Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Social Marketing: Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Persuasive Communication: A mode of communication concerned with inducing or urging the adoption of certain beliefs, theories, or lines of action by others.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Product Packaging: Form in which product is processed or wrapped and labeled. PRODUCT LABELING is also available.Public Relations: Relations of an individual, association, organization, hospital, or corporation with the publics which it must take into consideration in carrying out its functions. Publics may include consumers, patients, pressure groups, departments, etc.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Whistleblowing: The reporting of observed or suspected PROFESSIONAL MISCONDUCT or incompetence to appropriate authorities or to the public.Product Surveillance, Postmarketing: Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Product Line Management: Management control systems for structuring health care delivery strategies around case types, as in DRGs, or specific clinical services.Deception: The act of deceiving or the fact of being deceived.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.United StatesRadio: The transmission and reception of electric impulses or signals by means of electric waves without a connecting wire, or the use of these waves for the wireless transmission of electric impulses into which sound is converted. (From Webster's 3d)Cartoons as Topic: Images used to comment on such things as contemporary events, social habits, or political trends; usually executed in a broad or abbreviated manner.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Alcoholic Beverages: Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Off-Label Use: The practice of prescribing or using a drug outside the scope of the drug's official approved label as designated by a regulatory agency concerning the treatment of a particular disease or condition.Psychology, Social: The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.Organizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Tobacco, Smokeless: Powdered or cut pieces of leaves of NICOTIANA TABACUM which are inhaled through the nose, chewed, or stored in cheek pouches. It includes any product of tobacco that is not smoked.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Menthol: An alcohol produced from mint oils or prepared synthetically.Conflict of Interest: A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Medical Tourism: Travel to another country for the purpose of medical treatment.Financial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Product Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Ethics, Business: The moral obligations governing the conduct of commercial or industrial enterprises.Candy: Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.Consumer Product SafetyHealth Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Policy: A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.Orphan Drug Production: Production of drugs or biologicals which are unlikely to be manufactured by private industry unless special incentives are provided by others.Harm Reduction: The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Financial Audit: An examination, review and verification of all financial accounts.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Public-Private Sector Partnerships: An organizational enterprise between a public sector agency, federal, state or local, and a private sector entity. Skills and assets of each sector are shared to deliver a service or facility for the benefit or use of the general public.Abattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.Tobacco Products: Substances and products derived from NICOTIANA TABACUM.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Reproductive Medicine: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)Lobbying: A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Consumer Health Information: Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems: Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.Documentation: Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Communications Media: The means of interchanging or transmitting and receiving information. Historically the media were written: books, journals, newspapers, and other publications; in the modern age the media include, in addition, radio, television, computers, and information networks.Institutional Practice: Professional practice as an employee or contractee of a health care institution.Planning Techniques: Procedures, strategies, and theories of planning.Community Networks: Organizations and individuals cooperating together toward a common goal at the local or grassroots level.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Financial Management: The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Library Surveys: Collection and analysis of data pertaining to operations of a particular library, library system, or group of independent libraries, with recommendations for improvement and/or ordered plans for further development.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Purchasing, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the purchasing of supplies and equipment.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Behavioral Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the study of human and animal behavior.Library Services: Services offered to the library user. They include reference and circulation.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Pharmaceutical Services, Online: Pharmacy services accessed via electronic means.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.VermontInternationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Computers, Mainframe: Large computers in both size and capacity.Meat-Packing Industry: The aggregate enterprise of technically producing packaged meat.CaliforniaOrganizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Management Audit: Management review designed to evaluate efficiency and to identify areas in need of management improvement within the institution in order to ensure effectiveness in meeting organizational goals.Hospital Administrators: Managerial personnel responsible for implementing policy and directing the activities of hospitals.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Tars: Viscous materials composed of complex, high-molecular-weight compounds derived from the distillation of petroleum or the destructive distillation of wood or coal. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pharmacovigilance: The detection of long and short term side effects of conventional and traditional medicines through research, data mining, monitoring, and evaluation of healthcare information obtained from healthcare providers and patients.Organization and Administration: The planning and managing of programs, services, and resources.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Correspondence as Topic: Communication between persons or between institutions or organizations by an exchange of letters. Its use in indexing and cataloging will generally figure in historical and biographical material.Gift Giving: The bestowing of tangible or intangible benefits, voluntarily and usually without expectation of anything in return. However, gift giving may be motivated by feelings of ALTRUISM or gratitude, by a sense of obligation, or by the hope of receiving something in return.Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Practice Management, Medical: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a physician's practice.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.EuropeTobacco Use Cessation: Ending the TOBACCO habits of smoking, chewing, or snuff use.

