Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health: Longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in the United States during the 1994-95 school year. The Add Health cohort has been followed into young adulthood. (from http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/addhealth accessed 08/2012)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.BaltimoreAge Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.United StatesCognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Patient Dropouts: Discontinuance of care received by patient(s) due to reasons other than full recovery from the disease.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Puberty: A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.EnglandAdolescent Psychology: Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Juvenile Delinquency: The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Adolescent Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological changes during ADOLESCENCE, approximately between the age of 13 and 18.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Great BritainDementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Personality Development: Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Achievement: Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Fathers: Male parents, human or animal.WisconsinLife Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.SwedenGeriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Father-Child Relations: Interaction between the father and the child.Crime Victims: Individuals subjected to and adversely affected by criminal activity. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Family Conflict: Struggle or disagreement between parents, parent and child or other members of a family.Motion Pictures as Topic: The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Socialization: The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Quebec: A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)Friends: Persons whom one knows, likes, and trusts.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.DenmarkRisk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.BangladeshEpidemiologic Research Design: The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)ChicagoLanguage Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Human Development: Continuous sequential changes which occur in the physiological and psychological functions during the life-time of an individual.Affective Symptoms: Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Bias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Object Attachment: Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.Causality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Schools: Educational institutions.FinlandCardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.MarylandTwins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Social Identification: The process by which an aspect of self image is developed based on in-group preference or ethnocentrism and a perception of belonging to a social or cultural group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Suicidal Ideation: A risk factor for suicide attempts and completions, it is the most common of all suicidal behavior, but only a minority of ideators engage in overt self-harm.Social Control, Informal: Those forms of control which are exerted in less concrete and tangible ways, as through folkways, mores, conventions, and public sentiment.

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Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania/Veterans Administration Center for Studies on Addiction, 1990.Google Scholar ... Longitudinal effects of integrated treatment on alcohol use for persons with serious mental illness and substance use disorders ... BootsMiller B, Ribisl K, Mowbray C, et al.: Methods of ensuring high follow-up rates: Lessons from a longitudinal study of dual ... New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies, 1993, pp. 251-274.Google Scholar ...

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The purpose of this study is to characterize the quality of life (QOL) and longitudinal patterns of change in QOL outcomes in ... You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100).. Please remove one or more studies before adding more. ... This study will use national data available through a prospective, observational, longitudinal study of children and youth (n= ... to develop a conceptual model that characterizes the effects of specific factors that predict longitudinal changes in QOL; and ...

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Submit Studies. *Why Should I Register and Submit Results?. *FDAAA 801 Requirements ... Longitudinal Study of HAART, Social Networks, & Adherence. This study has been completed. ...

*  Essential Hypertension | Circulation

... has been observed in cross-sectional and longitudinal population studies from early childhood to old age.25 A BMI of ,25 is ... BP variability attributed to all genetic factors varies from 25% in pedigree studies to 65% in twin studies. Furthermore, ... These studies can be interpreted as showing that high plasma insulin causes salt sensitivity and that decreasing insulin ... BP is a quantitative trait that is highly variable1 ; in population studies, BP has a normal distribution that is slightly ...

*  Prenatal exposure to the pesticide DDT and hypertension diagnosed in women before age 50: a longitudinal birth cohort study. -...

... who had participated in the prospective Child Health and Development Studies birth cohort in the San Francisco Bay area while ... Prenatal exposure to the pesticide DDT and hypertension diagnosed in women before age 50: a longitudinal birth cohort study.. ... Prenatal Exposure to the Pesticide DDT and Hypertension Diagnosed in Women before Age 50: A Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study ... have been positively associated with blood pressure and hypertension in studies among adults. Accumulating epidemiologic and ...

*  National Education Longitudinal Study: Base Year Through Fourth Follow-Up, 1988-2000

In the 1990 and 1992 follow-up studies, a freshened sample was included to achieve a representative sample of the respective ... National Education Longitudinal Study: Base Year Through Fourth Follow-Up, 1988-2000 (ICPSR 3955) Principal Investigator(s): ... National Education Longitudinal Study: Base Year Through Fourth Follow-Up, 1988-2000. ICPSR03955-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter- ... This data collection presents base year through fourth follow-up data for the National Education Longitudinal Study (see ...
icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/ICPSR/studies/3955?q=American Colonial Wealth Estimates, 1774&permit[0]=AVAILABLE&paging.startRow=20

*  English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA)

Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS) ... The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing is a study of aging ... English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) (ICPSR 139) Principal Investigator(s): National Centre for Social Research (NatCen ... The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing is a study of aging and quality of life for people over the age of 50. They are ... Users should consult the data owners directly (via English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA)) for details on obtaining these ...
icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/ICPSR/studies/139?keyword=social networks&permit[0]=AVAILABLE

*  National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY): Child Supplement

... (ICPSR 182) Principal Investigator(s): United States Department ... National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) - Child Supplement is a separate survey of all children born to NLSY79 female ... National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) - Child Supplement is a separate survey of all children born to NLSY79 female ...

