Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Protein-Energy Malnutrition: The lack of sufficient energy or protein to meet the body's metabolic demands, as a result of either an inadequate dietary intake of protein, intake of poor quality dietary protein, increased demands due to disease, or increased nutrient losses.Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Child Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.Kwashiorkor: A syndrome produced by severe protein deficiency, characterized by retarded growth, changes in skin and hair pigment, edema, and pathologic changes in the liver, including fatty infiltration, necrosis, and fibrosis. The word is a local name in Gold Coast, Africa, meaning "displaced child". Although first reported from Africa, kwashiorkor is now known throughout the world, but mainly in the tropics and subtropics. It is considered to be related to marasmus. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Infant Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in infants ages 1 month to 24 months.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Protein Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of proteins in the diet, characterized by adaptive enzyme changes in the liver, increase in amino acid synthetases, and diminution of urea formation, thus conserving nitrogen and reducing its loss in the urine. Growth, immune response, repair, and production of enzymes and hormones are all impaired in severe protein deficiency. Protein deficiency may also arise in the face of adequate protein intake if the protein is of poor quality (i.e., the content of one or more amino acids is inadequate and thus becomes the limiting factor in protein utilization). (From Merck Manual, 16th ed; Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p406)Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Nutritional Support: The administration of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient by means other than normal eating. It does not include FLUID THERAPY which normalizes body fluids to restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Fetal Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, in the FETUS in utero.Growth Disorders: Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.Barbados: An island in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It is chiefly of coral formation with no good harbors and only small streams. It was probably discovered by the Portuguese in the sixteenth century. The name was given by 16th-century Spanish explorers from barbados, the plural for "bearded", with reference to the beard-like leaves or trails of moss on the trees that grew there in abundance. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p116 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p49)Wasting Syndrome: A condition of involuntary weight loss of greater then 10% of baseline body weight. It is characterized by atrophy of muscles and depletion of lean body mass. Wasting is a sign of MALNUTRITION as a result of inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, or hypermetabolism.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Diet, Protein-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of protein. It is prescribed in some cases to slow the progression of renal failure. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Nutrition Therapy: Improving health status of an individual by adjusting the quantities, qualities, and methods of nutrient intake.Deficiency Diseases: A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Enteral Nutrition: Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.Child, Hospitalized: Child hospitalized for short term care.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Niger: A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.BangladeshGrowth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Parenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Skinfold Thickness: The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Anorexia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Hypoalbuminemia: A condition in which albumin level in blood (SERUM ALBUMIN) is below the normal range. Hypoalbuminemia may be due to decreased hepatic albumin synthesis, increased albumin catabolism, altered albumin distribution, or albumin loss through the urine (ALBUMINURIA).Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Diarrhea, Infantile: DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Malabsorption Syndromes: General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Noma: A severe gangrenous process occurring predominantly in debilitated and malnourished children, especially in underdeveloped countries. It typically begins as a small vesicle or ulcer on the gingiva that rapidly becomes necrotic and spreads to produce extensive destruction of the buccal and labial mucosa and tissues of the face, which may result in severe disfigurement and even death. Various bacteria have been implicated in the etiology. (Dorland, 27th ed)Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Vitamin A Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.IndiaRefeeding Syndrome: A condition of metabolic imbalance that is caused by complications of initially feeding a severely malnourished patient too aggressively. Usually occurring within the first 5 days of refeeding, this syndrome is characterized by WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; and DIARRHEA.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Micronutrients: Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Prealbumin: A tetrameric protein, molecular weight between 50,000 and 70,000, consisting of 4 equal chains, and migrating on electrophoresis in 3 fractions more mobile than serum albumin. Its concentration ranges from 7 to 33 per cent in the serum, but levels decrease in liver disease.