*  2016 Global and Chinese Calcium Chlorate (CAS 10137-74-3) Industry Market Research Report - RnR Market Research

10.3 Marketing Channels. 10.4 Feasibility Studies of New Project Investment. Chapter Eleven Research Conclusions of Global and ...
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*  Global Immunoglobulin Products Market Research Report 2016 - RnR Market Research

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*  2016 Global and Chinese 7-Tridecanone (CAS 462-18-0) Industry Market Research Report - RnR Market Research

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*  2016 Global and Chinese 1,3-Dibromo-2-Propanol (CAS 96-21-9) Industry Market Research Report - RnR Market Research

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*  2016 Global and Chinese 2-Amino-1-butanol (CAS 96-20-8) Industry Market Research Report - RnR Market Research

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*  2016 Global and Chinese Lacosamide (CAS 175481-36-4) Industry Market Research Report - RnR Market Research

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*  Global Ene Oxime Alcohol Fungicide Market Research Report 2016 - RnR Market Research

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*  Global Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists Market Research Report 2016 - RnR Market Research

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*  Marketing - Wikipedia

"Marketing as Exchange."Journal of Marketing 39.4 (1975): 32-39.. *^ "Definition of Marketing". American marketing Association. ... Marketing Planning[edit]. The area of marketing planning involves forging a plan for a firm's marketing activities. A marketing ... Marketing and marketing concepts are directly related.. Marketing orientations[edit]. An orientation, in the marketing context ... 9 Marketing Planning *9.1 Marketing Planning Process. *9.2 Levels of marketing objectives within an organization *9.2.1 ...
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*  Brand Marketing