*  National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979

... and National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, 1967 (ICPSR 4681).. The original National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor ... National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men, 1966-1990 (ICPSR 4675), National Longitudinal Survey of Young Men, 1967-1981 (ICPSR ... National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men, 1966-1990 (ICPSR 4675), National Longitudinal Survey of Young Men, 1967-1981 (ICPSR ... National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (ICPSR 4683) Principal Investigator(s): Ohio State University. Center for Human ...
icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/NAHDAP/series/129/studies/4683?keyword[0]=youths&q="mental health"&keyword[1]=health&paging.startRow=1

*  Longitudinal Studies of Brain Structure and Function in MPS Disorders - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Longitudinal Studies of Brain Structure and Function in MPS Disorders. This study is currently recruiting participants. See ... The investigators will accomplish this through longitudinal studies of enrolled patients in designated centers in North America ... Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product:. No. Keywords provided by University of Minnesota - Clinical and Translational ... Longitudinal. Brain. Cognition. Quality-of-Life. Hurler syndrome. Hunter syndrome. Hurler-Scheie syndrome. Scheie syndrome. MPS ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01870375?cond="mucopolysaccharidosis type VI"&rank=9

*  A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation.

... ... readily applicable and valid method of estimating risk of death from comorbid disease for use in longitudinal studies. Further ... applicable method for classifying comorbid conditions which might alter the risk of mortality for use in longitudinal studies. ...

*  Longitudinal Studies of HIV-Associated Lung Infections and Complications (Lung HIV) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Longitudinal Studies of HIV-Associated Lung Infections and Complications (Lung HIV) (LHIV). This study has been completed. ... For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies. Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: ... The Lung HIV study will build on existing studies to facilitate the start-up of new projects to further the understanding of ... The Lung HIV goal is to facilitate the data and specimen collection efforts of eight individual HIV and pulmonary studies that ...

*  Mode Effects in "Data Collection Platforms for Integrated Longitudinal Exposure Studies": Impact on Data Quality and Burden |...

Data Collection Platforms for Integrated Longitudinal Exposure Studies (PFILES) is a project that aims to develop low-burden ... Mode Effects in 'Data Collection Platforms for Integrated Longitudinal Exposure Studies': Impact on Data Quality and Burden. * ... Data Collection Platforms for Integrated Longitudinal Exposure Studies (PFILES) is a project that aims to develop low-burden ... Data Collection Platforms for Integrated Longitudinal Exposure Studies#8221;: Impact on Data Quality and Burden. Presented at ...

*  Introduction to CLOSER Discovery: A resource for biomedical researchers using longitudinal data Tickets, Thu, 8 Jun 2017 at 14...

A resource for biomedical researchers using longitudinal data - Thursday, 8 June 2017 at Room OS6. Find event and ticket ... Cohort and Longitudinal Studies Enhancement Resources) presents Introduction to CLOSER Discovery: ... Cohort and Longitudinal Studies Enhancement Resources). The UK is home to the world's largest and longest-running longitudinal ... CLOSER (Cohort and Longitudinal Studies Enhancement Resources) Thursday, 8 June 2017 from 14:00 to 15:00 (BST) Bristol, United ...

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20032912 - Effect of occupational exposures on decline of lung function in early chronic...

... longitudinal studies; pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive ...

*  "Alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and early coronary calcification: findings from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in...

Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Logistic Models; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; Prevalence; Risk Factors ...

*  Wiley Reference Works - Encyclopedia of Biostatistics

Baseline adjustment in longitudinal studies. Battery reduction. Bayes' Theorem. Bayes, Thomas. Bayesian decision models in ... Bias in case-control studies. Bias in cohort studies. Bias in observational studies. Bias in routine data. Bias toward the null ... Utility in health studies. V. Vaccine studies. Validation study. Validity and generalizability in epidemiologic studiesVariable ... Surveillance in longitudinal studies. Surveillance of diseases. Surveys, health, and morbidity. Survival analysis software. ...

