Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Marine Toxins: Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.Porifera: The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Synthetic Biology: A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.Atlantic OceanFisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Pacific OceanInvertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Mediterranean SeaMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Diatoms: The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Seaweed: Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Pinnipedia: The suborder of aquatic CARNIVORA comprising the WALRUSES; FUR SEALS; SEA LIONS; and EARLESS SEALS. They have fusiform bodies with very short tails and are found on all sea coasts. The offspring are born on land.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Dinoflagellida: Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Oceanography: The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)Pseudoalteromonas: A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.North SeaAlphaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.Gastropoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Sulfonium Compounds: Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Roseobacter: A genus of obligately aerobic marine phototrophic and chemoorganotrophic bacteria, in the family RHODOBACTERACEAE.Polychaeta: A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.Phaeophyta: A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Mollusca: A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Indian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)Ulva: A genus of GREEN ALGAE in the family Ulvaceae. Commonly know as sea lettuces, they grow attached to rocks and KELP in marine and estuarine waters.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Palau: A republic consisting of a group of about 100 islands and islets in the western Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Koror. Under Spain it was administered as a part of the Caroline Islands but was sold to Germany in 1899. Seized by Japan in 1914, it was taken by the Allies in World War II in 1944. In 1947 it became part of the U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, became internally self-governing in 1980, obtained independent control over its foreign policy (except defense) in 1986, and achieved total independence October 1, 1994. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p915; telephone communication with Randy Flynn, Board on Geographic Names, 17 January 1995)Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Cetacea: An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Synechococcus: A form-genus of spherical to rod-shaped CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. They contain THYLAKOIDS and are found in a wide range of habitats.Prochlorococcus: A genus of marine planktonic CYANOBACTERIA in the order PROCHLOROPHYTES. They lack PHYCOBILISOMES and contain divinyl CHLOROPHYLL, a and b.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.