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*  Dole Marketing Plan

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Health marketing: Health marketing is a new approach to public health that applies traditional marketing principles and theories alongside science-based strategies to prevention, health promotion and health protection. Health marketing is one of the ways through which advancements in medicine and in health-protecting services like insurance are made widely known.Social marketing: Social marketing seeks to develop and integrate marketing concepts with other approaches to influence behaviors that benefit individuals and communities for the greater social good. It seeks to integrate research, best practice, theory, audience and partnership insight, to inform the delivery of competition sensitive and segmented social change programs that are effective, efficient, equitable and sustainable.Poundage quota: A poundage quota, also called a marketing quota, is a quantitative limit on the amount of a commodity that can be marketed under the provisions of a permanent law. Once a common feature of price support programs, this supply control mechanism ended with the quota buyouts for peanuts in 2002 and tobacco in 2004.Advertising Standards Canada: Advertising Standards Canada (ASC) is the advertising industry's non-profit self-regulating body created in 1957 to ensure the integrity and viability of advertising in Canada. The organization includes over 160 advertisers, advertising agencies, media organizations, and suppliers to the advertising sector.List of tobacco-related topics: Nicotiana is the genus of herbs and shrubs which is cultivated to produce tobacco products.Castleberry's Food Company: Castleberry's Food Company was an Augusta, Georgia-based canned food company founded in the 1920s by Clement Stewart Castleberry with the help of his father Clement Lamar Castleberry and closed permanently in March 2008 by the United States Food and Drug Administration.Persuasions of the Witch's Craft: Persuasion's of the Witches' Craft: Ritual Magic in Contemporary England is a study of several Wiccan and ceremonial magic groups that assembled in southern England during the 1980s. It was written by the American anthropologist Tanya M.Pharmaceutical manufacturing: Drug manufacturing is the process of industrial-scale synthesis of pharmaceutical drugs by pharmaceutical companies. The process of drug manufacturing can be broken down into a series of unit operations, such as milling, granulation, coating, tablet pressing, and others.Australian referendum, 1913 (Trade and Commerce): The Constitution Alteration (Trade and Commerce) 1912 was an Australian referendum held in the 1913 referendums which sought to alter the Australian Constitution to extend Commonwealth legislative power in respect to trade and commerce.Marketing authorization: Process of reviewing and assessing the dossier to support a medicinal product in view of its marketing (also called licensing, registration, approval, etc.), finalized by granting of a document also called marketing authorization (MA) (equivalent: product license).Mass media impact on spatial perception: Mass media influences spatial perception through journalistic cartography and spatial bias in news coverage.Premiere Stages: Premiere Stages is a professional equity theater company in residence at Kean University. Their primary goals are the development of new plays and the theatrical education of local youth.Jane Stewart (executive): Anna Jane Stewart (July 2, 1917 – September 7, 1990), also called Jane Stewart Mapes in the press, was an American public relations executive.Horsley, J.IontocaineLifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Rainer Moormann: Rainer Moormann (born 1950) is a German chemist and nuclear whistleblower. He grew up in Osnabrück.Postmarketing surveillance: Postmarketing surveillance (PMS) (also post market surveillance) is the practice of monitoring the safety of a pharmaceutical drug or medical device after it has been released on the market and is an important part of the science of pharmacovigilance. Since drugs are approved on the basis of clinical trials, which involve relatively small numbers of people who have been selected for this purpose - meaning that they normally do not have other medical conditions which may exist in the general population - postmarketing surveillance can further refine, or confirm or deny, the safety of a drug after it is used in the general population by large numbers of people who have a wide variety of medical conditions.Dion Fortune: Dion Fortune born Violet Mary Firth (6 December 1890 – 8 January 1946), was a prominent British occultist, author, psychologist, teacher, artist, and mystic.Richardson, Alan; "The Magical Life of Dion Fortune", Aquarian Press, 1987, ISBN 1-85538-051-X, p 26.The Other Side of Deception: The Other Side of Deception is a follow-up book to By Way of Deception by Victor Ostrovsky, a former Mossad agent with operational knowledge, plus a bibliography of newspaper articles in support of original book.Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness Response ActList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,List of FM radio stations in Bangalore: There are 14 radio stations in Bangalore.List of Warner Bros. cartoons with Blue Ribbon reissuesBlended malt whisky: A blended malt, formerly called a vatted malt, or pure malt, is a blend of different single malt whiskies from different distilleries. These terms are most commonly used in reference to Scotch whisky, or whisky in that style, such as Japanese whisky.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Off-label use: Off-label use is the use of pharmaceutical drugs for an unapproved indication or in an unapproved age group, dosage, or route of administration. Both prescription drugs and over-the-counter drugs (OTCs) can be used in off-label ways, although most studies of off-label use focus on prescription drugs.List of social psychology theoriesFriendship (NGO): Friendship is a French - Bangladeshi non-governmental organization that works with poor and marginalized communities in Bangladesh in remote chars and riverbanks in the North, poorer areas in Northeast, cyclone-prone areas in the South and most recently the hard-to-reach indigenous communities in the coastal belt of the country. It was established in Bangladesh in 2002 to provide basic services to the highly suffering inaccessible areas from climate changes impact.Banquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.Herbal smokeless tobaccoEuropean Union climate and energy package: The European plan on climate change consists of a range of measures adopted by the members of the European Union to fight against climate change. The plan was launched in March 2007, and after months of tough negotiations between the member countries, it was adopted by the European Parliament on December 2008.Menthol cigarette: A menthol cigarette is a cigarette flavored with the compound menthol, a substance which triggers the cold-sensitive nerves in the skin without actually providing a drop in temperature.Emergency (UK television programme): Emergency was a twentieth century UK television programme presented by Sue Robbie where a panel of experts gave advice on emergency situations. The programme was produced by David