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Foods, Specialized: Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Democratic Republic of the Congo: A republic in central Africa, east of the REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, south of the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and north of ANGOLA and ZAMBIA. The capital is Kinshasa.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Refugees: Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)Avitaminosis: A condition due to a deficiency of one or more essential vitamins. (Dorland, 27th ed)Parenteral Nutrition, Total: The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Overnutrition: An imbalanced NUTRITIONAL STATUS resulting from excessive intake of nutrients. Generally, overnutrition generates an energy imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure leading to disorders such as OBESITY.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.Bhutan: A kingdom in the eastern Himalayas on the northeast border of India, bounded on the north by Tibet, on the east by Assam, on the south by Assam and West Bengal, and on the west by Sikkim and Tibet. From 1720 to 1970 it was under Chinese or Indian domination. In 1971 it became a member of the United Nations. The name comes from the Sanskrit bhota, the name for Tibet, + anta, end, with reference to its location at the southern extremity of Tibet. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p144 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p64)Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Failure to Thrive: A condition of substandard growth or diminished capacity to maintain normal function.ColombiaBody Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Anorexia: The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.Cachexia: General ill health, malnutrition, and weight loss, usually associated with chronic disease.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.GuatemalaAge Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Senegal: A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.BrazilWorld Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Deglutition Disorders: Difficulty in SWALLOWING which may result from neuromuscular disorder or mechanical obstruction. Dysphagia is classified into two distinct types: oropharyngeal dysphagia due to malfunction of the PHARYNX and UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; and esophageal dysphagia due to malfunction of the ESOPHAGUS.Chad: A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.Appetite Stimulants: Agents that are used to stimulate appetite. These drugs are frequently used to treat anorexia associated with cancer and AIDS.Animals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Xerophthalmia: Dryness of the eye surfaces caused by deficiency of tears or conjunctival secretions. It may be associated with vitamin A deficiency, trauma, or any condition in which the eyelids do not close completely.Thymus Hormones: Humoral factors secreted by the thymus gland. They participate in the development of the lymphoid system and the maturation of the cellular immune response.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Diet Therapy: By adjusting the quantity and quality of food intake to improve health status of an individual. This term does not include the methods of food intake (NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT).Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory: Portable peritoneal dialysis using the continuous (24 hours a day, 7 days a week) presence of peritoneal dialysis solution in the peritoneal cavity except for periods of drainage and instillation of fresh solution.Peritoneal Dialysis: Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Dietary Services: Services provided by dietitians or nutritionists to meet the nutritional needs of individuals, including consultation with other professional personnel.Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Missions and Missionaries: To be used for articles pertaining to medical activities carried out by personnel in institutions which are administered by a religious organization.Inpatients: Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Fast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.El SalvadorParasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Intestinal Diseases: Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.Feeding Methods: Methods of giving food to humans or animals.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Helminthiasis: Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Thymic Factor, Circulating: A thymus-dependent nonapeptide found in normal blood. Stimulates the formation of E rosettes and is believed to be involved in T-cell differentiation.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Somalia: Somalia is located on the east coast of Africa on and north of the Equator and, with Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Kenya, is often referred to as the Horn of Africa. It comprises Italy's former Trust Territory of Somalia and the former British Protectorate of Somaliland. The capital is Mogadishu.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Angola: A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.Asthenia: Clinical sign or symptom manifested as debility, or lack or loss of strength and energy.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Methylhistidines: Histidine substituted in any position with one or more methyl groups.