Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Malaria, Vivax: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.Malaria, Cerebral: A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Plasmodium vivax: A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Malaria, Avian: Any of a group of infections of fowl caused by protozoa of the genera PLASMODIUM, Leucocytozoon, and Haemoproteus. The life cycles of these parasites and the disease produced bears strong resemblance to those observed in human malaria.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Plasmodium berghei: A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Fluorenes: A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Insecticide-Treated Bednets: Lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester, nylon (polyamides), or other material impregnated with insecticide, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby offering protection against insect bite and insect-borne diseases.AfricaQuinine: An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Primaquine: An aminoquinoline that is given by mouth to produce a radical cure and prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malarias following treatment with a blood schizontocide. It has also been used to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria by those returning to areas where there is a potential for re-introduction of malaria. Adverse effects include anemias and GI disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeia, 30th ed, p404)Plasmodium malariae: A protozoan parasite that occurs primarily in subtropical and temperate areas. It is the causal agent of quartan malaria. As the parasite grows it exhibits little ameboid activity.Plasmodium yoelii: A species of PLASMODIUM causing malaria in rodents.Mefloquine: A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.Plasmodium chabaudi: A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles stephensi.Sporozoites: The product of meiotic division of zygotes in parasitic protozoa comprising haploid cells. These infective cells invade the host and undergo asexual reproduction producing MEROZOITES (or other forms) and ultimately gametocytes.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Mosquito Nets: Free-standing or supported lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester or other material, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby protecting against INSECT BITES; INSECT STINGS, and insect-borne diseases.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Gabon: A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.Senegal: A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.Papua New Guinea: A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.Disease Eradication: Termination of all transmission of infection by global extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment (From Porta, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed).Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Amodiaquine: A 4-aminoquinoline compound with anti-inflammatory properties.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.SesquiterpenesHost-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Diagnostic Tests, Routine: Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Gambia: A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Merozoite Surface Protein 1: A surface protein found on Plasmodium species which induces a T-cell response. The antigen is polymorphic, sharing amino acid sequence homology among PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; and PLASMODIUM YOELII.Plasmodium ovale: A species of protozoan parasite causing MALARIA. It is the rarest of the four species of PLASMODIUM infecting humans, but is common in West African countries and neighboring areas.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Placenta Diseases: Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Parasite Load: Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Benin: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.DDT: A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Plasmodium knowlesi: A protozoan parasite from Southeast Asia that causes monkey malaria. It is naturally acquired by man in Malaysia and can also be transmitted experimentally to humans.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.CambodiaChemoprevention: The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Burundi: A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Permethrin: A pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in the treatment of LICE INFESTATIONS and SCABIES.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Vanuatu: A republic consisting of an island group in Melanesia, in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Port-Vila. It was called New Hebrides until 1980. It was discovered in 1606 by the Portuguese, forgotten for 160 years, then visited by Bougainville in 1768 and Captain Cook in 1774. It was under joint British and French administration from 1906 until it became independent in 1980 under the name of Vanuatu. The name is native, meaning our land. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p833 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p570)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Melanesia: The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.French Guiana: A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Merozoites: Uninuclear cells or a stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. Merozoites, released from ruptured multinucleate SCHIZONTS, enter the blood stream and infect the ERYTHROCYTES.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Angola: A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.IndiaGenes, Protozoan: The functional hereditary units of protozoa.Equatorial Guinea: A republic in central Africa, bordering the Bay of Biafra, CAMEROON is to the north and GABON to the south. Its capital is Malabo.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Eritrea: A country of eastern Africa, west of the Red Sea, bordered west and northwest by SUDAN, and south by ETHIOPIA. Its capital is Asmara.ColombiaSri LankaGenome, Protozoan: The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.VietnamCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Sickle Cell Trait: The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin S.Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Schizonts: Multinucleate cells or a stage in the development of sporozoan protozoa. It is exemplified by the life cycle of PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM in the MALARIA infection cycle.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Atlantic Islands: Widely scattered islands in the Atlantic Ocean as far north as the AZORES and as far south as the South Sandwich Islands, with the greatest concentration found in the CARIBBEAN REGION. They include Annobon Island, Ascension, Canary Islands, Falkland Islands, Fernando Po (also called Isla de Bioko and Bioko), Gough Island, Madeira, Sao Tome and Principe, Saint Helena, and Tristan da Cunha.Hemeproteins: Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Splenomegaly: Enlargement of the spleen.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Oocysts: Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.LaosCote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Plasmodium gallinaceum: A protozoan parasite that causes avian malaria (MALARIA, AVIAN), primarily in chickens, and is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito.Africa, Eastern: The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Maps as Topic: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Trophozoites: Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.alpha-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the alpha chains of hemoglobin. The severity of this condition can vary from mild anemia to death, depending on the number of genes deleted.BrazilAzure Stains: PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.VenezuelaGlucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Plasmodium cynomolgi: A protozoan parasite that occurs naturally in the macaque. It is similar to PLASMODIUM VIVAX and produces a type of malaria similar to vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species has been found to give rise to both natural and experimental human infections.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.

*  Toxins | Free Full-Text | The Biological Control of the Malaria Vector | Notes

The use of biological means is considered a fundamental part of the recently launched malaria eradication program and has so ... This review presents an overview of the most promising biological control tools for malaria eradication, namely fungi, bacteria ... highlighted the need to develop alternative tools that either complement or substitute conventional malaria control approaches ... The call for malaria control, over the last century, marked a new epoch in the history of this disease. Many control strategies ...

