester R Aronson, Ethel Tobach. $2.95 $2.95. ... Exploring Animal Behavior Readings from American Scientist. Paul W Sherman. $6.95 $24.95. ...

*  Curriculum Design & Instruction To Teach The Story Of Zora Neale Hurston - Southern Storyteller

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*  Olfactory memory - Wikipedia

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Lévy, F., Keller, M., & Poindron, P. (2003) Olfactory regulation of maternal behavior in ... Hormones and Behavior 46: 284-302.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Porter, R.H., Winberg, J. (1997). Unique salience of ... The main olfactory system in sheep is quite significant in the developing appropriate maternal behaviors in sheep.[13] ... Olfactory cues from the baby lamb are important in establishing maternal behavior and bonding. After birth, the smell of ...

*  004361 - B6.129-Xrcc5|tm1Nus|/J

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*  Gender, Nature, and Nurture (ebook) by Richard A. Lippa | 9781135604257

new sections on non-hormonal direct genetic effects on sexual differentiation; hormones and maternal behavior; and on gender, ... new research on sex differences in personality, moral thought, coping styles, sexual and antisocial behavior, and psychological ... and social behaviors. The impact of nature and nurture on gender is examined from the perspectives of genetics, molecular ...

*  PRAMS prints :: State Publications II

PRAMS Prints No. 6 December 2012 The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is an ongoing, state specific, population-based surveillance system of maternal behaviors and experiences before, during and after pregnancy. Developed in 1987, PRAMS was designed to supplement vital records by providing state-specific data on maternal behaviors and experiences to be used for planning and assessing perinatal health programs. Currently conducted in 40 states and New York City, PRAMS collects data representative of 78 percent of U.S. births. N.C. PRAMS is a random, stratified, monthly mail/telephone survey of North Carolina women who recently delivered a live-born infant. Data collection began in North Carolina on July 1, 1997, providing us with six months of data for 1997. Since 1997, PRAMS data have been collected every year. Each month around 150 to 160 women are selected from ...