Crossman, and was an Action Time production for This Morning and Granada Television.Pavement life-cycle cost analysis: In September 1998, the United States Department of Transportation (DoT) introduced risk analysis, a probabilistic approach to account for the uncertainty of the inputs of the cost/benefit evaluation of pavement projects, into its decision-making policies. The traditional (deterministic) approach did not consider the variability of inputs.Standard evaluation frameworkTourism in Eritrea: Tourism in Eritrea made up 2% of Eritrea's economy up to 1997. After 1998, revenues from tourism fell to one quarter of 1997 levels.College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand: The College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand was founded in 1964. It is a part of AAU, Anand, Gujarat, India.Cigarette packets in Australia: Cigarette packets in Australia have undergone significant change. Since 1 December 2012 all forms of branding logos, colours, and promotional texts are banned from cigarette pack designs.Beef aging: Beef aging is a process of preparing beef for consumption, mainly by breaking down the connective tissue.British American Railway Services: British American Railway Services (BARS) is a British locomotive and spot hire company. It is ultimately owned by Iowa Pacific Holdings.Candy: Candy, also called sweets or lollies, is a confection that features sugar as a principal ingredient. The category, called sugar confectionery, encompasses any sweet confection, including chocolate, chewing gum, and sugar candy.List of Drug Enforcement Administration operations: The following is a list of major operations undertaken by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration, in reverse chronological order.Consumer Product Safety Act: The Consumer Product Safety Act (CPSA) was enacted in 1972 by the United States Congress. The act established the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) as an independent agency of the United States federal government and defined its basic authority.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Pious fraud: Pious fraud (Latin: pia fraus) is used to describe fraud in religion or medicine. A pious fraud can be counterfeiting a miracle or falsely attributing a sacred text to a biblical figure due to the belief that the "end justifies the means", in this case the end of increasing faith by whatever means available.TOL101: TOL101, is a murine-monoclonal antibody specific for the human αβ T cell receptor. In 2010 it was an Investigational New Drug under development by Tolera Therapeutics, Inc.Tobacco harm reduction: Tobacco harm reduction (THR) is a public health strategy to lower the health risks associated with using nicotine, as an example of the concept of harm reduction, a strategy for dealing with the abuse of other drugs. Smoking tobacco is widely acknowledged as a leading cause of illness and death.List of pharmaceutical compound number prefixes: This list of pharmaceutical compound number prefixes details a pharmaceutical drug labeling standard. Pharmaceutical companies produce a large number of compounds, which cannot all be given names.Shareholder rebellion: Shareholder rebellion occurs when the owners of a corporation work to throw out management or oppose their decisions. Shareholder rebellion may occur at a corporate annual meeting or through a proxy battle.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.White meat: White meat or light meat refers to the lighter-colored meat of poultry as contrasted with dark meat. In a more general sense, white meat may also refer to any lighter-colored meat, as contrasted with red meats like beef and some types of game.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Self-heating food packaging: Self-heating food packaging (SHFP) is active packaging with the ability to heat food contents without external heat sources or power. Packets typically use an exothermic chemical reaction.Public-Private Investment Program for Legacy Assets: On March 23, 2009, the United States Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), the Federal Reserve, and the United States Treasury Department announced the Public-Private Investment Program for Legacy Assets. The program is designed to provide liquidity for so-called "toxic assets" on the balance sheets of financial institutions.Jet aeratorsPublic opinion on nuclear issues: Public opinion on nuclear issues is the aggregate of attitudes or beliefs held by the adult population concerning nuclear power, nuclear weapons and uranium mining.Treaty of the Bogue: The Treaty of the Bogue () was an unequal treaty between China and the United Kingdom, concluded in October 1843 to supplement the previous Treaty of Nanking. The treaty's key provisions granted extraterritoriality and most favored nation status to Britain.Timeline of agriculture and food technology: ==Paleolithic==Insecticide: An insecticide is a substance used to kill insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively.Master StrokeVaccine Adverse Event Reporting System: The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) is a United States program for vaccine safety, co-managed by the U.S.Point of care: Clinical point of care is when clinicians deliver healthcare products and services to patients at the time of care.Information at the Point of Care: Answering Clinical Questions.Nicotiana glauca: Nicotiana glauca is a species of wild tobacco known by the common name tree tobacco. Its leaves are attached to the stalk by petioles (many other Nicotiana species have sessile leaves), and its leaves and stems are neither [nor sticky like Nicotiana tabacum].Canadian Organ Replacement Registry: The Canadian Organ Replacement Registry CORR is a health organisation was started by Canadian nephrologists and kidney transplant surgeons in 1985 in order to develop the care of patients with renal failure. In the early 1990s data on liver and heart transplantation were added to the registry.Health claims on food labels: Health claims on food labels are claims by manufacturers of food products that their food will reduce the risk of developing a disease or condition. For example, it is claimed by the manufacturers of oat cereals that oat bran can reduce cholesterol, which will lower the chances of developing serious heart conditions.Idiosyncratic drug reactionStatute Law (Repeals) Act 1993: The Statute Law (Repeals) Act 1993 (c 50) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.State health agency: A state health agency (SHA), or state department of health, is a department or agency of the state governments of the United States focused on public health. The state secretary of health is a constitutional or at times a statutory official in several states of the United States.California Proposition 29 (2012): Proposition 29, the California Cancer Research Act, is a California ballot measure that was defeated by California voters at the statewide election on June 5, 2012.Pacific ElectricBrendan Gahan: Brendan Gahan is an American social media marketer, public speaker, and YouTube marketing expert. He is the former Director of Social Media for the creative agency Mekanism where he was responsible for creating viral campaigns for clients including Pepsi, Virgin Mobile, Axe, and 20th Century Fox.Noreen M. Clark: Noreen M. Clark was the Myron E.

