Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Waste Management: Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.DairyingAnimal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Housing, AnimalNitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.

*  March 1, 2010--Manure becomes pollutant as its volume grows unmanageable (Washington Post) | The Water Information Program

March 1, 2010--Manure becomes pollutant as its volume grows unmanageable (Washington Post). Animal manure, a byproduct as old ... Despite its impact, manure has not been as strictly regulated as more familiar pollution problems, like human sewage, acid rain ... more than can be recycled as fertilizer for nearby fields.That excess manure gives off air pollutants, and it is the country's ...
waterinfo.org/node/3690

*  Publication : USDA ARS

The impact of rainfall on dissemination of animal feces into surface water is an important factor related to manure management ... The impact of rainfall on dissemination of animal feces into surface water is an important factor related to manure management ...
https://ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=132920

*  Brown Gold Fertilizer prices boost manure's value | Agweb.com

But you also don't want to overapply and waste manure-a precious resource.. Bonus content:. *Click here for manure sampling ... To ensure accurate application rates, these dairies are testing manure from each area.. Samples from liquid manure should be ... The spreadsheet calculated that using manure rather than commercial fertilizer netted $4.49/1,000 gal. of manure, or $46/acre. ... He assumed the manure would be used on ground to be planted to corn, with a nutrient need of 140 lb. of N, 45 lb. of P and 40 ...
https://agweb.com/livestock/dairy/article/brown_goldbremfertilizer_prices_boost_manures_valueem_203197/

*  Do You Want Oil Or Manure In Your Water? | Care2 Causes

Bag the manure when dry and sell it. Outsource to manure manufacturing places. Even zoos get into the act, in Australian Zoos ... Manure spills are a bigger problem than most people realize. The 2005 Marks Dairy Farm manure spill, which deposited about 3 ... and made to take more stringent precautions to prevent both major manure spills and the everyday pollution from manure that ... What a choice between oil and manure which one will kill us faster.We will never have to worry about the end of the earth we ...
care2.com/causes/do-you-want-oil-or-manure-in-your-water.html

*  New Technology Could Capture Ammonia From Liquid Manure - Redorbit

The manure from which the ammonia has been extracted would then be transported back into the large lagoon, he said ... As the concentration of ammonium is high in the liquid manure and low to zero in the permeable tubing, the ammonium is drawn ... Gas-permeable tubing is submersed in a tank of liquid manure. A very dilute solution of sulfuric acid is pumped through the ... "Potentially, what we could do is divert some of the flushed manure in a much smaller basin and apply membrane technology to ...
redorbit.com/news/science/2094633/new_technology_could_capture_ammonia_from_liquid_manure/

*  Man arrested in connection with Democratic Party manure dump | 11alive.com

A man was arrested Monday in connection with manure dumped outside the Democratic Party headquarters in Warren County, Ohio, ... Man arrested in connection with Democratic Party manure dump. Brett Milam and Jessie Balmert, The Cincinnati Enquirer , WXIA 4: ... If convicted, he might have to pay for the cost of removing the manure. Pinell said he would try to get an attorney, but ... He also asserted responsibility for a similar manure dump in 2012.. Warren County Lt. John Faine said Pinell's truck was caught ...
11alive.com/news/politics/man-arrested-in-connection-with-democratic-party-manure-dump/345120573

*  8. Miscellaneous Manures

There are few substances beyond those already mentioned used as manures, simply because there is very little to be obtained ... 8. Miscellaneous Manures. There are few substances beyond those already mentioned used as manures, simply because there is very ... Salt, or Chloride of Sodium, is sometimes used as a special manure for Asparagus and Sea Kale and other plants. In weak doses ... When sickly looking yellowish-leaved plants will not respond to a complete fertilizer, or to a nitrogenous manure, the soil is ...
chestofbooks.com/gardening-horticulture/Commercial-Gardening-1/8-Miscellaneous-Manures.html