Charles Ottley Groom NapierSociety for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology: The Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology is an interdisciplinary scientific organization dedicated to the study of hormonal processes and neuroendocrine systems that regulate behavior.Dog aggression: Dog aggression is a term used by dog owners and breeders to describe canine-to-canine antipathy. Aggression itself is usually defined by canine behaviorists as "the intent to do harm".Oxytocin receptor: The oxytocin receptor, also known as OXTR, is a protein which functions as receptor for the hormone and neurotransmitter oxytocin. In humans, the oxytocin receptor is encoded by the OXTR gene which has been localized to human chromosome 3p25.L-371,257Nest (protein structural motif): The Nest is a type of protein structural motif. Peptide nests are small anion-binding molecular features of proteins and peptides.Male lactation: Male lactation in zoology means production of milk from mammary glands in the presence of physiological stimuli connected with nursing infants. It is well documented in the Dayak fruit bat.Genetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.Curiosity: Curiosity (from Latin curiosus "careful, diligent, curious," akin to cura "care") is a quality related to inquisitive thinking such as exploration, investigation, and learning, evident by observation in human and animal species. Curiosity is heavily associated with all aspects of human development, in which derives the process of learning and desire to acquire knowledge and skill.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Median preoptic nucleus: The median preoptic nucleus is located dorsal to the other three nuclei of the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is located just beneath the thalamus, the main sensory relay station of the nervous system, and is considered part of the limbic system, which also includes structures such as the hippocampus and the amygdala.Maternal bond: A maternal bond or motherly bond is generally the relationship between a mother and her child.NS-2710: NS-2710 (LS-193,970) is an anxiolytic drug with a novel chemical structure, developed by the small pharmaceutical company Neurosearch. It has similar effects to benzodiazepine drugs, but is structurally distinct and so is classed as a nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic.Peripartum cardiomyopathySexual motivation and hormones: Sexual motivation is influenced by hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin, and vasopressin. In most mammalian species, sex hormones control the ability to engage in sexual behaviours.Mothers TalkHaloperidolBehavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Desmethylclozapine: N-Desmethylclozapine (NDMC), or norclozapine, is a major active metabolite of the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine. Unlike clozapine, it possesses intrinsic activity at the D2/D3 receptors, and acts as a weak partial agonist at these sites similarly to aripiprazole and bifeprunox.Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.Prolactin cellNeonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale: The Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS),also known as the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale (BNAS),Kaplan, R. M.Hypervigilance: Hypervigilance is an enhanced state of sensory sensitivity accompanied by an exaggerated intensity of behaviors whose purpose is to detect threats. Hypervigilance is also accompanied by a state of increased anxiety which can cause exhaustion.Transactivation: In the context of gene regulation, transactivation is increased rate of gene expression triggered either by biological processes or by artificial means, through expressing an intermediate (transactivator) protein. In the context of receptor signaling, transactivation occurs when one or more receptors activates another; receptor transactivation may result from crosstalk of their signaling cascades.Another Grey Area: Another Grey Area is a 1982 album by Graham Parker and was released on the Arista Records label. It was produced by Jack Douglas and Graham Parker.Gestation crate: A gestation crate, also known as a sow stall, is a metal enclosure used in intensive pig farming, in which a female breeding pig (sow) may be kept during pregnancy and for most of her adult life.Wilson G.MarmosetProfessional DiscSong control system: A song system, also known as a song control system (SCS), is a series of discrete brain nuclei involved in the production and learning of song in songbirds. It was first observed by Fernando Nottebohm in 1976 in a paper titled "Central control of song in the canary, Serinus canarius", published in the Journal of Comparative Neurology.Childhood absence epilepsy: Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), also known as pyknolepsy, is an idiopathic generalized epilepsy which occurs in otherwise normal children. The age of onset is between 4–10 years with peak age between 5–7 years.RelcovaptanCollege of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand: The College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand was founded in 1964. It is a part of AAU, Anand, Gujarat, India.Circulation plan: A circulation plan is a schematic empirical projection/model of how pedestrians and/or vehicles flow through a given area, like, for example, a neighborhood or a Central Business District (CBD). Circulation plans are used by city planners and other officials to manage and monitor traffic and pedestrian patterns in such a way that they might discover how to make future improvements to the system.Reproductive toxicity: Reproductive toxicity is a hazard associated with some chemical substances, that they will interfere in some way with normal reproduction; such substances are called reprotoxic. It includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingCorticotropin-releasing hormone: Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) also known as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin is a peptide hormone and neurotransmitter involved in the stress response. It is a releasing hormone that belongs to corticotropin-releasing factor family.Synaptic gating: Synaptic gating is the ability of neural circuits to gate inputs by either suppressing or facilitating specific synaptic activity. Selective inhibition of certain synapses has been studied thoroughly (see Gate theory of pain), and recent studies have supported the existence of permissively gated synaptic transmission.Cocaine intoxicationWalker (BEAM): In BEAM robotics, a walker is a walking machine that has a driven mode of locomotion by intermittent ground-contacting legs. They usually possess 1 to 12 (generally, three or less) motors.Congenital estrogen deficiency: Congenital estrogen deficiency is a genetic condition by which the body is unable to produce or use estrogens.TalipexoleBirth weight: Birth weight is the body weight of a baby at its birth.Definitions from Georgia Department of Public Health.Dutch profanity: Dutch profanity can be divided into several categories. Often, the words used in profanity by speakers of Dutch are based around various names for diseases.Disinhibition: In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment. Disinhibition affects motor, instinctual, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual aspects with signs and symptoms similar to the diagnostic criteria for mania.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Serotonin receptor agonist: [serotonin receptor agonist is a compound that activates serotonin receptor]s, in a manner similar to [[serotonin.