*  Agency Plan 2015 | Australian Institute of Family Studies

has a long history of managing major collaborative longitudinal studies, including the Australian Temperament Project (ATP) and ... We deliver research capabilities and expertise through empirical research, including longitudinal studies, data linkage and ... The Australian Institute of Family Studies:. *has a proven track record in the design and delivery of high-quality research/ ... The Australian Institute of Family Studies (AIFS) agency plan outlines our vision, mission and our values. It looks at the ...

*  Longitudinal in vivo developmental changes of metabolites in the hippocampus of Fmr1 knockout mice.

Longitudinal Studies. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Knockout. Myelin Sheath / physiology. Synapses / metabolism, ... In vitro studies have shown many alterations in synaptic plasticity and increased density of immature dendritic spines in the ... were used to determine in vivo longitudinal changes in volume and metabolites in the hippocampus during the critical period of ... In vitro studies have shown many altera ...

*  The compression of morbidity debate in aging: an empirical test using the gerontological and geriatric population studies in...

The H70 longitudinal study of aging, Göteborg, Sweden is used to empirically test the compression of morbidity theory advanced ... Longitudinal Studies. Male. Morbidity / trends*. Survival Analysis. Sweden. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. ... The H70 longitudinal study of aging, Göteborg, Sweden is used to empirically test the compression of morbidity theory advanced ... The compression of morbidity debate in aging: an empirical test using the gerontological and geriatric population studies in ...

*  Weaning, complementary feeding, and maternal decision making in a rural east African pastoral population.

Longitudinal Studies. Mothers / psychology*. Prospective Studies. Rural Population. Seasons. Tanzania. Weaning. From MEDLINE®/ ... 16917889 - Longitudinal study of the frequency and duration of breastfeeding in rural bangladeshi .... 11799699 - Breastfeeding ...

*  Early age alcohol use and later alcohol problems in adolescents: individual and peer mediators in a bi-national study.

This paper examines whether there is cross-national similarity in the longitudinal relationship between early age alcohol use ... Longitudinal Studies. Male. Models, Statistical*. Peer Group. Risk Factors. Risk-Taking. Social Control, Informal. Students / ... This paper examines whether there is cross-national similarity in the longitudinal relationship between early age alcohol use ... Students (N = 1,945) participating in the International Youth Development Study, a longitudinal panel survey study, responded ...

*  Infant feeding practices, childhood growth and obesity in adult life.

Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant Food. Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena / physiology*. Longitudinal Studies ... The present paper therefore aimed to provide a review of the main evidence to date from longitudinal studies concerning the ... Prospective studies enable appropriate investigation and evaluation of the determinants of childhood development. ...

*  Longitudinal examination of homebound older adults who experience heightened food insufficiency: effect of diabetes status and...

Longitudinal Studies. Male. Middle Aged. North Carolina. Self Care. Grant Support. ID/Acronym/Agency: 1T32 AG00272-01/AG/NIA ... Longitudinal examination of homebound older adults who experience heightened food insufficiency: effect of diabetes status and ... DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a longitudinal study of a randomly recruited sample of 268 homebound older adults in the Nutrition ...