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Hospitals, Religious: Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.Taste Disorders: Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.PeruDevelopmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Paracentesis: A procedure in which fluid is withdrawn from a body cavity or organ via a trocar and cannula, needle, or other hollow instrument.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Giardiasis: An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.Relief Work: Assistance, such as money, food, or shelter, given to the needy, aged, or victims of disaster. It is usually granted on a temporary basis. (From The American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)Communicable DiseasesHIV Wasting Syndrome: Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.War: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Gambia: A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.Cardiovascular Deconditioning: A change in cardiovascular function resulting in a reduction in BLOOD VOLUME, and reflex DIURESIS. It occurs frequently after actual or simulated WEIGHTLESSNESS.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
K-Mix 2: K-Mix 2 is a high energy food, used for the treatment of severe malnutrition. It was developed by UNICEF in response to the Biafran crisis, and was widely used in later famines in India and Africa.Malnutrition–inflammation complexKwashiorkorIdiopathic short statureBarbados Water Authority: Barbados Water Authority Limited (BWA), a government statutory corporation, is the sole provider of water services.Visiting Barbados FAQ: Can I drink tap water?Protein toxicity: Protein toxicity with proteinuria can result in those with preexisting kidney disease, or those who have lost kidney function due to age.Bisalbuminemia: Bisalbuminemia is the, sometimes inherited, condition of having two types of serum albumin that differ in mobility during electrophoresis. It can be seen in densitometry as a bifid mountain where albumin has 2 heads.Low-protein diet: A low-protein diet is a diet in which people reduce their intake of protein. A low-protein diet is prescribed for those with inherited metabolic disorders, such as Phenylketonuria and Homocystinuria and reduced protein levels have been used by people with kidney or liver disease.Waterladder pumpDiane Kress: Diane Kress (born February 27, 1959) is a Registered Dietitian and Certified Diabetes Educator. She has spent her career specializing in medical nutrition therapy for overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes.Lucas paradox: In economics, the Lucas paradox or the Lucas puzzle is the observation that capital does not flow from developed countries to developing countries despite the fact that developing countries have lower levels of capital per worker.}}Health in Niger: Public Health in Niger suffers from a chronic lack of resources and a small number of health providers relative to population. Some medicines are in short supply or unavailable.Economy of ChittagongCongenital chloride diarrhea: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD, also congenital chloridorrhea or Darrow Gamble syndrome) is a genetic disorder due to an autosomal recessive mutation on chromosome 7. The mutation is in downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA), a gene that encodes a membrane protein of intestinal cells.National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders: The National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders (ANAD) is the oldest organization aimed at fighting eating disorders in the United States. ANAD assists people struggling with eating disorders such as Anorexia nervosa and Bulimia nervosa and also provides resources for families, schools and the eating disorder community.Dialysis adequacy: In nephrology, dialysis adequacy is the measurement of renal dialysis for the purpose of determining dialysis treatment regime and to better understand the pathophysiology of renal dialysis. It is an area of considerable controversy in nephrology.List of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.SteatocritQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Nathan W. LevinMalabsorptionFood desert: A food desert is a geographic area where affordable and nutritious food is difficult to obtain, particularly for those without access to an automobile.USDA Defines Food Deserts | American Nutrition Association Some research links food deserts to diet-related health problems and health disparities in affected populations, but this phenomenon has been disputed.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityRandle cycle: The Randle cycle, also known as the glucose fatty-acid cycle, is a metabolic process involving the competition of glucose and fatty acids for substrates. It is theorized to play a role in explaining type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance.Micronutrient deficiency: Micronutrient deficiency or dietary deficiency is a lack of one or more of the micronutrients required plant or animal health. In humans and other animals they include both vitamin deficiencies and mineral deficiencies, whereas in plants the term refers to deficiencies of essential trace minerals.Micronutrient Fortification Programs: The 2002 farm bill (P.L.Transthyretin: Transthyretin (TTR) is a serum and cerebrospinal fluid carrier of the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) and retinol-binding protein bound to retinol. This is how transthyretin gained its name, transports thyroxine and retinol.Smoothie King: Smoothie King (A hangover