(1/461) Targeting of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders by the tobacco industry: results from the Minnesota Tobacco Document Depository.

OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to review internal tobacco industry documents written between 1985 and 1995 regarding the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) population in the USA. These documents detail opportunities and barriers to promotion of tobacco products, as viewed by the tobacco industry and its market research firms. DATA SOURCES: /methods: Researchers reviewed tobacco industry documents from the document depository in Minneapolis, Minnesota and the tobacco industry's website, The Tobacco Archive, in a systematic fashion. A combined technique was employed using title keywords, dates, and names to search the 4(b) index. FINDINGS: A review of internal tobacco company documents reveal that during the late 1980s, the industry and its market research firms recognised the importance of the AAPI community as a potential business market. Documents describe the population growth in this community, the high prevalence of smoking in countries of origin, high purchasing power of AAPI immigrants, cultural predisposition to smoking, opportunities afforded by the high proportion of retail businesses under AAPI ownership, barriers to developing the AAPI market, comprehensive campaigns, and political and lobbying efforts. Comprehensive campaigns were designed to integrate promotion efforts in AAPI consumer, retail, and business communities. CONCLUSIONS: The documents show that the tobacco industry developed specific promotion strategies to target the AAPI population. Tobacco control initiatives in the AAPI group have been slower to develop than in other targeted ethnic groups, and may benefit by increased awareness of industry methods to promote tobacco use.  (+info)

(2/461) Influence of commercial information on prescription quantity in primary care.

BACKGROUND: In the last few years we have witnessed many publicly-financed health services reaching a crisis point. Thus, drug expenditure is nowadays one of the main concerns of health managers, and its containment one of the first goals of health authorities in western countries. The objective of this study is to identify the effect of the perceived quality stated in commercial information, its uses, and how physicians perceive the influence it has on prescription amounts. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 405 primary care physicians was conducted in Galicia (north-west Spain). The independent variables physician's education and speciality, physician's perception of the quality of available drug information sources, type of practice, and number of patients were collected, through a postal questionnaire. Environmental characteristics of the practice were obtained from secondary sources. Multiple regression models were constructed using as dependent variables two indicators of prescription volume. RESULTS: The response rate was 75.2%. Prescription amounts was found to be associated with perceived credibility of information provided by medical visitors, regulated physician training, and environmental characteristics of the practice (primary care team practice, urban environment). CONCLUSIONS: The study results suggest that in order to decrease prescription amounts it is necessary to limit the role of pharmaceutical companies in physician training, improve physician education and training, and emphasize more objective sources of information.  (+info)

(3/461) Review article: gastroenterology and the pharmaceutical industry.

Physicians' relationships with industry derive from the moral imperative to advocate and work for the best interests of patients. Private industry generally operates to satisfy the best interests of the stockholders or owners. Conflicts arise between these interests and are magnified by the inequality of the financial positions of physicians and industry. Because the ultimate consumer of the products (drugs, medical devices, etc.) of the biomedical industry must enlist a physician as an intermediary, the physician has become the target of industry in a sophisticated marketing effort that includes the offering of financial and other incentives. These conflicts and incentives are pervasive throughout clinical and research endeavors. Standards for resolution, if not elimination, of these conflicts have been proposed by various respected organizations. Individual physicians and medical organizations should evaluate these standards and, if pertinent and appropriate, endorse and follow them.  (+info)

(4/461) Testing neoclassical competitive market theory in the field.