Notorious (novel)QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.William Donald SchaeferAge adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingDavid Rees Griffiths: David Rees Griffiths (November 6, 1882 – December 17, 1953), also known by his bardic name of Amanwy, was a Welsh poet, and an older brother of politician Jim Griffiths.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Postoperative cognitive dysfunction: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a short-term decline in cognitive function (especially in memory and executive functions) that may last from a few days to a few weeks after surgery. In rare cases, this disorder may persist for several months after major surgery.Rating scales for depression: A depression rating scale is a psychiatric measuring instrument having descriptive words and phrases that indicate the severity of depression for a time period. When used, an observer may make judgements and rate a person at a specified scale level with respect to identified characteristics.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Tumor progression: Tumor progression is the third and last phase in tumor development. This phase is characterised by increased growth speed and invasiveness of the tumor cells.Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status is a neuropsychological assessment initially introduced in 1998. It consists of ten subtests which give five scores, one for each of the five domains tested (immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, delayed memory).List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Cognitive skill: Cognitive functioning is a term referring to a human’s ability to process to (thoughts) that should not deplete on a large scale in healthy individuals. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to learn new information, speech, understanding of written material.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Mothers TalkStressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.Interpersonal reflex: Interpersonal reflex is a term created by Timothy Leary and explained in the book, Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality: A functional theory and methodology for personality evaluation (1957).HyperintensityParent structure: In IUPAC nomenclature, a parent structure, parent compound, parent name or simply parent is the denotation for a compound consisting of an unbranched chain of skeletal atoms (not necessarily carbon), or consisting of an unsubstituted monocyclic or polycyclic ring system.Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Spermaturia: Spermaturia is a human disease characterized by the presence of sperm in the urine.Pedersen, J.Red Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).Texas Juvenile Justice Department: The Texas Juvenile Justice Department (TJJD) is a state agency in Texas, headquartered in the Braker H Complex in Austin.Relative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.Avoidance coping: In psychology, avoidance coping, escape coping, or cope and avoid is a maladaptive coping mechanism characterized by the effort to avoid dealing with a stressor. Coping refers to behaviors that attempt to protect oneself from psychological damage.Waterladder pumpHyperthymic temperament: Hyperthymic temperament, or hyperthymia, from Greek hyper ("over", meaning here excessive) + θυμός ("spirited"), is a proposed personality type characterized by an excessively positive disposition similar to, but more stable than, the hypomania of bipolar disorder.Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale: The Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale (BADLS) is a 20-item questionnaire designed to measure the ability of someone with dementia to carry out daily activities such as dressing, preparing food and using transport.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Biomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Familial British dementia: Familial British dementia is a form of dementia. It was first reported by Cecil Charles Worster-Drought in 1933 and is therefore also known as Worster-Drought syndrome.Inverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Australian National BL classEvolution of human intelligence: The evolution of human intelligence refers to a set of theories that attempt to explain how human intelligence has evolved and are closely tied to the evolution of the human brain and to the origin of language.Substance-related disorderWisconsin Senate, District 4: The 4th District of the Wisconsin Senate is located in Southern Wisconsin, and is composed of parts of Milwaukee County.District MapClimate change in Sweden: The issue of climate change has received significant public and political attention in Sweden and the mitigation of its effects has been high on the agenda of the two latest Governments of Sweden, the previous Cabinet of Göran Persson (-2006) and the current Cabinet of Fredrik Reinfeldt (2006-). Sweden aims for an energy supply system with zero net atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.Conscientiousness: Conscientiousness is the personality trait of being thorough, careful, or vigilant. Conscientiousness implies a desire to do a task well.Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.Comorbidity: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.Epidemiological method: The science of epidemiology has matured significantly from the times of Hippocrates and John Snow. The techniques for gathering and analyzing epidemiological data vary depending on the type of disease being monitored but each study will have overarching similarities.David Budescu: David Budescu is a psychologist and academic. He is the Anne Anastasi Professor of Psychometrics and Quantitative Psychology at Fordham University.

(1/19822) Effect of growth hormone treatment on adult height of children with idiopathic short stature. Genentech Collaborative Group.

BACKGROUND: Short-term administration of growth hormone to children with idiopathic short stature results in increases in growth rate and standard-deviation scores for height. However, the effect of long-term growth hormone therapy on adult height in these children is unknown. METHODS: We studied 121 children with idiopathic short stature, all of whom had an initial height below the third percentile, low growth rates, and maximal stimulated serum concentrations of growth hormone of at least 10 microg per liter. The children were treated with growth hormone (0.3 mg per kilogram of body weight per week) for 2 to 10 years. Eighty of these children have reached adult height, with a bone age of at least 16 years in the boys and at least 14 years in the girls, and pubertal stage 4 or 5. The difference between the predicted adult height before treatment and achieved adult height was compared with the corresponding difference in three untreated normal or short-statured control groups. RESULTS: In the 80 children who have reached adult height, growth hormone treatment increased the mean standard-deviation score for height (number of standard deviations from the mean height for chronologic age) from -2.7 to -1.4. The mean (+/-SD) difference between predicted adult height before treatment and achieved adult height was +5.0+/-5.1 cm for boys and +5.9+/-5.2 cm for girls. The difference between predicted and achieved adult height among treated boys was 9.2 cm greater than the corresponding difference among untreated boys with initial standard-deviation scores of less than -2, and the difference among treated girls was 5.7 cm greater than the difference among untreated girls. CONCLUSION: Long-term administration of growth hormone to children with idiopathic short stature can increase adult height to a level above the predicted adult height and above the adult height of untreated historical control children.  (+info)