*  Newer approaches to malaria control :SE Damodaran, Prita Pradhan, Suresh Chandra Pradhan, Tropical Parasitology

As there is a shift from malaria control to malaria eradication, more research is focused on malaria vaccine development. A ... Eradication of Malaria. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation announced a road map for the eradication of malaria in October ... A Global Malaria Action Plan [30] was formulated by the Roll Back Malaria Partnership in 2008 which had the following goals: ... Reduce malaria cases by 50% in 2010 and 75% in 2015;Reduce malaria deaths by 50% in 2010 and near zero preventable deaths in ...

*  Table 1 - Chemoprophylaxis and Malaria Death Rates - Volume 12, Number 3-March 2006 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC

Of 3,935 case-patients, 116 (3%) died of malaria. Univariate analysis showed significant associations with death for ... The study demonstrated that chemoprophylaxis significantly reduced fatality rates among nonimmune malaria patients and supports ... we analyzed all cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in nonimmune persons reported from 1993 to 2004 in Germany. In ... To determine the effect of chemoprophylaxis on the case-fatality rate of malaria, ...

*  Items where Subject is "Malaria | Vaccines" - IHI Digital Library

2012) Role of Malaria Vaccines in Malaria Elimination. In: Malaria Control Forum, 24 April, 2012., Blue Pearl Hotel, Dar es ... Malaria Vaccine in Infants Living in a Malaria-Endemic Region. Malaria journal, 12. p. 11. ISSN 1475-2875 ... 2011) Malaria Vaccine Coming. Mwananchi Communication. (2011) Fresh Hopes as Experts Express Optimism on Malaria Vaccine. The ... 2014) Malaria Vaccine Updates and Policy Framework. In: NATIONAL MALARIA FORUM, 25th April 2014, Golden Jubilee Tower in Dar es ...

*  Thrombocytopenia in early malaria is associated with GP1b shedding in absence of systemic platelet activation and consumptive...

... in Indonesian malaria patients and in ex vivo studies. In experimental human malaria, the decrease in platelet counts was ... Thrombocytopenia in early malaria is associated with GP1b shedding in absence of systemic platelet activation and consumptive ... Indonesian malaria patients also had elevated concentrations of sGP1b, which correlated with VWF concentrations. Finally, ... Thrombocytopenia develops early in malaria, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We studied the ...

*  Factors associated with severe malaria among children below ten years in Mutasa and Nyanga districts, Zimbabwe, 2014-2015

Only a small proportion of patients with clinical malaria progress to this medical emergency. On reviewing 61 malaria death ... CONCLUSION: factors associated with severe malaria and mortality owing to severe malaria identified in this study are ... This study was conducted to determine factors associated with severe malaria so as to come up with evidence based interventions ... Controls were children of similar age with uncomplicated malaria. Permission to conduct the study was sought and granted by the ...

*  Patent US7851512 - Composition containing artemisinin for treatment of malaria - Google Patents

... for the treatment of human malarias including multiple-resistant subtertian malaria, tertian malaria and quartan malaria. The ... Clinical tests in Southeast Asia countries where malaria is epidemic demonstrate that, apart from having high and rapid ... and its ability of rapidly killing gametophyte and cutting off infection source thereby blocking spreading of malaria is a ... human malaria such as subtertian malaria, tertian malaria and quartan malaria), in particular multiple-resistant subtertian ...,757,710

*  Rapid diagnostic tests help quickly identify who has malaria - :

About the WHO Global Malaria Programme. The WHO Global Malaria Programme (GMP), is responsible for malaria surveillance, ... "These rapid tests have been a major breakthrough in malaria control," said Dr Robert Newman, Director of WHO's Global Malaria ... Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria. The Malaria Product Testing Evaluation Programme just completed a new assessment of the ... Malaria kills 860 000 people a year worldwide, mostly children in Africa. In addition, there are cases in Asia, Latin America, ...

*  Effectiveness of artesunate-amodiaquine vs. artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in...

2009) The last man standing is the most resistant: eliminating artemisinin-resistant malaria in Cambodia. Malaria Journal 8, 31 ... Nanoro Health district is a Roll Back Malaria (RBM) sentinel site for the Burkina Faso National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) ... Plasmodium falciparum is the main malaria species. Malaria is the main reason for consultations at health facilities, all year ... severe malaria (WHO 2000), (iii) a documented history of adequate malaria treatment in the preceding two weeks, (iv) any ...

*  Malaria in the blood, microscopy - Stock Video Clip K001/0514 - Science Photo Library

Malaria is spread by the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes, in which the parasite completes its life cycle. - Stock Video ... Malaria is a disease caused by infection by parasitic Plasmodium sp. protozoa. Several infected red blood cells, or schizonts, ... Light microscopy of malaria parasites in human blood. ... Malaria in the blood, microscopy. K001/0514 Rights Managed. ... Caption: Light microscopy of malaria parasites in human blood. Malaria is a disease caused by infection by parasitic Plasmodium ...

*  New method to treat malaria in pregnant women ( In West Africa a new methodology used ...)