This study presents results from a pilot field experiment that tests predictions of competitive market theory. A major advantage of this particular field experimental design is that my laboratory is the marketplace: subjects are engaged in buying, selling, and trading activities whether I run an exchange experiment or am a passive observer. In this sense, I am gathering data in a natural environment while still maintaining the necessary control to execute a clean comparison between treatments. The main results of the study fall into two categories. First, the competitive model predicts reasonably well in some market treatments: the expected price and quantity levels are approximated in many market rounds. Second, the data suggest that market composition is important: buyer and seller experience levels impact not only the distribution of rents but also the overall level of rents captured. An unexpected result in this regard is that average market efficiency is lowest in markets that match experienced buyers and experienced sellers and highest when experienced buyers engage in bargaining with inexperienced sellers. Together, these results suggest that both market experience and market composition play an important role in the equilibrium discovery process.  (+info)

(5/461) How will the reduction of tariffs and taxes on insecticide- treated bednets affect household purchases?

One of the steps called for in the fight against malaria is the removal of tariffs and taxes on insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs), netting materials, and insecticides, with a view to reducing the retail prices of ITNs and thus increasing utilization. In this paper we develop an approach for analysing the extent to which reform of tariff and tax policy can be expected to increase ITN purchases. We consider the following questions: (1). How much does the retail price of ITNs change if tariffs and taxes are reduced or eliminated? (2). How responsive is consumer demand to changes in the retail price of ITNs? Data on the price elasticity of demand for ITNs are very limited. Nevertheless, they suggest that ITN demand is not highly responsive to lower prices if household preferences are held constant. The reduction in retail prices associated with the removal of tariffs and taxes depends on the structure of the market in individual countries. In Nigeria, reducing the tariff on insecticides from 42% to zero and the tariff on netting materials from 40% to 5% is expected to increase ITN purchases by 9-27%, depending on the elasticity used. Country-specific information about market structure and cost conditions is needed if predictions are to be made as to how a specific policy change will affect ITN purchases.  (+info)

(6/461) Restrictions on import of drugs for personal use within the European single market.

BACKGROUND: The European Union (EU) has harmonized legislation on pharmaceutical products to implement the single market in this field. European consumers are offered with high quality and safe products that have been brought onto the market through harmonized procedures. The aim of the study was to find out if there still were legislative restrictions to purchasing prescription only medicines (POMs) for personal use from another EU member state. METHODS: The medicines authorities in the EU were inquired about the possibilities of a citizen to obtain POMs for personal use from another EU country. The method used was a questionnaire covering both the delivery of foreign prescriptions and import of prescription-only medicines. The questionnaire was mailed, e-mailed or faxed to the national medicines authorities. RESULTS: An answer was obtained from 11 of the 15 member states. The results showed that the delivery of foreign prescriptions was regulated only in the Nordic countries. All the countries reported prohibitions on delivering prescriptions for drugs that act on the central nervous system and prescriptions that were suspicious. The personal import of drugs was restricted as to the amounts and reimbursement policy. CONCLUSIONS: The import of drugs for personal use is not yet comparable to other consumables in the EU. The prevailing restrictions contravene the community legislation and this problem has not yet been solved. It is probable that problems will arise in the near future when information technology is likely to be used increasingly in the delivery of drugs.  (+info)

(7/461) Monitoring compliance with the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes in west Africa: multisite cross sectional survey in Togo and Burkina Faso.