you don't deserve)}}AnemiaCopper mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Copper mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo mainly takes place in the Copper Belt of the southern Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.Pathogenesis: The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that lead to the diseased state. The term can also describe the origin and development of the disease, and whether it is acute, chronic, or recurrent.Karonga District: right|115px|Location of Karonga District in MalawiAl-Waleed (camp): Al-Waleed () is a makeshift Palestinian refugee camp in Iraq, near the border with Syria and the al-Tanf Crossing, and not far from the border with Jordan. It was set up in 2006 by Palestinian refugees stranded at the Iraqi-Syrian border The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has two field staff stationed in the camp.Scurvy: Scurvy is a disease resulting from a deficiency of vitamin C. Humans and certain animals require vitamin C in their diets for the synthesis of collagen.Parenteral nutrition: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is feeding a person intravenously, bypassing the usual process of eating and digestion. The person receives nutritional formulae that contain nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, lipids and added vitamins and dietary minerals.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Breastfeeding promotionOvernutrition: Overnutrition or hyperalimentation is a form of malnutrition in which the intake of nutrients is oversupplied. The amount of nutrients exceeds the amount required for normal growth, development, and metabolism.Male lactation: Male lactation in zoology means production of milk from mammary glands in the presence of physiological stimuli connected with nursing infants. It is well documented in the Dayak fruit bat.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Military history of BhutanMothers TalkEl Queremal, Valle del CaucaDietary Supplements (database): The PubMed Dietary Supplement Subset (PMDSS) is a joint project between the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS). PMDSS is designed to help people search for academic journal articles related to dietary supplement literature.CachexiaBlood proteins: Plasma proteins, also termed serum proteins or blood proteins, are proteins present in blood plasma. They serve many different functions, including transport of lipids, hormones, vitamins and minerals in the circulatory system and the regulation of acellular activity and functioning of the immune system.Guatemala syphilis experiment: The syphilis experiments in Guatemala were United States-led human experiments conducted in Guatemala from 1946 to 1948, during the administration of President Truman and President Juan José Arévalo with the cooperation of some Guatemalan health ministries and officials. Doctors infected soldiers, prostitutes, prisoners and mental patients with syphilis and other sexually transmitted diseases, without the informed consent of the subjects, and treated most subjects with antibiotics.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Kenya Pipeline CompanyDavid Rees Griffiths: David Rees Griffiths (November 6, 1882 – December 17, 1953), also known by his bardic name of Amanwy, was a Welsh poet, and an older brother of politician Jim Griffiths.Healthcare in Senegal: Healthcare in Senegal is a center topic of discourse in understanding the wellbeing and vitality of the Senagelese people. According to 2001 data, 54% of the population is below the poverty line, which has implications on people's wellbeing.University of CampinasEuropean Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Jejunum
(1/1319) Maternal undernutrition from early- to mid-gestation leads to growth retardation, cardiac ventricular hypertrophy, and increased liver weight in the fetal sheep.
Early gestation is critical for placentomal growth, differentiation, and vascularization, as well as fetal organogenesis. The fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis proposes that alterations in fetal nutrition and endocrine status result in developmental adaptations that permanently change structure, physiology, and metabolism, thereby predisposing individuals to cardiovascular, metabolic, and endocrine disease in adult life. Multiparous ewes were fed to 50% (nutrient restricted) or 100% (control fed) of total digestible nutrients from Days 28 to 78 of gestation. All ewes were weighed weekly and diets adjusted for individual weight loss or gain. Ewes were killed on Day 78 of gestation and gravid uteri recovered. Fetal body and organ weights were determined, and numbers, morphologies, diameters, and weights of all placentomes were obtained. From Day 28 to Day 78, restricted ewes lost 7.4% of body weight, while control ewes gained 7.5%. Maternal and fetal blood glucose concentrations were reduced in restricted versus control pregnancies. Fetuses were markedly smaller in the restricted group than in the control group. Further, restricted fetuses exhibited greater right- and left-ventricular and liver weights per unit fetal weight than control fetuses. No treatment differences were observed in any gross placentomal measurement. However, caruncular vascularity was enhanced in conceptuses from nutrient-restricted ewes but only in twin pregnancies. While these alterations in fetal/placental development may be beneficial to early fetal survival in the face of a nutrient restriction, their effects later in gestation as well as in postnatal life need further investigation. (+info)
(2/1319) Ovarian responses to undernutrition in pregnant ewes, USA.