Malaria parasites are becoming increasingly resistant to choloroquin...The extent of drug resistance is not as high in west ... Africa as it is...,New,method,to,treat,malaria,in,pregnant,women,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical ... New method to treat malaria in pregnant women. In West Africa a new methodology used to treat pregnant women sufferi...Complete ... In West Africa, a new methodology used to treat pregnant women suffering from malaria was found to be safe and effective.// It ...

*  Angiotensin II-Linked Hypothesis to Understand the Advantage of the Coevolution of Hypertension and Malaria | Circulation...

malaria. In the article "The high blood pressure-malaria protection hypothesis" published in this issue, Gallego-Delgado et al1 ... Angiotensin II-Linked Hypothesis to Understand the Advantage of the Coevolution of Hypertension and Malaria. "Sympathy for the ... Angiotensin II-Linked Hypothesis to Understand the Advantage of the Coevolution of Hypertension and Malaria ... Angiotensin II-Linked Hypothesis to Understand the Advantage of the Coevolution of Hypertension and Malaria ...

*  Control of Pregnancy Associated Malaria With Intermittent Preventive Treatment - Full Text View -

Malaria is one of the major causes of illness and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Ghana, malaria is the most important ... The effectiveness of community-based IPT for the control of malaria in pregnancy will be determined. The endpoints of the study ... A facility-based intervention alone is not sufficient to have a significant or sustained impact on malaria control in pregnancy ... Alternative strategies are needed for the delivery of malaria interventions to pregnant women in rural areas in Ghana. The ...

*  KEGG PATHWAY: Malaria - Homo sapiens (human)

Malaria - Homo sapiens (human) [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show description , User data ... Plasmodium protozoa are parasites that account for malaria infection. Sporozoite forms of the parasite are injected by mosquito ... Subsequent infection into red blood cells (RBCs) by merozoites causes malaria disease via aberrant cytokine production and ... Microvasculature sequestration in the brain brings about cerebral malaria that can results in death or persisting neurological ...

*  CDC - Malaria - About Malaria - Disease

... as well as relapses and other manifestations of malaria. ... Malaria Worldwide *Malaria's Impact. *How to Reduce Malaria's ... Education and information regarding malaria incubation, symptoms for both uncomplicated and severe cases, ... Malaria disease can be categorized as uncomplicated or severe (complicated). In general, malaria is a curable disease if ... Severe Malaria. Severe malaria occurs when infections are complicated by serious organ failures or abnormalities in the ...

*  Establishing Effectiveness of Daily Co-trimoxazole Prophylaxis For Prevention of Malaria in Pregnancy - Full Text View -...

... malaria can be severe with a high risk of maternal and perinatal mortality (up to 60-70%). In highly endemic areas, malaria is ... CTX could be an alternative for SP in reducing malaria and malaria-related morbidity and mortality in pregnancy. ... CTX could be an alternative for SP in reducing malaria and malaria related morbidity and mortality in pregnancy. ... Malaria in Pregnancy HIV Infections Drug: Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis Drug: SP IPT Phase 3 ...

*  Less effective antimalarial therapies can help fight malaria better | CheckOrphan

The current drug of choice for malaria - artemisinin - is extremely effective at saving lives from the disease, but artemisinin ... Oxford University scientists have found that the more effective way to beat malaria is to use less effective drugs some of the ... malaria parasites are spreading as the drug is used more and… ... of malaria patients would still have post-treatment malaria ... However, malaria parasites in South-East Asia have begun to acquire characteristics to help evade even this double hit, and ...

*  Malaria! - Wikipedia

EN) Malaria!, su Discogs, Zink Media. (EN) Malaria!, su MusicBrainz, MetaBrainz Foundation. (EN) Malaria!, su MySpace. (DE) ... Malaria! è stato un gruppo musicale tedesco formato da sole donne, fondato nel 1981. La loro musica è riconducibile al ... 1981: Malaria (12") 1981: How Do You Like My New Dog? (7") 1982: Emotion (LP) 1982: New York Passage (12") 1982: White Water ( ...!

*  Study of the Impact of Intermittent Preventive Treatment in Schools on Malaria, Anaemia and Education. - Full Text View -...

... living in malaria-endemic areas will experience a clinical attack of malaria (Clarke et al., 2004). Malaria accounts for 3-8% ... Malaria. Malaria, Falciparum. Hematologic Diseases. Protozoan Infections. Parasitic Diseases. Amodiaquine. Antimalarials. ... Although the risk of malaria is greatest in early childhood, significant numbers of schoolchildren remain at risk from malaria- ... Malaria, Falciparum Drug: Intermittent preventive treatment (SP and amodiaquine) Other: Placebo Phase 3 ...

*  Assessing the impact of differences in malaria transmission intensity on clinical and haematological indices in children with...

World malaria report 2005. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2005.Google Scholar. *. Greenwood BM. The epidemiology of malaria ... Areas of lower malaria transmission tended to have lower disease severity in children with malaria, characterized by lower ... Malaria Genomic Epidemiology Network. Reappraisal of known malaria resistance loci in a large multicenter study. Nat Genet. ... Thrombocytopaenia is commonly associated with malaria, and is a marker of malaria severity [31, 35]. Reduction in platelet ...