OBJECTIVES: To monitor compliance with the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes in health systems, sales outlets, distribution points, and the news media in Togo and Burkina Faso, west Africa. DESIGN: Multisite cross sectional survey. PARTICIPANTS: Staff at 43 health facilities and 66 sales outlets and distribution points, 186 health providers, and 105 mothers of infants aged < or =5 months in 16 cities. RESULTS: Six (14%) health facilities had received donations of breast milk substitutes. All donations were being given to mothers free of charge. Health providers in five (12%) health facilities had received free samples of breast milk substitutes for purposes other than professional research or evaluation. Health professionals in five (12%) health facilities had received promotional gifts from manufacturers. Promotional materials of commercial breast milk substitutes were found in seven (16%) health facilities. Special displays to market commercial breast milk substitutes were found in 29 (44%) sales and distribution points. Forty commercial breast milk substitutes violated the labelling standards of the code: 21 were manufactured by Danone, 11 by Nestle, and eight by other national and international manufacturers. Most (148, 90%) health providers had never heard of the code, and 66 mothers (63%) had never received any counselling on breast feeding by their health providers. CONCLUSION: In west Africa manufacturers are violating the code of marketing of breast milk substitutes. Comparable levels of code violations are observed with (Burkina Faso) or without (Togo) regulating legislation. Legislation must be accompanied by effective information, training, and monitoring systems to ensure that healthcare providers and manufacturers comply with evidence based practice and the code.  (+info)

(8/461) Views of older people on cataract surgery options: an assessment of preferences by conjoint analysis.

BACKGROUND: Key issues in the quality of care for people with cataracts in the UK include hospital waiting lists, complication rates from surgery, and the use of junior surgeons. The main objective of this study was to investigate the relative importance that older people attach to these factors when given theoretical choices over options for cataract surgery. METHOD: A systematic sample of 194 individuals aged 60-84 years on a general practice register in Nottingham were invited to take part in an interview based survey. Respondents ranked 11 "cataract surgery packages" containing different waiting list lengths, complication risks, and surgeon grades. Conjoint analysis was performed to determine the relative importance of these factors for individuals and for the group as a whole. RESULTS: Of the 194 subjects invited to participate, 146 (72%) completed the interview. For the group as a whole the "averaged importance" of the factors was: complication risk 45.8%; waiting time 41.1%, surgeon grade 13.1%. Analysis of importance scores for individuals showed that some were particularly concerned about complication risk while others were more concerned about waiting times. There was a strong negative correlation between importance scores for these factors (Spearman's rho -0.78, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Most respondents thought that either risk of damage to sight and/or waiting time were important, while surgeon grade was relatively unimportant. The findings show that some potential cataract patients prefer a greater risk of complication combined with a short wait than a low complication rate and a longer wait.  (+info)



post-marketing su


  • This study is a post-marketing surveillance in Japan, and it is a local prospective, company sponsored and observational study of patient who have been treated by Adalat CR for hypertension with diabetes and/or chronic kidney disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Safety monitoring: recording of adverse events using diary cards and recording of serious adverse events using the latest version of Korea's Post-Marketing Surveillance Serious Adverse Event Reporting Form. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Prior to enrollment of the subject into the post-marketing surveillance, the subject's parents/legally acceptable representatives will be requested to provide information regarding the enrollment of their child in a same/similar study previously. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • At the time of post-marketing surveillance (PMS) entry, the contraindications and precautions of use indicated in the local Prescribing Information should be checked and the subject must not be included in the PMS if there is any contraindication. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Participants were treated by general practitioners in clinical practice as part of the post-marketing surveillance study. (clinicaltrials.gov)

Manager


  • The documentation intern will work closely with the Marketing + Communications Manager to ensure high quality documentation of HCL events. (colum.edu)
  • The Digital Marketing Manager leads the creation, integration, and execution of digital marketing strategy and programs in. (colum.edu)

social media


  • If you live and breathe digital marketing with an emphasis on social media and content marketing, we want to talk to you. (colum.edu)

development


  • The Alzheimer's Disease Drug industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. (pitchengine.com)
  • Jax Marketing & Promotions is the largest growing Marketing & Brand Development Office in the Arlington area. (glassdoor.com)

Lead


  • Central Territory Digital Community LeadAs the Central Territory Digital Community Lead, you join a digital first brand marketing team bringing Nike's key stories and messages to life. (colum.edu)

public


  • Hosted for the Monthly Call with FJC Directors, this webinar provides recommendations and helpful tips on how to develop a creative and strategic Public Relations and Marketing Plan for a Family Justice Center. (familyjusticecenter.org)
  • Marketing Specialist , Public Relations /Marketing JCPenney Company, Inc. Plano, Texas JCPenney, one of the nation's largest… organization. (glassdoor.com)