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Bodega Marine Reserve: Bodega Marine Reserve is a nature reserve and marine reserve on the coast of northern California, located in the vicinity of the Bodega Marine Laboratory on Bodega Head. It is a unit of the University of California Natural Reserve System, that is administered by the University of California, Davis.Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology: The Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology is a Polish scientific research organization and a part of Polish Academy of Sciences headquartered in Warsaw, Poland. Founded in 1918, it is a leading institution in the country in the field of neurobiology, molecular biology and biochemistry.List of systems biology conferences: Systems biology is a biological study field that focuses on the systematic study of complex interactions in biological systems, thus using a new perspective (integration instead of reduction) to study them. Particularly from year 2000 onwards, the term is used widely in the biosciences.Anoxic event: Oceanic anoxic events or anoxic events (anoxia conditions) refer to intervals in the Earth's past where portions of oceans become depleted in oxygen (O2) at depths over a large geographic area. During some of these events, euxinia develops - euxinia refers to anoxic waters that contain hydrogen sulfide.Toxin: A toxin (from ) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded. The term was first used by organic chemist Ludwig Brieger (1849–1919).Mesohyl: The mesohyl, formerly known as mesenchyme or as mesoglea, is the gelatinous matrix within a sponge. It fills the space between the external pinacoderm and the internal choanoderm.Dda (DNA-dependent ATPase): Dda (short for DNA-dependent ATPase; also known as Dda helicase and Dda DNA helicase) is the 439-amino acid 49,897-atomic mass unit protein coded by the Dda gene of the bacteriophage T4 phage, a virus that infects enterobacteria.Michael K. Denk: Michael K. Denk (or Karl Michael Denk) is a Professor of chemistry at the University of Guelph, Ontario.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Nankai Trough gas hydrate site: Nankai Methane Hydrate Site (or Japanese Methane Hydrate R&D Program at Nankai, Nankai Trough Methane Hydrate Site) is located in the Nankai Trough, Japan.EcosystemFecal coliform: A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.Baltic sculpin: The Baltic sculpinBaltic sculpin (Cottus microstomus) at EOL (Cottus microstomus) is a species of sculpin, a European freshwater fish in the Cottidae family. It is widespread in the Dniester drainage (Black Sea basin), Odra and Vistula drainages (southern Baltic basin), most likely extending further east to Gulf of Finland.Synthetic genomics: Synthetic genomics is a nascent field of synthetic biology that uses aspects of genetic modification on pre-existing life forms with the intent of producing some product or desired behavior on the part of the life form so created.In Memory of Celtic Frost: In Memory of... Celtic Frost is a Celtic Frost tribute album released in 1996.Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996: The Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996 is an amendment to the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, a law governing the management of marine fisheries in the United States. Another major amendment to this legislation was later made under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Reauthorization Act of 2006.PSI Protein Classifier: PSI Protein Classifier is a program generalizing the results of both successive and independent iterations of the PSI-BLAST program. PSI Protein Classifier determines belonging of the found by PSI-BLAST proteins to the known families.Ecosystem of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre: The North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) is the largest contiguous ecosystem on earth. In oceanography, a subtropical gyre is a ring-like system of ocean currents rotating clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere caused by the Coriolis Effect.BrachiopodList of drainage basins by area: The list of drainage basins by area identifies basins (also known as watersheds or catchments), sorted by area, which drain to oceans, mediterranean seas, rivers, lakes and other water bodies. All basins larger than are included as well as selected smaller basins.Coles PhillipsAlliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Continuous Plankton Recorder: The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey is one of the longest running marine biological monitoring programmes in the world. Started in 1931 by Sir Alister Hardy, the CPR has provided marine scientists with their only measure of plankton communities on a pan-oceanic scale.Navicula: Navicula is a genus of boat-shaped algae — primarily aquatic, eukaryotic, photosynthetic organisms, ranging in size from a single cell.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).PhytoplanktonVibrio campbellii: Vibrio campbellii is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped, marine bacterium closely related to its sister species, Vibrio harveyi. It is an emerging pathogen in aquatic organisms.Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis: Amplified rDNA (Ribosomal DNA) Restriction Analysis is the extension of the technique of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) to the gene encoding the small (16s) ribosomal subunit of bacteria. The technique involves an enzymatic amplification using primers directed at the conserved regions at the ends of the 16s gene, followed by digestion using tetracutter Restriction enzymes.Oxymonad: The Oxymonads are a group of flagellated protozoa found exclusively in the intestines of termites and other wood-eating insects. Along with the similar parabasalid flagellates, they harbor the symbiotic bacteria that are responsible for breaking down cellulose.China Biologic Products, Inc.Seaweed farming: Seaweed farming is the practice of cultivating and harvesting seaweed. In its simplest form, it consists of the management of naturally found batches.Alkalimonas: Alkalimonas is a genus in the phylum Proteobacteria (Bacteria).San Miguel, BoholMeramec Conservation AreaExogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.Lingulodinium polyedrum: Lingulodinium polyedrum is the name for a motile dinoflagellate (synonym Gonyaulax polyedra), which produces a dinoflagellate cyst called Lingulodinium machaerophorum (synonym Hystrichosphaeridium machaerophorum).Razor strop: A razor strop (or razor strap) is a flexible strip of leather or canvas used to straighten and polish the blade of a straight razor, a knife, or a woodworking tool like a chisel. Unlike honing or sharpening a blade, in which a whetstone removes metal bent out of alignment from the blade's edge, stropping the blade re-aligns the indentations without removing any material.Acoustical oceanography: Acoustical oceanography is the use of underwater sound to study the sea, its boundaries and its contents.Pseudoalteromonas phenolica: Pseudoalteromonas phenolica is a marine bacterium species in the genus Pseudoalteromonas.Middle North Sea Group: The Middle North Sea Group (abbreviation: NM) is a group of geologic formations in the Dutch subsurface, part of the North Sea Supergroup. The three formations of this group form a thick sequence of sediments in the Dutch subsurface, they crop out in parts of the southern Netherlands.Pelagibacter ubique: Pelagibacter, with the single species P. ubique, was isolated in 2002 and given a specific name, although it has not yet been validly published according to the bacteriological code.Respiratory system of gastropods: The respiratory system of gastropods varies greatly in form. These variations were once used as a basis for dividing the group into subclasses.Cyanidioschyzon merolae: C. merolae is a small (2μm), club-shaped, unicellular haploid red alga adapted to high sulfur acidic hot spring environments (pH 1.Pink skunk clownfish: Amphiprion perideraion also known as the pink skunk clownfish or pink anemonefish, is a species of anemonefish from the skunk complex that is widespread from northern Australia through the Malay Archipelago and Melanesia. Like all anemonefishes it forms a symbiotic mutualism with sea anemones and is unaffected by the stinging tentacles of the host anemone.Suplatast tosilateMicrobial food web: The microbial food web refers the combined trophic interactions among microbes in aquatic environments. These microbes include viruses, bacteria, algae, heterotrophic protists (such as ciliates and flagellates).Terebra oculata: Terebra oculata is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Terebridae, the auger snails.Chaetopterus: Chaetopterus or the parchment worm or parchment tube worm is a genus of marine polychaete worm that lives in a tube it constructs in sediments or attaches to a rocky or coral reef substrate. The common name arises from the parchment-like appearance of the tubes that house these worms.Ecklonia stolonifera: Ecklonia stolonifera (Japanese: ツルアラメ, turuarame) is a brown alga species in the genus Ecklonia found in the Sea of Japan. It is an edible species traditionally eaten in Japan.Dolabella auricularia: Dolabella auricularia, common name the "wedge sea hare" or "Donsol" in the Philippines, is a species of large sea slug, a marine opisthobranch gastropod mollusk in the family Aplysiidae, the sea hares.White band disease: White band disease is a coral disease that affects acroporid corals and is distinguishable by the white band of dead coral tissue that it forms. The disease completely destroys the coral tissue of Caribbean acroporid corals, specifically elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata) and staghorn coral (A.South Brother (Chagos Bank): South Brother, also known as Île du Sud, is a 23 ha coral island on the Great Chagos Bank atoll of the Chagos Archipelago in the British Indian Ocean Territory. It is one of the three islands in the Three Brothers group on the western side of the atoll, and forms part of the Chagos Archipelago strict nature reserve.Ulva compressa: Ulva compressa is a species of seaweed in Ulvaceae family that can be found in North America, Mediterranean Sea, and throughout Africa and Australia.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Palau'amineSpatial ecology: Spatial ecology is a specialization in ecology and geography that is concerned with the identification of spatial patterns and their relationships to ecological phenomena. Ecological events can be explained through the detection of patterns at a given spatial scale: local, regional, or global.Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin: The Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin is a drainage basin that covers part of western Queensland and New South Wales. It is adjacent to the much larger Lake Eyre basin.AmbulocetidaeMatrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Chaenocephalus aceratus: Chaenocephalus aceratus, the blackfin icefish, is a species of crocodile icefish known from around Bouvet Island and the northern Antarctic Peninsula where it occurs at depths of . This species grows to a length of TL.Synechococcus: Synechococcus (from the Greek synechos (in succession) and the Greek kokkos (granule)) is a unicellular cyanobacterium that is very widespread in the marine environment. Its size varies from 0.Cyanobacterial non-coding RNA: In molecular biology, Cyanobacterial non-coding RNAs are non-coding RNAs which have been identified in species of cyanobacteria. Large scale screens have identified 21 Yfr (cYanobacterial functional RNAs) in the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus and related species such as Synechococcus.Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossil: Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs) are microscopic acritarchs, usually over 100 μm in diameter, which are common in sediments of the Ediacaran period, . They largely disappear from the Ediacaran fossil record before , roughly coeval with the origin of the Ediacara biota.