(1/1163) Predicting developmental outcomes at school entry using a multiple-risk model: four American communities. The Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

The contributions of different risk factors in predicting children's psychological and academic outcomes at the end of 1st grade were examined. Using a regression model, levels of ecobehavioral risk were assessed in the following order: specific demographics, broad demographics, family psychosocial status, mother's depressive symptoms, and neighborhood quality. Participants were 337 families from 4 American communities. Predictor variables were assessed in kindergarten, and teacher, parent, and child outcomes (behavioral and academic) were assessed at the end of 1st grade. Results indicated that (a) each level of analysis contributed to prediction of most outcomes, (b) 18%-29% of the variance was predicted in outcomes, (c) a common set of predictors predicted numerous outcomes, (d) ethnicity showed little unique prediction, and (e) the quality of the neighborhood showed small but unique prediction to externalizing problems.  (+info)

(2/1163) Regulation of maternal behavior and offspring growth by paternally expressed Peg3.

Imprinted genes display parent-of-origin-dependent monoallelic expression that apparently regulates complex mammalian traits, including growth and behavior. The Peg3 gene is expressed in embryos and the adult brain from the paternal allele only. A mutation in the Peg3 gene resulted in growth retardation, as well as a striking impairment of maternal behavior that frequently resulted in death of the offspring. This result may be partly due to defective neuronal connectivity, as well as reduced oxytocin neurons in the hypothalamus, because mutant mothers were deficient in milk ejection. This study provides further insights on the evolution of epigenetic regulation of imprinted gene dosage in modulating mammalian growth and behavior.  (+info)

(3/1163) Preparing for the next round: convalescent care after acute infection.

Infections pose a nutritional stress on the growing child. No therapeutic goal is as important as the rapid recovery of preillness weight after acute infections. Successful convalescence, with supernormal growth rates, can be achieved with relatively brief periods of intensive refeeding, offsetting any tendency toward reduced immune defenses or other nutritionally determined susceptibilities to further infection. Since the mother is the only person who can effectively manage convalescent care, she must be given specific tasks with measurable targets in order to reliably oversee the child's rehabilitation. Not generally considered in the realm of preventive medicine, effective home-based convalencent care is the first crucial step in preventing the next round of illness. An approach to the widespread mobilization of mothers to monitor and sustain their children's growth is proposed in this paper. Rather than a passive recipient of health services, the mother becomes the basic health worker, providing diagnostic and therapeutic primary care for her child. Only the mother can break the malnutrition-infection cycle.  (+info)

(4/1163) Interaction of late pregnancy and lactation in rats.

The effect of pregnancy on lactation was studied during the third week of lactational pregnancy in postpartum pregnant rats with a delay in implantation of only 1 day (1d-LP rats). In an experimental design in which the suckling litter was prevented from consuming solid food, lactational performance was estimated by weighing the ten-pup suckling litters on days 16-21 of lactation or by measuring maternal weight loss after a nursing spell on day 21. In 1d-LP rats, food consumption as well as lactational performance was lower than it was in nonpregnant lactating rats (L rats) and pregnant-lactating rats with a normal long delay of implantation of at least 6 days (LP rats). The time spent by the pups sucking at the nipples was not different among the three groups, but the number of milk ejections was diminished in 1d-LP dams. Restriction of daily food supply during days 16 to 21 of lactation diminished lactational performance more strongly in 1d-LP rats than it did in L rats; 1d-LP rats conserved protein stores and mobilized fewer minerals than did L rats. The weight and composition of the litter in vitro were not affected by the food restriction. In pregnant-lactating rats (LP and 1d-LP rats), the number of early resorptions was increased in comparison with pregnant rats, showing that lactation can affect the earlier stages of pregnancy. It was concluded that late pregnancy does not affect nursing behaviour, but suppresses lactation by restricting maternal food intake and mobilization of maternal stores. Measurements in serum indicate a causative role for oestradiol, but not for leptin.  (+info)

(5/1163) Second generation effects of maternal ethanol consumption on immunity to Trichinella spiralis in female rats.