*  PPT - Malaria Prevention and Control in Ethiopia PowerPoint Presentation - ID:104303

Dr Afework Hailemariam, National Malaria Control Program, Ethiopia. Country Profile -Malaria Burden. 75% of the land malarious ... altitude , 2000 m), ,50 million(68%) of the population at risk, Malaria is the first cause of illness & death (2003/04) ... Immuno-epidemiology of malaria -Outline. what is immuno-epidemiology?what is malaria?why model malaria immunity? malaria ... a world free from the burden of malaria. -Rollback malaria's vision: a world free from the burden of malaria. malaria is a ...

*  The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Spatiotemporal Analysis of Malaria in Urban Ahmedabad (Gujarat), India:...

Therefore, a targeted analysis of malaria in Ahmedabad city was undertaken to identify spatiotemporal patterns of malaria, risk ... Malaria incidence in Ahmedabad city was found to be spatially heterogeneous, but temporally stable, with high spatial ... Because of the heterogeneity of urban environments and urban malaria itself, the study of specific large urban centers is vital ... Urbanization has been accompanied by a rise in cases of urban infectious diseases, such as malaria. The complexity and ...

*  Estimating global malaria incidence | EurekAlert! Science News

This estimate is lower than other published figures, such as those from the Malaria Atlas Project, particularly for estimates ... Switzerland present a critique of different estimation methods of the worldwide incidence of malaria in this week's PLoS ... Estimates of malaria incidence derived from routine surveillance data suggest that 225 million episodes of malaria occurred ... of malaria incidence outside Africa. Richard Cibulskis and colleagues at the WHO in Geneva, ...

*  Drug Resistant Malaria Emerges - Redorbit

It's estimated that Malaria kills one million people a year.. Experts thought of artemisinin-based medication as a replacement ... "If we do not put a stop to the drug-resistant malaria situation that has been documented in the Thai-Cambodian border, it could ... "The risk that they may be infected with a drug-resistant form of malaria could set back recent successes to control the disease ... The Gates Foundation gave the WHO a 22.5-million-dollar grant to find ways of containing the resistant strains of malaria. ...

*  The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Epidemic Distribution and Variation of Plasmodium falciparum and...

However, the epidemiologic patterns of malaria in this region are not yet defined. In this study, we determined the spatio- ... The southcentral region of Hainan has remained an area of relatively high malaria risk, but the incidence of P. falciparum ... The results indicated a decreasing secular trend and obvious seasonal fluctuation of malaria in Hainan. In addition, the ... These findings identify epidemic patterns of malaria in Hainan, and are applicable for designing an effective and dynamic ...