(1/949) Growth characteristics of Heterosigma akashiwo virus and its possible use as a microbiological agent for red tide control.

The growth characteristics of Heterosigma akashiwo virus clone 01 (HaV01) were examined by performing a one-step growth experiment. The virus had a latent period of 30 to 33 h and a burst size of 7.7 x 10(2) lysis-causing units in an infected cell. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the virus particles formed on the peripheries of viroplasms, as observed in a natural H. akashiwo cell. Inoculation of HaV01 into a mixed algal culture containing four phytoplankton species, H. akashiwo H93616, Chattonella antiqua (a member of the family Raphidophyceae), Heterocapsa triquetra (a member of the family Dinophyceae), and Ditylum brightwellii (a member of the family Bacillariophyceae), resulted in selective growth inhibition of H. akashiwo. Inoculation of HaV01 and H. akashiwo H93616 into a natural seawater sample produced similar results. However, a natural H. akashiwo red tide sample did not exhibit any conspicuous sensitivity to HaV01, presumably because of the great diversity of the host species with respect to virus infection. The growth characteristics of the lytic virus infecting the noxious harmful algal bloom-causing alga were considered, and the possibility of using this virus as a microbiological agent against H. akashiwo red tides is discussed.  (+info)

(2/949) Evolutionary patterns from mass originations and mass extinctions.