In most mammals oogonia proliferate by mitosis and begin meiotic development during fetal life. Previous studies indicated that there is a delay in the progression to the first stage of meiotic arrest in germ cells of female fetuses of undernourished ewes. We report that underfeeding (50% NRC requirement beginning on Day 28 of pregnancy) provokes an increase in oxidative base lesions within DNA of mid-gestational (Day 78) fetal oogonia; this condition was associated with up-regulation of the tumor suppressor/cell-cycle arrest modulator p53, antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2, and base-excision repair polymerase beta. Fetal ovarian weights and germ cell concentrations were not altered by nutrient deprivation. Ovaries of ewes on control diets (100% NRC) contained more tertiary follicles than their restricted counterparts; however, peripheral venous estradiol-17beta was not different between groups. There was no effect of treatment on p53 accumulation in maternal oocytes. Luteal structure-function was not perturbed by undernutrition. No fetal losses were attributed to the dietary restriction. It is proposed that DNA of interphase fetal oogonia is vulnerable to oxidative insults perpetrated by a nutritional stress to the dam, and that multiple/integrated adaptive molecular response mechanisms of cell-cycle inhibition (providing the time required for base repairs) and survival hence sustain the genomic integrity and population stability of the germline. (+info)
(3/1319) Influence of varying degrees of malnutrition on IGF-I expression in the rat diaphragm.
This study evaluated the impact of varying degrees of prolonged malnutrition on the local insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) system in the costal diaphragm muscle. Adult rats were provided with either 60 or 40% of usual food intake over 3 wk. Nutritionally deprived (ND) animals (i.e., ND60 and ND40) were compared with control (Ctl) rats fed ad libitum. Costal diaphragm fiber types and cross-sectional areas were determined histochemically. Costal diaphragm muscle IGF-I mRNA levels were determined by RT-PCR. Serum and muscle IGF-I peptide levels were determined by using a rat-specific radioimmunoassay. The body weights of Ctl rats increased by 5%, whereas those of ND60 and ND40 animals decreased by 16 and 26%, respectively. Diaphragm weights were reduced by 17 and 27% in ND60 and ND40 animals, respectively, compared with Ctl. Diaphragm fiber proportions were unaffected by either ND regimen. Significant atrophy of both type IIa and IIx fibers was noted in the ND60 group, whereas atrophy of all three fiber types was observed in the diaphragm of ND40 rats. Serum IGF-I levels were reduced by 62 and 79% in ND60 and ND40 rats, respectively, compared with Ctl. Diaphragm muscle IGF-I mRNA levels in both ND groups were similar to those noted in Ctl. In contrast, IGF-I concentrations were reduced by 36 and 42% in the diaphragm muscle of ND60 and ND40 groups, respectively, compared with Ctl. We conclude that the local (autocrine/paracrine) muscle IGF-I system is affected in our models of prolonged ND. We propose that this contributes to disordered muscle protein turnover and muscle cachexia with atrophy of muscle fibers. This is particularly so in view of recent data demonstrating the importance of the autocrine/paracrine system in muscle growth and maintenance of fiber size. (+info)
(4/1319) The chemical bases of the various AIDS epidemics: recreational drugs, anti-viral chemotherapy and malnutrition.