The deleterious effects of maternal ethanol consumption on neonatal immune development and early immune responses has been well documented. However, the effects of such neonatal exposure to maternally consumed ethanol on the neonates' immune responses in their adult life, especially in combination with additional ethanol exposure, has received little attention. For these experiments, female rats were fed on either 6% ethanol or pair-fed isocaloric control Lieber-DeCarli liquid diets for 30 days prior to, and during, pregnancy and lactation. One day after weaning their pups, the mothers were infected with 1000 Trichinella spiralis larvae, and maintained on diets for an additional 20 days. At this time, they were challenged with 2000 T. spiralis larvae, killed 3 days later, and their immune status determined. These animals served as the first generation alcohol animals. Their female offspring served as the experimental second generation animals. These animals received maternal ethanol during pregnancy and lactation and control diet during their juvenile period (from weaning to 90 days of age). They were then subjected to a schedule of ethanol or pairfeeding, identical to the first generation dams. Two groups of second generation animals were established: Group 1 was exposed to ethanol during their dam's pregnancy and lactation periods only, with no subsequent ethanol treatment; Group 2 received ethanol during their dam's pregnancy and lactation periods and then again throughout their adult experimental period. Our previous studies showed only minimal changes following a secondary challenge in T. spiralis-immunized rats; however, neonates born to alcohol-consuming mothers did show some depressed secondary immune responses when challenged soon after weaning. We chose to use a secondary immune challenge to assess further immune alterations in second generation adult animals. No differences between any of the ethanol and pair-fed groups were observed in intestinal worm burdens, which is similar to data previously reported for adult alcohol-consuming animals. However, second generation group 2 animals demonstrated significantly reduced proliferation responses to T. spiralis antigen and Concanavalin A (Con A) stimulation relative to the ethanol first generation and to the second generation Group 1 animals. This group also demonstrated significantly lower absorbencies in the ELISA assay for specific IgM and IgG anti-T. spiralis antibodies than the pair-fed, ethanol first and second generation Group 1 animals. The proportion of total T cells and cytotoxic T cells was significantly lower and the proportion of natural killer cells was elevated in both second generation ethanol Groups 1 and 2 relative to the ethanol first generation and pair-fed groups. In addition, Group 2 second generation animals showed significantly lower proportions of total leukocytes and T cells than Group 1 second generation animals. Although secondary immune responses to T. spiralis infection were not altered in rats exposed to ethanol only as adults, exposure to maternal ethanol does affect some specific immune responses in second generation adult life and maternal exposure may exert cumulative immune effects in concert with later consumption of ethanol by offspring born to alcoholic mothers.  (+info)

(6/1163) Maternal effort and male quality in the bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus.

Parental investment in reproduction is adjusted according to potential benefits in terms of offspring survival and/or mating success. If male quality affects the reproductive success of a female, then females mating with high-quality males should invest more in reproduction. Although the subject has been of general interest, further experimental verification of the hypothesis is needed. We studied whether female bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) adjusted their maternal effort according to male quality, measured as mating success. To enable the measurement of maternal effort during nursing separately from male genetic effects the litters were cross-fostered. Further, the genetic background of male quality was examined. Male quality did not correlate with litter size or offspring size at birth. Offspring growth was positively related to food consumption and milk production of mothers. However, these direct measurements of maternal effort were independent of male quality. Male mating success appeared to be significantly heritable indicating that there are genetic benefits. Still, females did not adjust maternal effort according to the genetic quality of their offspring. We suggest that female bank voles gain significant genetic benefits from mating with high-quality males whereas they cannot improve their reproductive success by increasing maternal effort.  (+info)

(7/1163) Butorphanol tartrate acts to decrease sow activity, which could lead to reduced pig crushing.