The Fossil Record 2 database gives a stratigraphic range of most known animal and plant families. We have used it to plot the number of families extant through time and argue for an exponential fit, rather than a logistic one, on the basis of power spectra of the residuals from the exponential. The times of origins and extinctions, when plotted for all families of marine and terrestrial organisms over the last 600 Myr, reveal different origination and extinction peaks. This suggests that patterns of biological evolution are driven by its own internal dynamics as well as responding to upsets from external causes. Spectral analysis shows that the residuals from the exponential model of the marine system are more consistent with 1/f noise suggesting that self-organized criticality phenomena may be involved.  (+info)

(3/949) Mechanism of inhibition of a poxvirus topoisomerase by the marine natural product sansalvamide A.

At present no antiviral agents are available for treatment of infection by the pathogenic poxvirus molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV). Here we report the identification and characterization of an inhibitor active against the virus-encoded type-1 topoisomerase, an enzyme likely to be required for MCV replication. We screened a library of marine extracts and natural products from microorganisms using MCV topoisomerase assays in vitro. The cyclic depsipeptide sansalvamide A was found to inhibit topoisomerase-catalyzed DNA relaxation. Sansalvamide A was inactive against two other DNA-modifying enzymes tested as a counterscreen. Assays of discrete steps in the topoisomerase reaction cycle revealed that sansalvamide A inhibited DNA binding and thereby covalent complex formation, but not resealing of a DNA nick in a preformed covalent complex. Sansalvamide A also inhibits DNA binding by the isolated catalytic domain, thereby specifying the part of the protein sensitive to sansalvamide A. These data specify the mechanism by which sansalvamide A inhibits MCV topoisomerase. Cyclic depsipeptides related to sansalvamide A represent a potentially promising chemical family for development of anti-MCV agents.  (+info)

(4/949) Low-molecular-weight sulfonates, a major substrate for sulfate reducers in marine microbial mats.

Several low-molecular-weight sulfonates were added to microbial mat slurries to investigate their effects on sulfate reduction. Instantaneous production of sulfide occurred after taurine and cysteate were added to all of the microbial mats tested. The rates of production in the presence of taurine and cysteate were 35 and 24 microM HS(-) h(-1) in a stromatolite mat, 38 and 36 microM HS(-) h(-1) in a salt pond mat, and 27 and 18 microM HS(-) h(-1) in a salt marsh mat, respectively. The traditionally used substrates lactate and acetate stimulated the rate of sulfide production 3 to 10 times more than taurine and cysteate stimulated the rate of sulfide production in all mats, but when ethanol, glycolate, and glutamate were added to stromatolite mat slurries, the resulting increases were similar to the increases observed with taurine and cysteate. Isethionate, sulfosuccinate, and sulfobenzoate were tested only with the stromatolite mat slurry, and these compounds had much smaller effects on sulfide production. Addition of molybdate resulted in a greater inhibitory effect on acetate and lactate utilization than on sulfonate use, suggesting that different metabolic pathways were involved. In all of the mats tested taurine and cysteate were present in the pore water at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations. An enrichment culture from the stromatolite mat was obtained on cysteate in a medium lacking sulfate and incubated anaerobically. The rate of cysteate consumption by this enrichment culture was 1.6 pmol cell(-1) h(-1). Compared to the results of slurry studies, this rate suggests that organisms with properties similar to the properties of this enrichment culture are a major constituent of the sulfidogenic population. In addition, taurine was consumed at some of highest dilutions obtained from most-probable-number enrichment cultures obtained from stromatolite samples. Based on our comparison of the sulfide production rates found in various mats, low-molecular-weight sulfonates are important sources of C and S in these ecosystems.  (+info)

(5/949) An octaene fatty acid, 4,7,10,13,16,19,22,25-octacosaoctaenoic acid (28:8n-3), found in marine oils.

We report structure determination of an octaene fatty acid, 4,7,10, 13,16,19,22,25-octacosaoctaenoic acid (28:8n-3). The molecular weight and double bond locations were determined using acetonitrile chemical ionization mass spectrometry (MS) and MS/MS and were confirmed by MS of hydrogenated and deuterogenated 28:8 and by argentation thin-layer chromatography. 28:8n-3 was 1.2 +/- 0.1%, in oil derived from the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii and a commercial polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrate derived from fish oils (0.16 +/- 0.01%), both components of human dietary supplements. It was not found in whole bovine retina, cultured Y79 human retinoblastoma cells, or neonate baboon cerebral cortex. The long chain polyunsaturates present in the C. cohnii oil suggest a possible route for 28:8n-3 biosynthesis similar to that for biosynthesis of 22:6n-3.  (+info)

(6/949) Genetic diversity of archaea in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments.