In 1981 a new epidemic of about two-dozen heterogeneous diseases began to strike non-randomly growing numbers of male homosexuals and mostly male intravenous drug users in the US and Europe. Assuming immunodeficiency as the common denominator the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) termed the epidemic, AIDS, for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. From 1981-1984 leading researchers including those from the CDC proposed that recreational drug use was the cause of AIDS, because of exact correlations and of drug-specific diseases. However, in 1984 US government researchers proposed that a virus, now termed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is the cause of the non-random epidemics of the US and Europe but also of a new, sexually random epidemic in Africa. The virus-AIDS hypothesis was instantly accepted, but it is burdened with numerous paradoxes, none of which could be resolved by 2003: Why is there no HIV in most AIDS patients, only antibodies against it? Why would HIV take 10 years from infection to AIDS? Why is AIDS not self-limiting via antiviral immunity? Why is there no vaccine against AIDS? Why is AIDS in the US and Europe not random like other viral epidemics? Why did AIDS not rise and then decline exponentially owing to antiviral immunity like all other viral epidemics? Why is AIDS not contagious? Why would only HIV carriers get AIDS who use either recreational or anti-HIV drugs or are subject to malnutrition? Why is the mortality of HIV-antibody-positives treated with anti-HIV drugs 7-9%, but that of all (mostly untreated) HIV-positives globally is only 1.4%? Here we propose that AIDS is a collection of chemical epidemics, caused by recreational drugs, anti-HIV drugs, and malnutrition. According to this hypothesis AIDS is not contagious, not immunogenic, not treatable by vaccines or antiviral drugs, and HIV is just a passenger virus. The hypothesis explains why AIDS epidemics strike non-randomly if caused by drugs and randomly if caused by malnutrition, why they manifest in drug- and malnutrition-specific diseases, and why they are not self-limiting via anti-viral immunity. The hypothesis predicts AIDS prevention by adequate nutrition and abstaining from drugs, and even cures by treating AIDS diseases with proven medications. (+info)
(5/1319) Co-morbidity and kidney graft failure-two main causes of malnutrition in kidney transplant patients.
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is very frequent in chronic renal failure but, after successful kidney transplantation, body weight gain is common and is widely investigated, while malnutrition after transplantation is underestimated. In the present study, the prevalence of malnutrition in kidney transplant patients and the factors which might contribute to its development are analysed. METHOD: In a population of 452 kidney transplant patients followed-up regularly at our department, body mass index (BMI) was determined. Out of this population, 47 patients (18 females, aged 13-54 years, post-transplantation period 6-180 months) were randomly selected for more detailed examination of their nutritional status using anthropometry (body weight, the mid-arm muscle circumference, skinfold thickness, BMI) as well as biochemical parameters (serum protein, albumin, cholesterol, red blood cell count). Co-morbidity of the selected patients was assessed using the Index of Coexistent Diseases. RESULTS: Among 452 kidney transplant patients, 15% had a BMI of <21 kg/m(2), 45% had a BMI of 21-25 kg/m(2), and 40% had a BMI >25 kg/m(2). After more accurate assessment of nutritional status of the selected 47 patients, a comparison between those who were malnourished (11 patients) and those who were well nourished (20 patients) was made. No significant difference was found in age at transplantation, pre-transplantation time on dialysis, donor origin, early post-transplant course, immunosuppressive therapy, number of rejection episodes or post-transplant period between these two groups. However, malnutrition appeared significantly more frequently in females, and malnourished patients had significantly higher serum creatinine levels. Co-morbidity conditions, assessed by the Index of Disease Severity and Index of Physical Impairment combined peak scores resulting in the final Index of Coexistent Disease, were more frequent and more severe in malnourished patients as compared with well-nourished patients. CONCLUSION: In a population of kidney transplant patients regularly followed-up at our clinic, 15% had malnutrition. Malnutrition is more frequent in females, but kidney graft failure and co-morbidity had a significant role in its development. (+info)
(6/1319) Arsenic groundwater contamination in Middle Ganga Plain, Bihar, India: a future danger?
