Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Divorce: Legal dissolution of an officially recognized marriage relationship.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Single Person: The unmarried man or woman.Widowhood: The state of having lost a marital partner by death.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.United StatesSocial Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Status Epilepticus: A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Illegitimacy: The state of birth outside of wedlock. It may refer to the offspring or the parents.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Birth Certificates: Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Vital Statistics: Used for general articles concerning statistics of births, deaths, marriages, etc.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.National Center for Health Statistics (U.S.): A center in the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE which is primarily concerned with the collection, analysis, and dissemination of health statistics on vital events and health activities to reflect the health status of people, health needs, and health resources.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.FinlandPrenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.IranHispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.BrazilAttitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Women: Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.NorwayPoverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Paternal Age: Age of the biological father.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.CaliforniaWomen's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Serbia: A republic located south of HUNGARY, west of ROMANIA and BULGARIA, and part of the former YUGOSLAVIA. The capital is Belgrade.Censuses: Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.MichiganPersonal Satisfaction: The individual's experience of a sense of fulfillment of a need or want and the quality or state of being satisfied.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.JapanSingle Parent: A natural, adoptive, or substitute parent of a dependent child, who lives with only one parent. The single parent may live with or visit the child. The concept includes the never-married, as well as the divorced and widowed.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Fathers: Male parents, human or animal.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.LithuaniaBreast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Acculturation: Process of cultural change in which one group or members of a group assimilate various cultural patterns from another.SwedenPopulation Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Confounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Unemployment: The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.Religion: A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.DenmarkSEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Multiple Birth Offspring: The offspring in multiple pregnancies (PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE): TWINS; TRIPLETS; QUADRUPLETS; QUINTUPLETS; etc.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.RussiaBirth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Pregnancy, Unwanted: Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Hostility: Tendency to feel anger toward and to seek to inflict harm upon a person or group.IndiaAsian Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.Sampling Studies: Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.FloridaQuebec: A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Emigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Veterans: Former members of the armed services.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.TexasSocial Participation: Involvement in community activities or programs.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Leisure Activities: Voluntary use of free time for activities outside the daily routine.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Fetal Mortality: Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Coffee: A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.TaiwanTurkeySexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.ItalySurvival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
Female education: Female education is a catch-all term for a complex set of issues and debates surrounding education (primary education, secondary education, tertiary education, and health education in particular) for girls and women. It includes areas of gender equality and access to education, and its connection to the alleviation of poverty.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Grey divorce: Grey divorceDeborah Carr, Ph.D.Homogamy (biology): Homogamy is used in biology in three separate senses:QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Relative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Circular flow of income: The circular flow of income or circular flow is a model of the economy in which the major exchanges are represented as flows of money, goods and services, etc. between economic agents.Mortality rate: Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.Soo Ik Lee: Soo Ik Lee, MD (died 1995) was a Korean-born American neurologist and a subspecialist in clinical neurophysiology based at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia.Philip Stanhope (diplomat): Philip Stanhope (2 May 1732 – 16 November 1768) was the illegitimate son of Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield to whom the famous Letters to His Son were addressed. His mother was a French governess, Madelina Elizabeth du Bouchet.Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.African-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Rating scales for depression: A depression rating scale is a psychiatric measuring instrument having descriptive words and phrases that indicate the severity of depression for a time period. When used, an observer may make judgements and rate a person at a specified scale level with respect to identified characteristics.Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.Mothers TalkTeenage Mother (film): Teenage Mother (a.k.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingVital statistics (government records): Vital statistics are statistics on live births, deaths, fetal deaths, marriages and divorces. The most common way of collecting information on these events is through civil registration, an administrative system used by governments to record vital events which occur in their populations (see Box 1).Teenage suicide in the United States: Teenage suicide in the United States remains comparatively high in the 15 to 24 age group with 10,000 suicides in this age range in 2004, making it the third leading cause of death for those aged 15 to 24. By comparison, suicide is the 11th leading cause of death for all those age 10 and over, with 33,289 suicides for all US citizens in 2006.Australia–Finland relations: Australia–Finland relations are foreign relations between the Australia and Finland. Diplomatic relations were established on 31 May 1949.Low birth-weight paradox: The low birth-weight paradox is an apparently paradoxical observation relating to the birth weights and mortality rate of children born to tobacco smoking mothers. Low birth-weight children born to smoking mothers have a lower infant mortality rate than the low birth weight children of non-smokers.List of universities in Iran: This is a list of universities in Iran.