*  SL427/SS640: Managing Nitrogen Inputs and Outputs on a Dairy Farm

Manure can be applied to forage crops as a nutrient source in the form of manure solids from a spreader or as manure effluent ... whereas with the flush system manure is stored as a semi-liquid referred to as "effluent." Manure effluent is manure mixed with ... Flush manure has a large portion of the nitrogen in the ammonia form, but organic nitrogen in manure must be mineralized before ... Dairy manure is applied to forage crops that utilize the nitrogen mineralized from the manure for plant growth. The crops are ...
edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss640

*  Manure Runoff Depends On Soil Texture - Redorbit

While injecting animal manure slurry into the soil has been proven to be an effective way of reducing greenhouse gas emissions ... to investigate the influence of dairy slurry on leaching of manure nutrient components. ...
redorbit.com/news/science/2020393/manure_runoff_depends_on_soil_texture/

*  Persistence of Resistance to Erythromycin and Tetracycline in Swine Manure During Simulated Composting and Lagoon Treatments -...

... and animal manure constitutes the largest reservoir of such AMR. In previous studies, composted swine manure was found to ... In this study, temporal changes in AMR carried by both cultivated and uncultivated bacteria present in swine manure during ... Persistence of Resistance to Erythromycin and Tetracycline in Swine Manure During Simulated Composting and Lagoon Treatments. ... Persistence of Resistance to Erythromycin and Tetracycline in Swine Manure During Simulated Composting and Lagoon Treatments ...
https://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:325749

*  Ohio farms flush with manure - News - The Columbus Dispatch - Columbus, OH

That has agriculture officials concerned that some farmers, who will soon run out of storage space, will spread manure on snow- ... Record rainfall during the fall kept most farmers from spreading manure on muddy fields. ... Manure is becoming an increasingly serious problem in Ohio. The state has as many as 40 million chickens, hogs and cows that ... Phosphorus from manure that rain washes off farms helps grow large summertime blooms of toxic, blue-green algae in waterways, ...
dispatch.com/content/stories/local/2012/01/16/ohio-farms-flush-with-manure.html

*  Submit a Revision

Table 2. The effect of crop rotation and manure application history on nitrate leaching and the economically optimum N rate.. ...
biology-online.org/kb/revision.php?p_id=4220&a_id=1591

*  Sciencemadness Discussion Board - Isolation of urea from urine! - Powered by XMB 1.9.11

And if 5 tons of farmyard manure per acre, added year by year, will keep a farm in good heart, 4 cwt. of the solid matter of ... Smith of Deans¬ton considered the urine of two men to be a sufficient manuring for an acre of land, and that when mixed with ... The presence of the phosphoric acid contained in these phosphates, adds very much to the ma¬nuring value of human urine.. If ... of dry fertilising matter of the richest quality, worth, at the present rate of sell¬ing artificial manures in this country, at ...
sciencemadness.org/talk/viewthread.php?tid=2415&page=2

*  Download new idea manure spreaders manuals | Diigo Groups

Buy or sell a new manure spreader or used manure spreader. For sale - new manure. New Idea Number 17 Manure Spreader in ... Buy or sell a new manure spreader or used manure spreader. For sale - new manure. New Idea Number 17 Manure Spreader in ... New Holland Manure Spreaders Model List Parts Catalogs / Model Listing A manure spreader or muck spreader or honey wagon is an ... New Holland Manure Spreaders Model List Parts Catalogs / Model Listing A manure spreader or muck spreader or honey wagon is an ...
https://groups.diigo.com/group/terbdotersvi90/content/download-new-idea-manure-spreaders-manuals-7359876

*  Blogs - Business | Agweb.com

Question: If only 85% of nitrogen is available the first year in manure, how much can I count on for the second year? ... Answer: The amount of nitrogen (N) that is available the first year will be highly dependent on the type of manure and the ... Animal manure that has considerable organic material can have some residual N availability in the second or third year after ... The best thing to do is have your manure analyzed at a laboratory for N availability. Most labs that do soil testing also do ...
https://agweb.com/mymachinery/blog/ask_an_agronomist/?Year=2010&Month=12