The pandemic of arsenic poisoning due to contaminated groundwater in West Bengal, India, and all of Bangladesh has been thought to be limited to the Ganges Delta (the Lower Ganga Plain), despite early survey reports of arsenic contamination in groundwater in the Union Territory of Chandigarh and its surroundings in the northwestern Upper Ganga Plain and recent findings in the Terai area of Nepal. Anecdotal reports of arsenical skin lesions in villagers led us to evaluate arsenic exposure and sequelae in the Semria Ojha Patti village in the Middle Ganga Plain, Bihar, where tube wells replaced dug wells about 20 years ago. Analyses of the arsenic content of 206 tube wells (95% of the total) showed that 56.8% exceeded arsenic concentrations of 50 micro g/L, with 19.9% > 300 micro g/L, the concentration predicting overt arsenical skin lesions. On medical examination of a self-selected sample of 550 (390 adults and 160 children), 13% of the adults and 6.3% of the children had typical skin lesions, an unusually high involvement for children, except in extreme exposures combined with malnutrition. The urine, hair, and nail concentrations of arsenic correlated significantly (r = 0.72-0.77) with drinking water arsenic concentrations up to 1,654 micro g/L. On neurologic examination, arsenic-typical neuropathy was diagnosed in 63% of the adults, a prevalence previously seen only in severe, subacute exposures. We also observed an apparent increase in fetal loss and premature delivery in the women with the highest concentrations of arsenic in their drinking water. The possibility of contaminated groundwater at other sites in the Middle and Upper Ganga Plain merits investigation. (+info)
(7/1319) Food insecurity, food choices, and body mass index in adults: nutrition transition in Trinidad and Tobago.
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated whether food insecurity and obesity were associated in a population sample in Trinidad. METHODS: A sample was drawn of 15 clusters of households, in north central Trinidad. Resident adults were enumerated. A questionnaire was administered including the short form Household Food Security Scale (HFSS). Heights and weights were measured. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and ethnic group. RESULTS: Data were analysed for 531/631 (84%) of eligible respondents including 241 men and 290 women with a mean age of 47 (range 24-89) years. Overall, 134 (25%) of subjects were classified as food insecure. Food insecurity was associated with lower household incomes and physical disability. Food insecure subjects were less likely to eat fruit (food insecure 40%, food secure 55%; adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.36-0.99, P = 0.045) or green vegetables or salads (food insecure 28%, food secure 51%; adjusted OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.27-0.79, P = 0.005) on >/=5-6 days per week. Body mass index (BMI) was available for 467 (74%) subjects of whom 41 (9%) had BMI <20 kg/m(2), 157 (34%) had BMI 25-29 kg/m(2), and 120 (26%) had BMI >/=30 kg/m(2). Underweight (OR = 3.21, 95% CI: 1.17-8.81) was associated with food insecurity, but obesity was not (OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.55-2.12). CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity was frequent at all levels of BMI and was associated with lower consumption of fruit and vegetables. Food insecurity was associated with underweight but not with present obesity. (+info)
(8/1319) The World Health Organization Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition: methodology and applications.
BACKGROUND: For decades nutritional surveys have been conducted using various definitions, indicators and reference populations to classify child malnutrition. The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition was initiated in 1986 with the objective to collect, standardize, and disseminate child anthropometric data using a standard format. METHODS: The database includes population-based surveys that fulfil a set of criteria. Data are checked for validity and consistency and raw data sets are analysed following a standard procedure to obtain comparable results. Prevalences of wasting, stunting, under- and overweight in preschool children are presented using z-scores based on the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)/WHO international reference population. New surveys are included on a continuous basis and updates are published bimonthly on the database's web site. RESULTS: To date, the database contains child anthropometric information derived from 846 surveys. With 412 national surveys from 138 countries and 434 sub-national surveys from 155 countries, the database covers 99% and 64% of the under 5 year olds in developing and developed countries, respectively. This wealth of information enables international comparison of nutritional data, helps identifying populations in need, evaluating nutritional and other public health interventions, monitoring trends in child growth, and raising political awareness of nutritional problems. CONCLUSIONS: The 15 years experience of the database can be regarded as a success story of international collaboration in standardizing child growth data. We recommend this model for monitoring other nutritional health conditions that as yet lack comparable data. (+info)