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.University of CampinasMedical abortion: A medical abortion is a type of non-surgical abortion in which abortifacient pharmaceutical drugs are used to induce abortion. An oral preparation for medical abortion is commonly referred to as an abortion pill.Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Yamtuan Besar: Yamtuan Besar, also known as Yang di-Pertuan Besar, is the royal title of the ruler of the Malaysian state of Negeri Sembilan. The ruler of Negeri Sembilan is selected by a council of ruling chiefs in the state, or the datuk-datuk undang.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Hospital of Southern Norway: [[Sørlandet Hospital Arendal, seen from the north.|thumb|200px]]Poverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale: The Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale (BADLS) is a 20-item questionnaire designed to measure the ability of someone with dementia to carry out daily activities such as dressing, preparing food and using transport.Paternal age effect: The paternal age effect is the statistical relationship between paternal age at conception and biological effects on the child. Such effects can relate to birthweight, congenital disorders, life expectancy, and psychological outcomes.Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).San Diego County, California Probation: The San Diego County Probation Department is the body in San Diego County, California responsible for supervising convicted offenders in the community, either who are on probation, such as at the conclusion of their sentences, or while on community supervision orders.Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.List of birds of Serbia: This is a list of the bird species recorded in Serbia. The avifauna of Serbia include a total of 381 species, one of which has been introduced by humans.Michigan State University College of Nursing: The Michigan State University College of Nursing is the nursing college at Michigan State University. It is located on the southeastern side of campus in East Lansing, Michigan, USA.Positivity offset: Positivity offset is a psychological term referring to two phenomena: People tend to interpret neutral situations as mildly positive, and most people rate their lives as good, most of the time. The positivity offset stands in notable asymmetry to the negativity bias.List of countries that regulate the immigration of felons: This is a list of countries that regulate the immigration of felons.
(1/1240) Different factors influencing the expression of Raynaud's phenomenon in men and women.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the risk profile for Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is different between men and women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 800 women and 725 men participating in the Framingham Offspring Study, the association of age, marital status, smoking, alcohol use, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia with prevalent RP was examined in men and women separately, after adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: The prevalence of RP was 9.6% (n = 77) in women and 5.8% (n = 42) in men. In women, marital status and alcohol use were each associated with prevalent RP (for marital status adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-3.9; for alcohol use OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-5.2), whereas these factors were not associated with RP in men (marital status OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.6-3.5; alcohol use OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.2-4.4). In men, older age (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.2) and smoking (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.3) were associated with prevalent RP; these factors were not associated with RP in women (older age OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.6; smoking OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.1). Diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were not associated with RP in either sex. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that risk factors for RP differ between men and women. Age and smoking were associated with RP in men only, while the associations of marital status and alcohol use with RP were observed in women only. These findings suggest that different mechanisms influence the expression of RP in men and women. (+info)
(2/1240) Condom use and HIV risk behaviors among U.S. adults: data from a national survey.
CONTEXT: How much condom use among U.S. adults varies by type of partner or by risk behavior is unclear. Knowledge of such differentials would aid in evaluating the progress being made toward goals for levels of condom use as part of the Healthy People 2000 initiative. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the 1996 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse, an annual household-based probability sample of the noninstitutionalized population aged 12 and older that measures the use of illicit drugs, alcohol and tobacco. The personal behaviors module included 25 questions covering sexual activity in the past year, frequency of condom use in the past year, circumstances of the last sexual encounter and HIV testing. RESULTS: Sixty-two percent of adults reported using a condom at last intercourse outside of an ongoing relationship, while only 19% reported using condoms when the most recent intercourse occurred within a steady relationship. Within ongoing relationships, condom use was highest among respondents who were younger, black, of lower income and from large metropolitan areas. Forty percent of unmarried adults used a condom at last sex, compared with the health objective of 50% for the year 2000. Forty percent of injecting drug users used condoms at last intercourse, compared with the 60% condom use objective for high-risk individuals. Significantly, persons at increased risk for HIV because of their sexual behavior or drug use were not more likely to use condoms than were persons not at increased risk; only 22% used condoms during last intercourse within an ongoing relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial progress has been made toward national goals for increasing condom use. The rates of condom use by individuals at high risk of HIV need to be increased, however, particularly condom use with a steady partner. (+info)
(3/1240) Maternal smoking and Down syndrome: the confounding effect of maternal age.