*  French farmers dump manure on streets to protest low profits - RT In motion

French farmers dump manure on streets to protest low profits COURTESY: RT's RUPTLY video agency, NO RE-UPLOAD, NO REUSE - FOR ... Angry farmers dumped manure, waste and tires in front of a government building and a supermarket and blocked the streets of the ...
https://rt.com/in-motion/310371-farmers-block-evreux-france/

*  http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027795/02660

making manure a balanced fertilizer art votnl general sor and tax 1'., .'.. I election l t. to In Novemh.r. .. by No 149 of ... A survey by the American A J. Crawford and Barle che -I add to this five tons of manure 8C.-30 taining Tp.14 : 7 8. .\- 22 13 ... cynical Inclined toward radio American boy could be president I We all know manure Is a good The taxes to be anld are evidenced ... and son, Cecil attended church at "Kach ton of average manure iimountlnir to '19:1. the State ,of 1"1. A. it .Ioh"k, .1, ,I. 1 ...
ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027795/02660

*  Treatment of screened dairy manure by upflow anaerobic fixed bed reactors packed with waste tyre rubber and a combination of...

Two laboratory-scale anaerobic fixed bed reactors were evaluated while treating dairy manure at upflow mode and semicontinuous ... The results obtained demonstrated that this type of reactor is capable of operating with dairy manure at a HRT 5 times lower ... Treatment of screened dairy manure by upflow anaerobic fixed bed reactors packed with waste tyre rubber and a combination of ... Two laboratory-scale anaerobic fixed bed reactors were evaluated while treating dairy manure at upflow mode and semicontinuous ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Treatment-screened-dairy-manure-by/18280149.html

*  Manure Spreader

255 wire feeder welder to build a manure spreader. ...
lincolnelectric.com/en-us/support/welding-projects/Pages/manure-spreader.aspx

*  Cow Manure | Ecouterre

Dutch Designer Turns Cow Manure Into Clothing (It's Not as Gross as You Might Think). POO POWER She dubs the material Mestic, ... from mest, the Dutch word for manure. While people have sought to manage No. 2 before, Essaïdi says this is the first time " ...
ecouterre.com/tag/cow-manure/

*  Manure

List all words starting with manure, words containing manure or words ending with manure ... d - duramen manured maunder unarmed f - fraenum h - humaner k - unmaker l - numeral o - enamour neuroma r - manurer s - manures ... manure. Definitions of manure. v. t. - To cultivate by manual labor; to till; hence, to develop by culture. 2. v. t. - To apply ... No direct anagrams for manure found in this word list.. Words formed by adding one letter before or after manure (in bold), or ...
https://morewords.com/word/manure

*  Manure Fertilizer | Garden Guides

Well-aged cow manure should be applied at a rate of between 25 to 100 lbs. of manure for every 100 square feet of garden. If a ... Is Horse Manure As Good As Cow Manure in a Garden?. Horse manure is almost as good as cow manure in the garden. Both contain ... How to Compost Cow Manure. How Much Cow Manure Should You Use in a Garden?. Well-aged cow manure should be applied at a rate of ... Growing Grass With Horse Manure. Set your manure in a pile in the sun. You want the manure to remain in this pile until it gets ...
gardenguides.com/article-manure-fertilizer.html

*  Manure Composting & Management: Conquering Mount Manure

... Have more manure that you know what to do with? Learn tips, techniques ... options for using or getting rid of your manure, how to use manure safely as a fertilizer and spreading manure on pastures. ... This workshop will cover composting practices, manure storage plans, ... and strategies for composting and managing manure that can reduce pile size, create a valuable soil amendment, improve animal ...
https://brownpapertickets.com/event/714309