Roll Back Malaria Partnership: The Roll Back Malaria Partnership (RBM Partnership) is the global framework for coordinated action against malaria. It forges consensus among key actors in malaria control, harmonises action and mobilises resources to fight malaria in endemic countries.Pregnancy-associated malaria: Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) or placental malaria is a presentation of the common illness that is particularly life-threatening to both mother and developing fetus. PAM is caused primarily by infection with Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous of the four species of malaria-causing parasites that infect humans.Plasmodium vinckei: Plasmodium vinckei is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia.Anopheles culicifacies: Anopheles culicifacies (sensu lato) is one of the major vectors of malaria on the Indian Subcontinent. It has been reported to be a species complex consisting of five sibling species which have been provisionally designated as species A, B, C, D, and E.Parasitemia: Parasitemia is the quantitative content of parasites in the blood. It is used as a measurement of parasite load in the organism and an indication of the degree of an active parasitic infection.Avian malaria: Avian malaria is a parasitic disease of birds.Microneme: Micronemes are cellular organs, or organelles, possessed by Apicomplexa protozoans that are restricted to the apical third of the protozoan body. They are surrounded by a typical unit membrane.Theodor Bilharz Research Institute: The Theodor Bilharz Research Institute is located in Giza, Egypt.Kenya Pipeline CompanyChloroquineBenzo(a)fluoreneIntermittent preventive therapy: Intermittent preventive therapy or intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is a public health intervention aimed at treating and preventing malaria episodes in infants (IPTi), children (IPTc), schoolchildren (IPTsc) and pregnant women (IPTp). The intervention builds on two tested malaria control strategies: a) to clear existing parasites (treatment effect seen in mass drug administrations) and b) to prevent new infections (prophylaxis).Insecticide: An insecticide is a substance used to kill insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively.Carte Jaune: The Carte Jaune or Yellow Card is an international certificate of vaccination (ICV). It is issued by the World Health Organisation.Federal institutions of Tanzania: This is a list of the federal institutions of Tanzania.Papa MaliTSOM: Through-Focus Scanning Optical Microscopy (TSOM) is an imaging method that produces nanometer-scale three-dimensional measurement sensitivity using a conventional bright-field optical microscope. TSOM has been introduced and maintained by Ravikiran Attotahttp://www.Psorophora howardiiVestergaard FrandsenMIM Pan-African Malaria Conference 2009Quinine total synthesis: 400px|right|quinine carbon atom numbering scheme left and asymmetric centers rightHealth in Ghana: Health in Ghana includes the healthcare systems on prevention, care and treatment of diseases and other maladies.PrimaquinePlasmodium yoelii: Plasmodium yoelii is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia.MefloquineSaglin: Saglin is a protein produced by the salivary glands of mosquitoes. It is thought that this protein allows the malarial sporozoite to bind to the salivary glands, allowing invasion.Erythrocrine: Erythrocrine describes red blood cell or erythrocyte for production and release of signaling molecules. The term “erythrocrine“ was coined by Song et al.Insect sting allergy: Insect sting allergy is the term commonly given to the allergic response of an animal in response to the bite or sting of an insect. Typically, insects which generate allergic responses are either stinging insects (wasps, bees, hornets and ants) or biting insects (mosquitoes, ticks).Stichosome: Stichosome (from Greek stichos (στίχος) = row; soma (σῶµα) = body) is a multicellular organ that is very prominent in some stages of nematodes and consists of a longitudinal series of glandular unicellular cells (stichocytes) arranged in a row along the oesophagus that form the posterior esophageal glands. It opens into the esophageal lumen and apparently functions as a secretory gland and storage organ.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Drug Resource Enhancement against Aids and Malnutrition: DREAM (short for "Drug Resources Enhancement against Aids and Malnutrition", formerly "Drug Resource Enhancement against AIDS in Mozambique") is an AIDS therapy program promoted by the Christian Community of Sant'Egidio. It is designed to give access to free ARV treatment with generic HAART drugs to the poor in Africa on a large scale: So far, 5,000 people are receiving ARV treatment, especially in Mozambique, but the program is being built up also in other countries: Malawi, Guinea, Tanzania and others.Mining in Gabon: Gabon was the richest of the former French Equatorial African colonies in known mineral deposits. In addition to oil, which accounted for 80% of the country’s exports in 2004, Gabon was a world leader in manganese.Healthcare in Senegal: Healthcare in Senegal is a center topic of discourse in understanding the wellbeing and vitality of the Senagelese people. According to 2001 data, 54% of the population is below the poverty line, which has implications on people's wellbeing.Agriculture in Papua New Guinea: Agriculture in Papua New Guinea has a more than 7,000 years old history. Currently around 85% of Papua New Guinea's population lives from semi-subsistence agriculture.Makerere University School of MedicineAmodiaquineRail transport in Burkina Faso: There are 622 kilometres of gauge railway in Burkina Faso which run from Kaya to the border with Côte d'Ivoire. As of June 2014 Sitarail operates a passenger train three times a week along the route from Ouagadougou to Abidjan.Sesquiterpene lactone: Sesquiterpene lactones are a class of chemical compounds; they are sesquiterpenoids (built from three isoprene units) and contain a lactone ring, hence the name. They are found in many plants and can cause allergic reactions and toxicity if overdosed, particularly in grazing livestock.AnemiaRiver Gambia National ParkPhosphorylethanolamineWat Chiang ManMerozoite surface protein: Merozoite surface proteins are both integral and peripheral membrane protein molecules found on the surface of a merozoite.Plasmodium ovale wallikeri: Plasmodium ovale wallikeri is a subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes tertian malaria in humans. It was described in 2010 when it was realised that Plasmodium ovale was in fact two distinct species - Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri - which are morphologically identical.Ditch: A ditch is a small to moderate depression created to channel water. A ditch can be used for drainage, to drain water from low-lying areas, alongside roadways or fields, or to channel water from a more distant source for plant irrigation.Villitis of unknown etiology: Villitis of unknown etiology, abbreviated VUE, is an inflammatory process that involves the chorionic villi (villitis) whose cause (etiology) is not known. VUE is associated with recurrent miscarriage and intrauterine growth restriction, and recurs in subsequent pregnancies.The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down: "The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down" is a narrative song from the Walt Disney musical film featurette, Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day. The song is also incorporated into the 1977 musical film The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh which is an amalgamation of three Winnie-the-Pooh featurettes including "Blustery Day".Karonga District: right|115px|Location of Karonga District in MalawiMineral industry of Benin: The mineral industry, which is limited to the production of cement, clay, gold, sand, and gravel, does not play a significant role in the Benin's economy.Omayra Bermúdez-Lugo.DDT in New Zealand: The use of DDT in New Zealand was banned in 1989 due to negative environmental impacts.Rabbit feverPyrethroid: A pyrethroid is an organic compound similar to the natural pyrethrins produced by the flowers of pyrethrums (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and C. coccineum).Cameroon–China relations: China and Cameroon established bilateral relations on March 26, 1971. Cameroon is an adherent to the One China Policy.Russell J. Howard: Russell J. Howard is an Australian-born scientist, CEO and entrepreneur.Transport in South Sudan: == Highways ==Nigerian Ports Authority: The Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA) is a federal government agency that governs and operates the ports of Nigeria. The major ports controlled by the NPA include: the Lagos Port Complex and Tin Can Island Port in Lagos; Calabar Port, Delta Port, Rivers Port at Port Harcourt, and Onne Port.Phnom Tamao Wildlife Rescue Centre: Phnom Tamao Wildlife Rescue Centre (PTWRC) is a wildlife centre located roughly by road south of Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The centre was established in 1995 and with an area of over 6,000 acres of protected regenerating forest, this is the largest zoo in Cambodia.TricinHealth in Burundi: Following independence, the World Health Organization (WHO) assisted in the organization of public health services and the training of sanitarians and public health nurses for Burundi. Students from Burundi received medical training at universities in France and in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.Addis Ababa Fistula HospitalHealth geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Indonesia Trading Company: Indonesia Trading Company or ITC, known in Indonesia as PT Perusahaan Perdagangan Indonesia (Persero) or PPI, is the only Indonesian state-owned trading house. Its business is in export, import and distribution.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightPermethrinInfrastructure Lifecycle Management: Infrastructure Lifecycle Management (ILM) is a term coined by the real estate sector. It covers the management of all core processes around planning, construction, operation, maintenance and commercialization of buildings or property.Transport in Vanuatu: Vanuatu's undeveloped road system, with fewer than 100 miles of paved roads, consists mostly of dirt tracks suitable only for four-wheel-drive vehicles.The Peace Corps Welcomes You to Vanuatu.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Cultural entomology

(1/6719) Can anything be done to maintain the effectiveness of pyrethroid-impregnated bednets against malaria vectors?