Inconsistent results have been reported from studies evaluating the association of maternal smoking with birth of a Down syndrome child. Control of known risk factors, particularly maternal age, has also varied across studies. By using a population-based case-control design (775 Down syndrome cases and 7,750 normal controls) and Washington State birth record data for 1984-1994, the authors examined this hypothesized association and found a crude odds ratio of 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.65-0.98). Controlling for broad categories of maternal age (<35 years, > or =35 years), as described in prior studies, resulted in a negative association (odds ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.71-1.07). However, controlling for exact year of maternal age in conjunction with race and parity resulted in no association (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.82-1.24). In this study, the prevalence of Down syndrome births increased with increasing maternal age, whereas among controls the reported prevalence of smoking during pregnancy decreased with increasing maternal age. There is a substantial potential for residual confounding by maternal age in studies of maternal smoking and Down syndrome. After adequately controlling for maternal age in this study, the authors found no clear relation between maternal smoking and the risk of Down syndrome. (+info)
(4/1240) Low-weight neonatal survival paradox in the Czech Republic.
Analysis of vital statistics for the Czech Republic between 1986 and 1993, including 3,254 infant deaths from 350,978 first births to married and single women who conceived at ages 18-29 years, revealed a neonatal survival advantage for low-weight infants born to disadvantaged (single, less educated) women, particularly for deaths from congenital anomalies. This advantage largely disappeared after the neonatal period. The same patterns have been observed for low-weight infants born to black women in the United States. Since the Czech Republic had an ethnically homogenous population, virtually universal prenatal care, and uniform institutional conditions for delivery, Czech results must be attributed to social rather than to biologic or medical circumstances. This strengthens the contention that in the United States, the black neonatal survival paradox may be due as much to race-related social stigmatization and consequent disadvantage as to any hypothesized hereditary influences on birth-weight-specific survival. (+info)
(5/1240) Breast cancer risk in monozygotic and dizygotic female twins: a 20-year population-based cohort study in Finland from 1976 to 1995.
This population-based study investigated the occurrence of breast cancer over a 20-year period in a cohort of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins in Finland. Altogether, 13,176 female twins of known zygosity who were living in Finland at the end of 1975 were identified from the Finnish Twin Cohort Study and followed-up for cancer through the Finnish Cancer Registry for the years 1976-1995. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated, based on national cancer incidence rates. The relative risk of breast cancer for MZ twins compared to DZ twins was decreased [SIR(MZ)/SIR(DZ) ratio = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.58-1.0]; the decreased risk for MZ twins (SIR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.58-1.0) accounted for this result, whereas the risk for DZ twins did not differ from the general population risk (SIR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.84-1.1). There was no risk decrease among MZ twins in other cancers related to reproductive behavior; i.e., number of children and age at first birth seem not to explain the decreased risk of breast cancer. Our results, which are in line with earlier studies on the same topic, suggest that prenatal influences or postnatal behavioral factors may protect MZ female twins from breast cancer. (+info)
(6/1240) Plasma lycopene concentrations in humans are determined by lycopene intake, plasma cholesterol concentrations and selected demographic factors.