*  Replacing fertiliser with manure - Farmers Weekly

"If we'd have mapped them I'm sure they would have followed exactly where we had used sewage sludge and chicken manure," says Mr ... "We're planning to replace as much increasingly expensive fertiliser as we can with manure." ...
fwi.co.uk/business/replacing-fertiliser-with-manure.htm

Manure management: Manure management refers to capture, storage, treatment, and utilization of animal manures in an environmentally sustainable manner. It can be retained in various holding facilities.Organic fertilizer: Organic fertilizers are fertilizers derived from animal matter, human excreta or vegetable matter. (e.College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand: The College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand was founded in 1964. It is a part of AAU, Anand, Gujarat, India.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Index of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.Gemmatimonadetes: The Gemmatimonadetes are a family of bacteria, given their own phylum (Gemmatimonadetes). This bacterium makes up about 2% of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils; yet, there are currently only six cultured isolates.Index of waste management articles: Articles related to waste management include:Ammonia transporterPolarized light pollution: Polarization is a property of light waves that describes the orientation of their oscillations. Polarized light pollutionGábor Horváth, György Kriska, Péter Malik, Bruce Robertson.Seismic response of landfill: Solid waste landfills can be affected by seismic activity. The tension in a landfill liner rises significantly during an earthquake, and can lead to stretching or tearing of the material.Supercow (dairy): Supercow (or super cow) is a term used in the dairy industry to denote lines or individual animals that have superior milk production: that is, which produce more milk per day, or in some cases produce more fat per gallon of milk. Biology of the super cow.Dry matter: The dry matter (or otherwise known as dry weight) is a measurement of the mass of something when completely dried.Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.Lettuce big-vein disease: Lettuce big-vein disease causes leaf distortion and ruffling in affected lettuce plants.Gestation crate: A gestation crate, also known as a sow stall, is a metal enclosure used in intensive pig farming, in which a female breeding pig (sow) may be kept during pregnancy and for most of her adult life.Wilson G.Nitrogen deficiencyBeef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Nitrogen trichloride

(1/331) Isolation of animal viruses from farm livestock waste, soil and water.

Ten porcine enteroviruses, 2 porcine adenoviruses and 1 coronavirus were isolated directly from 32 samples of slurry collected from a pig fattening house. Concentration of the same samples by adsorption with the polyelectrolyte PE-60 yielded 24 porcine enteroviruses and 3 porcine adenoviruses. A porcine enterovirus was isolated, following PE-60 concentration, from 1 to 6 slurry samples from a sow farrowing house. No virus was isolated from 12 samples of slurry from dairy cows nor from 6 slurry samples from a calf-rearing unit. A porcine enterovirus was isolated from soil samples, after concentration with PE-60, collected 1, 2 and 8 days after pig slurry was spread on hay stubble. Two porcine enteroviruses were isolated by membrane filtration from 26 samples of surface run-off from land on which pig slurry was routinely spread, and 2 bovine enteroviruses were isolated from cattle feedlot run-off after adsorption to layers of talc and celite followed by hydroextraction. A porcine enterovirus was also isolated from 1 of 33 samples of surface water collected on farms on which pig slurry was routinely spread on the land, but no virus was isolated from 36 samples of ground water from the same farms. The surface water and ground water samples were concentrated by talc-celite adsorption and hydroextraction.  (+info)

(2/331) Potential for reduction of odorous compounds in swine manure through diet modification.