Pyrethroid-treated bednets are the most promising available method of controlling malaria in the tropical world. Every effort should be made to find methods of responding to, or preventing, the emergence of pyrethroid resistance in the Anopheles vectors. Some cases of such resistance are known, notably in An. gambiae in West Africa where the kdr type of resistance has been selected, probably because of the use of pyrethroids on cotton. Because pyrethroids are irritant to mosquitoes, laboratory studies on the impact of, and selection for, resistance need to be conducted with free-flying mosquitoes in conditions that are as realistic as possible. Such studies are beginning to suggest that, although there is cross-resistance to all pyrethroids, some treatments are less likely to select for resistance than others are. Organophosphate, carbamate and phenyl pyrazole insecticides have been tested as alternative treatments for nets or curtains. Attempts have been made to mix an insect growth regulator and a pyrethroid on netting to sterilize pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes that are not killed after contact with the netting. There seems to be no easy solution to the problem of pyrethroid resistance management, but further research is urgently needed.  (+info)

(2/6719) gammadelta T cells contribute to control of chronic parasitemia in Plasmodium chabaudi infections in mice.

During a primary infection of mice with Plasmodium chabaudi, gammadelta T cells are stimulated and their expansion coincides with recovery from the acute phase of infection in normal mice or with chronic infections in B cell-deficient mice (mu-MT). To determine whether the large gammadelta T cell pool observed in female B cell-deficient mice is responsible for controlling the chronic infection, studies were done using double-knockout mice deficient in both B and gammadelta cells (mu-MT x delta-/-TCR) and in gammadelta T cell-depleted mu-MT mice. In both types of gammadelta T cell-deficient mice, the early parasitemia following the peak of infection was exacerbated, and the chronic parasitemia was maintained at significantly higher levels in the absence of gammadelta T cells. The majority of gammadelta T cells in C57BL/6 and mu-MT mice responding to infection belonged predominantly to a single family of gammadelta T cells with TCR composed of Vgamma2Vdelta4 chains and which produced IFN-gamma rather than IL-4.  (+info)

(3/6719) Immunization of mice with DNA-based Pfs25 elicits potent malaria transmission-blocking antibodies.

Immunological intervention, in addition to vector control and malaria chemotherapy, will be needed to stop the resurgence of malaria, a disease with a devastating impact on the health of 300 to 500 million people annually. We have pursued a vaccination strategy, based on DNA immunization in mice with genes encoding two antigens present on the sexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum, Pfs25 and Pfg27, to induce biologically important antibodies that can block development of the parasite in the Anopheles mosquito and thus transmission of the disease. DNA encoding Pfs25 when administered by the intramuscular route, either alone or with DNA encoding Pfg27, had the most potent transmission-blocking effects, resulting in up to a 97% decrease in oocyst numbers in mosquito midguts and a 75% decrease in rate of infection. Immunization with DNA encoding a Pfg27-Pfs25 fusion protein was less effective and DNA encoding Pfg27 elicited antibodies in sera that had only modest effects on the infectivity of the parasite. These results show for the first time that DNA vaccination can result in potent transmission-blocking antibodies in mice and suggest that the Pfs25 gene should be included as part of a multicomponent DNA vaccine.  (+info)

(4/6719) Antimalarial activities of various 9-phenanthrenemethanols with special attention to WR-122,455 and WR-171,669.

Pilot appraisals of the activities of 16 specially selected 9-phenanthrenemethanols against acute infections with Plasmodium falciparum in owl monkeys showed that all were more active than the reference compound, WR-33,063. WR-122,455, the most active derivative, and WR-171,669, ranked sixth, were selected for study in human volunteers. To assist this undertaking, appraisals of both compounds in owl monkeys infected with various strains of P. falciparum were expanded. These assessments showed: (i) that WR-122,455 was four times as active as chloroquine against infections with chloroquine-sensitive strains and that WR-171,669 equalled chloroquine in activity; (ii) that these compounds were fully active against infections with strains resistant to chloroquine, pyrimethamine, or quinine, or to all three standard drugs; (iii) that the activity of WR-122,455 was a function of total dose, single doses being as effective as the same amounts delivered in three or seven daily fractions; and (iv) that a single dose of WR-122,455 conferred extended, although only partial, protection against challenges with trophozoites. Complementary experiments in rhesus monkeys inoculated with sporozoites of P. cynomolgi showed that the activity of WR-122,455 was limited to blood schizonts and did not extend to early or late tissue schizonts. These evaluations were compatible with the results of preliminary studies of the activities of WR-122,455 and WR-171,669 in human volunteers.  (+info)

(5/6719) Antimalarial activities of various 4-pyridinemethanols with special attention to WR-172,435 and WR-180,409.