Molecular phylogenetic analysis of naturally occurring archaeal communities in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments was carried out by PCR-mediated small subunit rRNA gene (SSU rDNA) sequencing. As determined through partial sequencing of rDNA clones amplified with archaea-specific primers, the archaeal populations in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments showed a great genetic diversity, and most members of these populations appeared to be uncultivated and unidentified organisms. In the phylogenetic analysis, a number of rDNA sequences obtained from deep-sea hydrothermal vents were placed in deep lineages of the crenarchaeotic phylum prior to the divergence of cultivated thermophilic members of the crenarchaeota or between thermophilic members of the euryarchaeota and members of the methanogen-halophile clade. Whole cell in situ hybridization analysis suggested that some microorganisms of novel phylotypes predicted by molecular phylogenetic analysis were likely present in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments. These findings expand our view of the genetic diversity of archaea in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments and of the phylogenetic organization of archaea.  (+info)

(7/949) Roots as a site of hydrogen sulfide uptake in the hydrocarbon seep vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia sp.

Vestimentiferan tubeworms have no mouth or gut, and the majority of their nutritional requirements are provided by endosymbiotic bacteria that utilize hydrogen sulfide oxidation to fix CO(2) into organic molecules. It has been assumed that all vestimentiferans obtain the sulfide, O(2) and CO(2) needed by the bacteria across the plume (gill) surface, but some live in locations where very little sulfide is available in the sea water surrounding the plume. We propose that at least some of these vestimentiferans can grow a posterior extension of their body and tube down into the sea-floor sediment, and that they can use this extension, which we call the 'root', to take up sulfide directly from the interstitial water. In this study of the vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia sp., found at hydrocarbon seeps in the Gulf of Mexico at depths of approximately 700 m, we measured seawater and interstitial sulfide concentrations in the hydrocarbon seep habitat, determined the structural characteristics of the root tube using transmission electron microscopy, characterized the biochemical composition of the tube wall, and measured the sulfide permeability of the root tube. We found that, while the sulfide concentration is less than 1 (micro)mol l(-)(1) in the sea water surrounding the gills, it can be over 1.5 mmol l(-)(1) at a depth of 10-25 cm in sediment beneath tubeworm bushes. The root tube is composed primarily of giant (&bgr;)-chitin crystallites (12-30 % of total mass) embedded in a protein matrix (50 % of total mass). Root tubes have a mean diameter of 1.4 mm, a mean wall thickness of 70 (micro)m and can be over 20 cm long. The tubeworm itself typically extends its body to the distal tip of the root tube. The root tube wall was quite permeable to sulfide, having a permeability coefficient at 20 degrees C of 0. 41x10(-)(3 )cm s(-)(1), with root tube being 2.5 times more permeable to sulfide than trunk tube of the same diameter. The characteristics of the root suggest that it reaches down to the higher sulfide levels present in the deeper sediment and that it functions to increase the surface area available for sulfide uptake in a manner analogous to a respiratory organ.  (+info)

(8/949) Diversity and heterogeneity of epibiotic bacterial communities on the marine nematode Eubostrichus dianae.

The diversity of a microbial community covering the surface of a marine nematode was analyzed by performing a 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) restriction cutting and sequencing analysis. In two clone libraries constructed by using individual nematodes, 54 and 85 restriction patterns were identified, and only 13 of these patterns were common to both libraries. Sequence analysis indicated that the common patterns belonged to four groups related to sequences of cytophagas, sulfate-reducing bacteria, members of the gamma subclass of the class Proteobacteria, and caulobacters. At least two groups appeared to be permanent members of the community as they were also detected in a 16S rDNA library constructed 3 years previously by using 100 pooled nematode specimens. A surprising outcome was that very dominant filamentous bacteria were apparently not represented in the clone libraries, as quantitative probing showed that none of the common operational taxonomic unit groups displayed the expected overwhelming dominance. Nevertheless, our analysis revealed both an unexpectedly high level of bacterial diversity and heterogeneity in samples representing presumably very similar microenvironments.  (+info)



exploitation


  • This topical and exciting textbook describes fisheries exploitation, biology, conservation and management, and reflects many recent and important changes in fisheries science. (wiley.com)

conservation


  • The book is primarily written for students of fisheries science and marine ecology, but should also appeal to practicing fisheries scientists and those interested in conservation and the impacts of humans on the marine environment. (wiley.com)