Recent public concern about air pollution from pork production units has prompted more research to develop methods to reduce and control odors. Masking agents, enzymes and bacterial preparations, feed additives, chemicals, oxidation processes, air scrubbers, biofilters, and new ventilation systems have been studied. Research relating the effects of the swine diet on manure odors has been scarce. Introducing feed additives to bind ammonia, change digesta pH, affect specific enzyme activity, and mask odors has been either costly or not consistently successful. Recent research emphasis has focused on manipulating the diet 1) to increase the nutrient utilization of the diet to reduce excretion products, 2) to enhance microbial metabolism in the lower digestive tract to reduce excretion of odor-causing compounds, and 3) to change the physical characteristics of urine and feces to reduce odor emissions. Primary odor-causing compounds evolve from excess degradable proteins and lack of specific fermentable carbohydrates during microbial fermentation. Reductions in ammonia emissions by 28 to 79% through diet modifications have been reported. Limited research on reduction of other odorous volatile organic compounds through diet modifications is promising. Use of synthetic amino acids with reduced intact protein levels in diets significantly reduces nitrogen excretions and odor production. Addition of nonstarch polysaccharides and specific oligosaccharides further alters the pathway of nitrogen excretion and reduces odor emission. Continued nutritional and microbial research to incorporate protein degradation products, especially sulfur-containing organics, with fermentable carbohydrates in the lower gastrointestinal tract of pigs will further control odors from manure.  (+info)

(3/331) Limit-feeding corn as an alternative to hay reduces manure and nutrient output by Holstein cows.

Efficiency of limit-feeding a whole shelled corn-based diet as an alternative to a conventional forage-based diet for nonlactating dairy cattle was determined. Twelve nonlactating, multiparous Holstein cows (initial BW 642+/-50 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design. Nutrient digestibility, excretion of DM, N, and P, performance of cows, and feed costs were measured. Both diets were formulated to provide equal daily intakes of NE1, protein, vitamins, and minerals, according to National Research Council recommendations. Dry matter intake was restricted by 30% for cows fed the high-corn diet compared with the high-forage diet (6.8 vs 9.6 kg/ d, respectively); therefore, concentrations of nutrients in the high-corn diet were increased to compensate for decreased DMI. Diets were fed once daily, and cows had unlimited access to fresh water. After a 28-d adaptation period, cows were placed in metabolism stalls for a 6-d total collection of feces and urine. The limit-fed, high-corn diet had a 15% greater DM digestibility than the high-forage diet. A 29% decrease in DMI for the high-corn diet vs the high-forage diet resulted in a 40% decrease in fecal DM excretion. Starch digestibility and digestibility of whole corn kernels were not affected (P > or = .62) by diet. Despite similar N intakes, total N excretion was 22% greater (P < .01) for cows fed the high-forage diet than for those limit-fed the high-grain diet. Cow weight and condition score change did not differ (P > .10) between diets. Feed costs were reduced by $.38/d with the high-corn diet vs the high-forage diet. Limit-feeding a corn-based diet is an economically and nutritionally viable alternative to forage-based diets for nonlactating Holstein cows.  (+info)

(4/331) Conservation of nitrogen in cattle feedlot waste with urease inhibitors.

Feedlot cattle normally retain less than 20% of their dietary nitrogen intake. Sixty to 80% of the nitrogen excreted is normally lost through volatilization of ammonia, which is primarily generated from urea. This loss of ammonia nitrogen pollutes the environment and creates an unfavorable ratio of nitrogen to phosphorous (N:P) in the waste for crop growth. Two urease inhibitors, cyclohexylphosphoric triamide (CHPT) and N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) were evaluated for their ability to reduce the rate of urea hydrolysis in beef cattle feedlot pens. Initially, a total of six pens were used, two pens per treatment, with approximately 70 cattle per pen, and a single topical application of CHPT or NBPT at 20 mg/kg of manure. Essentially no urea was found in untreated pens. However, with CHPT treatment, 2 g of urea/kg of dry manure accumulated by d 4, and all gradually disappeared by d 11; NBPT conserved 3 and 3.5 g of urea/kg by d 4 and 9, respectively, and it had disappeared by d 14 (treatment [trt] x day, P = .003). A second study involved application of NBPT weekly for 6 wk. This caused urea to accumulate to a peak concentration of 17 g/kg of manure by d 30 (trt x day2, P = .001). Once the treatment was stopped the urea concentration began to decrease. When the NBPT was applied weekly, the concentration of ammonia in the waste was less for the treated pens (trt x day, P = .01), the total nitrogen was greater (trt x day, P = .04), pH tended to be lower (trt x day, P = .10), and the total volatile acids were not different (trt x day, P = .51) from untreated pens. We concluded that urease inhibitors could be used to control ammonia emissions from animal wastes, prevent environmental damage, and produce a more balanced (N:P) fertilizer from manure.  (+info)

(5/331) Effects of anaerobic digestion and additives to effluent or cattle feed on odor and odorant concentrations.