Pilot appraisals of the activities of 10 specially selected 2,6-substituted-4-pyridinemethanols against acute Plasmodium falciparum infections in owl monkeys identified three derivatives that were two to three times as active as chloroquine against infections with a 4-aminoquinoline-susceptible strain and, at the same doses, were equally effective against infections with a strain fully resistant to treatment with maximally tolerated doses of chloroquine, quinine, and pyrimethamine. Two of these derivatives, WR-172,435 and WR-180,409, deemed worthy of evaluation in human volunteers, were studied in greater depth in owl monkeys infected with either the multidrug-resistant Smith strain of P. falciparum or the pyrimethamine-resistant Palo Alto strain of P. vivax. These studies showed (i) that at the same total oral dose, 3-day and 7-day treatment schedules were equally effective and slightly superior to a single-dose schedule; (ii) that WR-172,435 was slightly more active than WR-180,409 in each treatment regimen; (iii) that intravenous delivery of WR-180,409 phosphate was feasible and effective; (iv) that both compounds effected control of parasitemia more rapidly than any standard or newly discovered antimalarial drug; and (v) that WR-172,435 and WR-180,409 had therapeutic indexes at least four to eight times those exhibited by chloroquine in infections with 4-aminoquinoline-susceptible strains, indexes retained by these pyridinemethanols against infections with various drug-resistant strains.  (+info)

(6/6719) Suppression of lymphocyte transformation by plasma from owl monkeys acutely infected with Plasmodium falciparum.

Plasma collected from owl monkeys during the acute phase of Plasmodium falciparum infection was shown to adversely affect several in vitro responses which are considered to be correlates of cell-mediated immune functions of normal monkeys. In the presence of acute-phase plasma, response of normal monkey peripheral blood lymphocytes to stimulation with phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and pokeweed mitogen was severely reduced, as was the ability of peripheral blood lymphocytes to respond to allogenic and xenogenic histocompatible antigens. The transformation response of peripheral blood lymphocytes from normal humans to phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A was also suppressed. Since acute-phase plasma was not cytotoxic for peripheral blood lymphocytes, decreased responsiveness did not result from cell destruction. Acute-phase plasma appears to block initial steps in lymphocyte transformation.  (+info)

(7/6719) Evaluating the community education programme of an insecticide-treated bed net trial on the Kenyan coast.

Increased interest in the potential contribution of insecticide-impregnated bed nets (ITBN) to malaria control has led to research efforts to determine the impact and sustainability of ITBN programmes in differing environments. There is a need to develop effective, feasible educational strategies that will both inform and motivate community members, and thus maximize the correct usage of ITBN. This is especially true in communities where indigenous usage of bed nets is low. This paper describes the educational component of a randomized controlled community intervention trial of ITBN, with childhood malaria morbidity as an outcome. The educational approach and messages for the ITBN trial were developed from anthropological survey data collected 4 years before the trial, and from community surveys conducted by project researchers. Low levels of understanding amongst mothers of the aetiological link between mosquitos and malaria led to the exclusion of the term 'malaria' from the initial educational messages promoting the use of ITBN. Appropriate individuals within the existing district health care structure were trained as community educators in the project. These educators conducted intensive teaching in the community through public meetings and group teaching in the first 6 months of the trial. The impact of these initial activities was assessed through interviews with a random sample of 100 mothers and 50 household heads. This allowed the identification of messages which had not been well understood and further educational methods were chosen to address the areas pinpointed. The community assessment also demonstrated that, in 1994, over 90% of mothers understood a protective role for bed nets against malaria and the ITBN education messages were changed to take account of this. The school programme was evaluated through determining outreach (the number of households accessed), changes in participant children's knowledge, post-teaching assessment of mothers' knowledge and discussions with parent-teacher associations. It was shown that 40% of intervention homes with children in the target group were accessed, participant children learned the educational messages well (scores increased from a pre-teaching mean of 59% to a post-teaching mean of 92%) and a high level of awareness of the ITBN trial was achieved in these homes (75%). However, specific messages of the education programmed were not well transferred to the home (30%). The discussion emphasises the need for allocation of adequate resources for education in programmes dependent on achieving a change in community practices. We also describe the value of ongoing communication between programme planners and a target population in maximizing the effectiveness of messages and methods used.  (+info)

(8/6719) Implementing a nationwide insecticide-impregnated bednet programme in The Gambia.

Earlier studies in The Gambia suggested that the use of impregnated bednets might prove to be a useful malaria control strategy. Based on the results of these studies, in 1992 the Government of The Gambia was encouraged to initiate a National Impregnated Bednet Programme (NIBP) as part of the National Malaria Control Programme Strategy. This paper describes the implementation process/procedure of the NIBP. Evaluation results showed that, overall, 83% of the bednets surveyed has been impregnated, and 77% of children under the age of five years and 78% of women of childbearing age were reported to be sleeping under impregnated bednets.  (+info)

severe malaria

  • This study aimed at determing if children with severe malaria had higher levels of CICs than children with uncomplicated malaria and whether there is a correlation between age and levels of CICs in naturally infected patients from a malaria endemic area. (
  • One was a case-control study in which cases of severe malaria were compared to age and gender-matched controls with uncomplicated symptomatic malaria or with no symptoms regardless of parasitaemia. (
  • However, the overall levels in all groups were lower than in children with severe malaria thus suggesting a possibility of a comparatively well-developed IC clearance mechanism in adults. (
  • A majority of malaria cases are non-complicated and only few evolve towards severe malaria resulting from the combination of parasite-specific virulence factors and host inflammatory responses. (
  • 79.9% of patients with severe malaria were infected with P. vivax. (