The objective of this study was to determine whether administration of an analgesic to sows immediately after farrowing would allow them to lie more restfully. Sows lying on their pigs, causing them to be "crushed," is a major cause of pig mortality. Most deaths due to crushing occur during the first 3 d postpartum. For modern, lean-type sows, farrowing crates are relatively hard and unforgiving, even though they may be equipped with plastic-coated, expanded metal flooring. Indeed, many sows develop pressure sores on their shoulders, and this may contribute to the sows' discomfort. These sores may cause a sow to change position frequently to alleviate pain, thus increasing its chances of crushing pigs. Sixteen production sows were assigned to either a control group (C, n = 8) with litter size 11.71+/-.78 or an experimental group (B, n = 8) with litter size 11.63+/-1.22. Pigs born to C and B sows weighed 1.60+/-.04 and 1.37+/-.04 kg, respectively. The C sows were given no treatment, whereas the B sows were administered an i.m. injection of butorphanol tartrate at a dose of .15 mg/kg BW every 6 h until 3 d after farrowing. Data were collected on all sows using time-lapse photography (1 frame/.4 s) for a 3-d duration upon the initiation of farrowing. To assess the degree of comfort of each sow, body position changes were recorded when sows switched between lying, sitting, and standing. Data were analyzed by 12-h periods using Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney equations. During the 72-h period, B sows tended to perform fewer position changes than C sows (P = .10). Specifically, position changes were fewer for B sows from 48 to 72 h postpartum (P<.06). There were no differences in position changes between treatments from 0 to 48 h postpartum (P>.50). There was no difference in the rate of crushing between treatments (C = 5, B = 5). The butorphanol did not seem to affect pig activity or normal behaviors or to create adverse effects, such as diarrhea. Although the sows given butorphanol showed a reduced number of position changes, the dose was intermediate, and a higher dose may have a greater effect. If pig mortality can be decreased, an analgesic protocol that is simple to administer and readily available to producers can be developed. Alternatively, using of more pliable flooring or an increase in sow body fat may allow sows to lie more stationary.  (+info)

(8/1163) Danger to pigs due to crushing can be reduced by the use of a simulated udder.

Sows that lie on their young, pig "crushing", is a significant cause of pig mortality in current production systems. Although mortality rates of pigs in farrowing crates are lower than mortality rates of pigs in pens, loss due to crushing is still estimated to be between 4.8 and 18%. During the first few days after parturition, pigs are highly attracted to the odor of their dam's udder. Thus, our research was designed to move the pigs away from the sow by competing with the sow's udder using a "simulated" udder. Fifteen Yorkshire x Landrace sows and their litters (11.4+/-.78 pigs) were assigned to either a control (C, n = 9) or an experimental group (SU, n = 6). The C pigs had access to a heat lamp, whereas the SU pigs' crate had a simulated udder. Data were collected using time-lapse photography (1 frame/.4 s) for a 3-d duration at the initiation of farrowing. When a sow stood, data were recorded by 1-min scan samples to record the number of pigs using either the heat lamp or the simulated udder. In addition, stillborn pigs, pig crushing, and death by other means also were recorded. Data were analyzed by 12-h periods using generalized estimating equations. Results indicate that from 12 to 72 h postpartum, excluding 24 to 36 h postpartum, the estimated probability that pigs were in a safe area (simulated udder or heat lamp) was .89 for SU pigs, compared with only .72 for C pigs (P = .005). During the 24- to 36-h period, it was more probable to find pigs on a simulated udder (.77) than under only a heat lamp (.61, P = .016). Stillborn pigs, pig crushing, and death by other means were not different between treatments (mean = .87, .60, 1.2; P>.20). The simulated udder drew pigs away from the sow's udder better than heat lamps alone. Considering these findings, mortality of pigs due to crushing may be decreased substantially using a simulated udder. These results are promising, but further refinement should be done, including improved udder design and investigation of the attractiveness of various stimuli.  (+info)

Sexual Behavior

  • Early exposure to a low dose of bisphenol A affects socio-sexual behavior of juvenile female rats. (