Odor intensity (5,437 observations), determined by human panelists (100 different panelists over the course of the experiment), and a number of chemical odorant concentrations were determined for manure-related samples (326) obtained from effluents from conventional stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and fixed-film anaerobic digesters, effluents to which commercial additives or KMnO4 or H2O2 were added, and feces, urine, and mixed manure from cows fed a control or additive-containing diet. Mostly, samples were held in stoppered, Erlenmeyer flasks for 3 d at room temperature before evaluation by panelists and with chemical analyses, but shorter holding times also were tested. Anaerobic digestion reduced odor intensity linearly with increasing hydraulic retention time (HRT) up to 20 d; fixed-film digestion with 1.5- or 2.3-d HRT reduced odor intensity similarly to that observed with 10-d HRT in CSTR. Addition of commercial products and chemicals altered some odorant concentrations (e.g., ammonia) but did not reduce odor intensity; some products increased odor intensity. Addition of a commercial yeast-based product to a dairy cow diet had no detectable effect. The cow diet study showed that fresh urine and feces alone were less odorous than a mixed combination (manure). Fresh manure was less odorous than manure held for 3 d. Total phenol was the odorant most highly correlated with odor intensity. Individual and total volatile fatty acids also contributed. Ammonia did not seem to be a major contributor to odor in this data set.  (+info)

(6/331) Method for detection and enumeration of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in feces, manures, and soils.

Eight concentration and purification methods were evaluated to determine percentages of recovery of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts from calf feces. The NaCl flotation method generally resulted in the highest percentages of recovery. Based on the percentages of recovery, the amounts of fecal debris in the final oocyst preparations, the relatively short processing time (<3 h), and the low expense, the NaCl flotation method was chosen for further evaluation. Extraction efficiency was evaluated by using oocyst concentrations of 25, 50, 10(2), 10(3), 10(4), and 10(5) oocysts g of bovine feces-1. The percentages of recovery ranged from 10.8% (25 oocysts g-1) to 17.0% (10(4) oocysts g-1) (r2 = 0.996). A conservative estimate of the detection limit for bovine feces is ca. 30 oocysts g of feces-1. Percentages of recovery were determined for six different types of animal feces (cow, horse, pig, sheep, deer, and chicken feces) at a single oocyst concentration (10(4) oocysts g-1). The percentages of recovery were highest for bovine feces (17. 0%) and lowest for chicken feces (3.2%). Percentages of recovery were determined for bovine manure after 3 to 7 days of storage. The percentages of recovery ranged from 1.9 to 3.5% depending on the oocyst concentration, the time of storage, and the dispersing solution. The percentages of oocyst recovery from soils were evaluated by using different flotation solutions (NaCl, cold sucrose, ZnSO4), different dispersing solutions (Triton X-100, Tween 80, Tris plus Tween 80), different dispersion techniques (magnetic stirring, sonication, blending), and different dispersion times (5, 15, and 30 min). Twenty-five-gram soil samples were used to reduce the spatial variability. The highest percentages of recovery were obtained when we used 50 mM Tris-0.5% Tween 80 as the dispersing solution, dispersion for 15 min by stirring, and saturated NaCl as the flotation solution. The percentages of oocyst recovery from freshly spiked sandy loam, silty clay loam, and clay loam soils were ca. 12 to 18, 8, and 6%, respectively. The theoretical detection limits were ca. 1 to 2 oocysts g of soil-1 depending on the soil type. The percentages of recovery without dispersant (distilled H2O or phosphate-buffered saline) were less than 0.1%, which indicated that oocysts adhere to soil particles. The percentages of recovery decreased with storage time, although the addition of dispersant (Tris-Tween 80) before storage appeared to partially prevent adhesion. These data indicate that the NaCl flotation method is suitable for routine detection and enumeration of oocysts from feces, manures, soils, or soil-manure mixtures.  (+info)