cerebral malaria

  • Children bear most of the morbidity and mortality from this disease, which comes as a result of complications such as severe anaemia or cerebral malaria (coma). (
  • Children with severe malarial anaemia and those with cerebral malaria had significantly higher levels of CICs than age and gender-matched controls and following treatment these levels declined and no differences remained between groups thus suggesting that malaria infection causes increase in CIC levels. (
  • Cerebral malaria (CM) kills more than 1 million African children each year. (
  • Cerebral malaria leading to seizure and coma is associated with severe intracranial hypertension caused by brain-swelling. (
  • Recent imaging and post-mortem findings in adult cerebral malaria have confirmed the presence of diffuse cerebral oedema with thalamic and cerebellar white matter hypoattenuation, diffuse petechial hemorrhages and symmetric ischemic changes involving the thalamus and the cerebellum. (
  • However, the nature of the pathogenetic processes leading to cerebral malaria is incompletely understood but mechanisms linking cytokines with endothelial cells activation in the cerebral microvasculature have been recently stressed. (
  • The effect of new neuroprotective therapies has not yet been investigated, although the manifestations of cerebral malaria partly share features with neurological stroke or acute non-specific neurological disorders. (
  • We propose a randomized clinical trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of EPO in patients presenting cerebral malaria and hospitalized at Gabriel Toure hospital, Bamako, Mali, to reduce the incidence of premature death in hospitalized patients. (
  • Prevention of experimental cerebral malaria by anticytokine antibodies. (
  • It has been shown that TNF/cachectin, another cytokine that is released mostly by activated macrophages, plays a central role in experimental cerebral malaria (CM), an acute and lethal neurological syndrome induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in CBA mice. (

Plasmodium vivax Malaria

  • To compare the severity of Plasmodium vivax malaria with that of P. falciparum malaria, we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of 356 adults hospitalized with malaria (2009-2011) in Pakistan. (

falciparum malaria

  • A clear understanding of the factors that play a role in the pathogenesis of complicated P. falciparum malaria is essential, as this will contribute to the development of effective therapeutic and prophylactic interventions. (
  • However, it is not clear what role these complexes play in the pathogenesis of complicated P. falciparum malaria. (


  • Through sampling of the malaria parasites of a diversity of birds worldwide, I will be able to investigate how malaria parasite species are distributed among their avian hosts. (
  • Abstract Among key potential drug target proteolytic systems in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are falcipains, a family of hemoglobin-degrading cysteine proteases, and the ubiquitin proteasomal system (UPS), which has fundamental importance in cellular protein turnover. (
  • We investigated whether MG132 blocks malaria parasite development by inhibiting hemoglobin degradation and/or by targeting the UPS. (
  • Background: Antibodies in adults living in malaria endemic areas that target specific parasite antigens are implicated in protective immunity to infection and disease. (
  • Plasmodium knowlesi: the sixth human malaria parasite. (


  • Forty-two percent of all P. vivax malaria episodes were symptomatic. (


  • My research addresses the diversity and host distribution of a common group of pathogens of domestic and wild bird populations, the malaria parasites. (
  • Species identification is one of the major obstacles to studies of the diversity and distribution of the malaria parasites of birds (genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon ). (
  • Additionally, although molecular studies of the avian malaria parasites have been undertaken, an applicable and appropriate species concept has not been identified. (
  • For these reasons, species identification has been questionable as well as our understanding of how these malaria parasites are distributed among avian hosts including their host range. (
  • Such a comparison will shed light on the true diversity of the avian malaria parasites including the utility of morphological characters for defining species. (
  • These methods will allow an evaluation of the threat of malaria parasites as agents of emerging infectious disease in birds. (
  • Preliminary analyses indicate that although morphological characters used to identify species of avian malaria parasites may be useful in species identification, a diversity of parasites may be masked using morphology alone. (
  • Additionally, molecular analysis has revealed variability in the host range for the avian malaria parasites. (
  • Future results from this study including multi-gene analysis will shed light on the most appropriate method for species identification of the malaria parasites of birds. (
  • This will allow for a more thorough understanding of the diversity and distribution of the malaria parasites of birds, including the incidence of parasites with a wide host range that may pose threat to domestic and wild bird populations. (
  • Thus, MG132 inhibits two distinct proteolytic systems in P. falciparum, and it may serve as a lead molecule for development of dual-target inhibitors of malaria parasites. (


  • However, pregnancy-associated malaria remains poorly characterized in such areas. (
  • Malaria remains one of the most common life-threatening illnesses in the tropics with a dramatic toll of more than one million deaths each year. (


  • Plasmodium vivax is a major cause of illness in areas with low transmission of malaria in Latin America, Asia, and the Horn of Africa. (


  • This study aimed to identify, isolate and characterise targets of protective immunity in malaria. (


  • Conclusions: These results are compatible with a role for UB05 in the development of immunity and as a marker of protective immunity to malaria. (


  • Evidence from human and animal studies suggests that circulating immune complexes (CICs) develop during malaria infection. (