Higher plasma lycopene concentrations have been associated with a reduced risk of several chronic diseases. Determinants of lycopene concentrations in humans have received limited attention. We had blood lycopene concentrations and lycopene consumption data available from 111 participants in a two-center cancer prevention trial involving beta-carotene and examined determinants of plasma lycopene levels cross-sectionally. The median plasma lycopene level was 0.59 micromol/L (range 0.07-1.79). Low plasma concentrations of lycopene were associated with the following variables in univariate analyses: study site (Florida lower than Connecticut, P = 0.001), being nonmarried (P = 0.02), having lower income (P = 0.003), being nonwhite race/ethnicity (P = 0.03), having lower dietary lycopene intake (r = 0.29, P = 0.002), having lower plasma cholesterol (r = 0. 43, P = 0.0001) and triglyceride levels (r = 0.26, P = 0.005), and consuming less vitamin C (r = 0.20, P = 0.03). Women had slightly higher plasma lycopene levels than men (0.65 vs. 0.58 micromol/L; P = 0.31), despite lower dietary intake of lycopene (1,040 vs. 1,320 microg/d; P = 0.50). Plasma lycopene levels did not differ in smokers and nonsmokers. In stepwise regression analyses, the determinants of plasma lycopene were plasma cholesterol, dietary lycopene, and marital status; these three variables explained 26% of the variance in plasma lycopene. Relatively few lifestyle and demographic factors were important determinants of plasma lycopene levels, with plasma cholesterol, marital status, and lycopene intake being of greatest importance. (+info)
(7/1240) Contraceptive failure rates: new estimates from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth.
CONTEXT: Unintended pregnancy remains a major public health concern in the United States. Information on pregnancy rates among contraceptive users is needed to guide medical professionals' recommendations and individuals' choices of contraceptive methods. METHODS: Data were taken from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and the 1994-1995 Abortion Patient Survey (APS). Hazards models were used to estimate method-specific contraceptive failure rates during the first six months and during the first year of contraceptive use for all U.S. women. In addition, rates were corrected to take into account the underreporting of induced abortion in the NSFG. Corrected 12-month failure rates were also estimated for subgroups of women by age, union status, poverty level, race or ethnicity, and religion. RESULTS: When contraceptive methods are ranked by effectiveness over the first 12 months of use (corrected for abortion underreporting), the implant and injectables have the lowest failure rates (2-3%), followed by the pill (8%), the diaphragm and the cervical cap (12%), the male condom (14%), periodic abstinence (21%), withdrawal (24%) and spermicides (26%). In general, failure rates are highest among cohabiting and other unmarried women, among those with an annual family income below 200% of the federal poverty level, among black and Hispanic women, among adolescents and among women in their 20s. For example, adolescent women who are not married but are cohabiting experience a failure rate of about 31% in the first year of contraceptive use, while the 12-month failure rate among married women aged 30 and older is only 7%. Black women have a contraceptive failure rate of about 19%, and this rate does not vary by family income; in contrast, overall 12-month rates are lower among Hispanic women (15%) and white women (10%), but vary by income, with poorer women having substantially greater failure rates than more affluent women. CONCLUSIONS: Levels of contraceptive failure vary widely by method, as well as by personal and background characteristics. Income's strong influence on contraceptive failure suggests that access barriers and the general disadvantage associated with poverty seriously impede effective contraceptive practice in the United States. (+info)
(8/1240) Increased health burden associated with comorbid depression in older diabetic Mexican Americans. Results from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly survey.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the health burden associated with concomitant depressive symptoms and diabetes in older Mexican Americans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly were used to assess the association between high levels of depressive symptoms, measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression scale, and comorbid chronic health conditions, diabetic complications, functional disability, health service use, and medication use among 636 older diabetic Mexican Americans, in comparison with 2,196 older nondiabetic Mexican Americans. RESULTS: Overall, 31.1% of the older diabetic individuals reported high levels of depressive symptoms. The risks of comorbid myocardial infarction, hypertension, arthritis, and angina were significantly higher in the presence of concomitant depressive symptoms, as were the risks of diabetic complications, functional disability, incontinence, vision impairment, poorer perceived health status, and health service use among both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Rates were substantially higher among depressed diabetic individuals, however, in comparison to depressed nondiabetic individuals. Importantly, this increased health burden was evident even when controlling for sociodemographic risk factors, including sex, age, level of education, marital status, immigrant status, and living arrangements. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of concomitant depressive symptoms among older diabetic Mexican Americans is associated with a substantially greater health burden than is seen among diabetic individuals without depression or depressed individuals without diabetes. This association of depression with higher rates of chronic conditions, poorer functioning, and increased health service use is particularly significant in that this study was conducted among community-dwelling adults and was not confounded by the potential association of health care-seeking behavior that might occur in a medically ill sample. (+info)