(7/331) Biomass cooking fuels and prevalence of tuberculosis in India.

OBJECTIVES: To examine the relation between use of biomass cooking fuels (wood or dung) and prevalence of active tuberculosis in India. METHODS: The analysis is based on 260,162 persons age 20 and over in India's 1992-93 National Family Health Survey. Logistic regression is used to estimate the effects of biomass fuel use on prevalence of active tuberculosis, as reported by household heads, after controlling for a number of potentially confounding variables. RESULTS: Persons living in households that primarily use biomass for cooking fuel have substantially higher prevalence of active tuberculosis than persons living in households that use cleaner fuels (odds ratio [OR] = 3.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.82-4. 50). This effect is reduced somewhat when availability of a separate kitchen, house type, indoor crowding, age, gender, urban or rural residence, education, religion, caste or tribe, and geographic region are statistically controlled (OR = 2.58; 95% CI = 1.98-3.37). Fuel type also has a large effect when the analysis is done separately for men (OR = 2.46; 95% CI = 1.79-3.39) and women (OR = 2. 74; 95% CI = 1.86-4.05) and separately for urban areas (OR = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.61-3.23) and rural areas (OR = 2.65; 95% CI = 1.74-4.03). The analysis also indicates that, among persons age 20 years and over, 51% of the prevalence of active tuberculosis is attributable to cooking smoke. CONCLUSIONS: Results strongly suggest that use of biomass fuels for cooking substantially increases the risk of tuberculosis in India.  (+info)

(8/331) Quantification of syntrophic fatty acid-beta-oxidizing bacteria in a mesophilic biogas reactor by oligonucleotide probe hybridization.

Small-subunit rRNA sequences were obtained for two saturated fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria, Syntrophomonas sapovorans and Syntrophomonas wolfei LYB, and sequence analysis confirmed their classification as members of the family Syntrophomonadaceae. S. wolfei LYB was closely related to S. wolfei subsp. wolfei, but S. sapovorans did not cluster with the other members of the genus Syntrophomonas. Five oligonucleotide probes targeting the small-subunit rRNA of different groups within the family Syntrophomonadaceae, which contains all currently known saturated fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria, were developed and characterized. The probes were designed to be specific at the family, genus, and species levels and were characterized by temperature-of-dissociation and specificity studies. To demonstrate the usefulness of the probes for the detection and quantification of saturated fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria in methanogenic environments, the microbial community structure of a sample from a full-scale biogas plant was determined. Hybridization results with probes for syntrophic bacteria and methanogens were compared to specific methanogenic activities and microbial numbers determined with most-probable-number estimates. Most of the methanogenic rRNA was comprised of Methanomicrobiales rRNA, suggesting that members of this order served as the main hydrogen-utilizing microorganisms. Between 0.2 and 1% of the rRNA was attributed to the Syntrophomonadaceae, of which the majority was accounted for by the genus Syntrophomonas.  (+info)



animal manure


  • The use of antimicrobials in food animal production leads to the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and animal manure constitutes the largest reservoir of such AMR. (edu.au)

Treatments


  • The design with 7 treatments include: 100% sludge, 75% sludge + 25% manure, 50% sludge + 50% manure, 25% sludge + 75% manure, 100% manure (based on 40 tons per hectare) , chemical fertilizer (NPK), control (without any chemical fertilizer and organic) was performed. (ac.ir)