  • 0.040 mg/kg/die, orally) of adult female rats, from mating to weaning of the pups, could alter maternal behavior. (
  • An appropriate methodology was applied to reveal differences in the behavior of dams directed to male and female pups, testing the dams on postnatal days 3-4 and 8-9. (
  • Results show different maternal behavioral patterns towards male and female pups of control mothers, with more ano-genital licking to males than to females. (
  • Exposure of mothers to BPA modified their behavior, reducing specific components of maternal behavior, both active and passive, irrespective of the sex of pups and the period of observation. (
  • This paper examines the effect of maternal ganglionectomy (pineal gland sympathetic denervation) or extirpation of the pineal gland on pups' drinking rhythms, a behavior that is continuously monitored in individual animals starting after weaning and studied up to 3 weeks later. (
  • Maternal ganglionectomy or pinealectomy performed on the 7th day of gestation significantly disrupts rat pups' drinking behavior, within and among litters. (
  • These observations, together with previous studies of our group, indicate that the maternal superior cervical ganglia and pineal gland are necessary components of the mechanism for maternal synchronization, and that maternal melatonin may, directly or indirectly, affect the performance of the pups' central oscillator during early pup rat development. (


  • The findings in this study support the hypothesis that high pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index increases the risk of preterm delivery says Dr. Morken, one of the authors of the study. (


  • Bisphenol-A exposure during pregnancy and lactation affects maternal behavior in rats. (
  • In rats, the estrogenic environment during pregnancy and lactation affects directly maternal behavior. (
  • This experiment shows that maternal behavior is affected by a prolonged exposure to a low dose of BPA during pregnancy and lactation, thus suggesting an effect on neural circuits in adulthood. (
  • According to Dr. Morken the results showed that pre-pregnancy maternal overweight was associated with increased risk of both early and late preterm delivery. (
  • Births by Maternal Behaviors - 3-Year Aggregations reports the 3-year average number and percentage of births in certain categories by maternal behavior characteristics (smoking status during pregnancy and initiation of prenatal care). (


  • When melatonin was given to the mothers instead of the endogenous pineal secretory activity for 5 days during the late period of gestation, this treatment reversed the effects of maternal ganglionectomy and pinealectomy. (


  • Interestingly, RSA was not found to moderate the associations between parenting in infancy and later internalizing behavior problems suggesting that, during infancy, overall autonomic functioning may have greater implications for the development of internalizing behaviors than do parasympathetic influences alone. (
  • The second objective is to provide researchers with relevant information in order to understand and explain the development of health attitudes and behaviors through early adolescence. (


  • It is known that women with excess weight have a higher risk of several adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes that include preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, cesarean section delivery, and fetal death. (


  • thus, the nurture aspect of the nature/nurture interaction makes essential contributions to our body and behaviors. (


  • With the exception of the alpha component, both maternal treatments have similar effects. (


  • The authors use data from a prospective longitudinal study (n = 206) to examine the associations between dimensions of caregiving experiences in the first year of life and anxious/depressed and withdrawn behaviors in early childhood. (
  • Prepregnancy maternal overweight increases the risk of both early and late preterm delivery. (


  • These studies, generally known as Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC), are based on independent national surveys of school-aged children in as many as 30 participating countries. (


  • Findings suggest that higher levels of maternal sensitivity in infancy are associated with fewer anxious/depressed and withdrawn behaviors at age 3 years. (


  • Other topics include questions about the person's health and other health behaviors. (


  • Since 1982, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe has sponsored a cross-national, school-based study of health-related attitudes and behaviors of young people. (


  • Maternal breast odors are individually distinctive, and provide a basis for recognition of the mother by her offspring. (
  • The first objective is to monitor health-risk behaviors and attitudes in youth over time to provide background data and to identify targets for health promotion initiatives. (


  • Developmental pathways to childhood internalizing behavior problems are complex, with both environmental and child-level factors contributing to their emergence. (