(2/19822) Incidence and occupational pattern of leukaemias, lymphomas, and testicular tumours in western Ireland over an 11 year period.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence of the following malignancies, testicular tumours, all leukaemias and all lymphomas in the West of Ireland in an 11 year period. Secondly, to examine the relation between disease patterns and available occupational data in male subjects of working age. DESIGN: A census survey of all cases occurring in the three counties in the Western Health Board (WHB) area, Galway, Mayo and Roscommon, for the 11 year period 1980 to 1990 inclusive. Average annual age standardised incidence rates for the period were calculated using the 1986 census data. Rates for the area are compared with rates from the southern region of Ireland, which had a tumour registry. Trends over the time period are evaluated. All male subjects for whom occupational data were available were categorised using the Irish socioeconomic group classification and incidence rates by occupation were compared using the standardised incidence ratio method. In one of the counties, Galway, a detailed occupational history of selected cases and an age matched control group was also elicited through patients' general practitioners. SETTING: All available case records in the West of Ireland. RESULTS: There are no national incidence records for the period. Compared with data from the Southern Tumour Registry, the number of cases of women with myeloid leukaemias was significantly lower. Male leukaemia rates were significantly lower as a group (SIR 84 (95% CI 74, 95) but not when considered as individual categories. Regression analysis revealed an increasing trend in the number of new cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among both men (r = 0.47, p = 0.02) and women (r = 0.90, p = 0.0001) and of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in men (r = 0.77, p = 0.005) and women (r = 0.68 p = 0.02) in the WHB region over the last decade. Four hundred and fifty six male cases over the age of 15 years were identified and adequate occupational information was available for 74% of these. Standardised incidence ratios of testicular tumours 100, 938) and agriworkers other than farmers (SIR 377, 95% CI 103, 967). There were also significantly increased incidence ratios for both non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SIR 169, 95% CI 124, 266) and three categories of leukaemias among farmers. Hodgkin's disease and acute myeloid leukaemias were significantly increased among semi-skilled people. Interview data with 90 cases and 54 controls of both sexes revealed that among farmers, cases (n = 31) were significantly less likely than controls (n = 20) to use tractor mounted spraying techniques (OR = 0.19 (95% CI 0.04, 0.80)) and less likely to wear protective masks (OR 0.22 (95% CI 0.05, 0.84)). CONCLUSIONS: Trends of increase in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and some leukaemias are consistent with studies elsewhere. The study provides further evidence of the relation between agricultural work and certain lymphoproliferative cancers. The possible carcinogenic role of chemicals used in agricultural industries must be considered as an explanation.  (+info)

(3/19822) Do housing tenure and car access predict health because they are simply markers of income or self esteem? A Scottish study.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate relations between health (using a range of measures) and housing tenure or car access; and to test the hypothesis that observed relations between these asset based measures and health are simply because they are markers for income or self esteem. DESIGN: Analysis of data from second wave of data collection of West of Scotland Twenty-07 study, collected in 1991 by face to face interviews conducted by nurse interviewers. SETTING: The Central Clydeside Conurbation, in the West of Scotland. SUBJECTS: 785 people (354 men, 431 women) in their late 30s, and 718 people (358 men, 359 women) in their late 50s, participants in a longitudinal study. MEASURES: General Health Questionnaire scores, respiratory function, waist/hip ratio, number of longstanding illnesses, number of symptoms in the last month, and systolic blood pressure; household income adjusted for household size and composition; Rosenberg self esteem score; housing tenure and care access. RESULTS: On bivariate analysis, all the health measures were significantly associated with housing tenure, and all except waist/hip ratio with car access; all except waist/hip ratio were related to income, and all except systolic blood pressure were related to self esteem. In models controlling for age, sex, and their interaction, neither waist/hip ratio nor systolic blood pressure remained significantly associated with tenure or care access. Significant relations with all the remaining health measures persisted after further controlling for income or self esteem. CONCLUSIONS: Housing tenure and car access may not only be related to health because they are markers for income or psychological traits; they may also have some directly health promoting or damaging effects. More research is needed to establish mechanisms by which they may influence health, and to determine the policy implications of their association with health.  (+info)

(4/19822) Carotenoid intakes, assessed by dietary questionnaire, are associated with plasma carotenoid concentrations in an elderly population.

High intakes of fruits and vegetables and of carotenoids are associated with a lower risk for a variety of chronic diseases. It is therefore important to test the validity of dietary questionnaires that assess these intakes. We compared intakes of five carotenoids, as calculated from responses to the Willett 126-item food-frequency questionnaire, with corresponding biochemical measures. Subjects included 346 women and 201 men, aged 67-93 y, in the Framingham Heart Study. Unadjusted correlations were higher among women than men as follows: alpha-carotene 0.33 and 0.18, beta-carotene, 0.36 and 0.25; beta-cryptoxanthin, 0.44 and 0.32; lycopene, 0.35 and 0.21; and lutein + zeaxanthin, 0.27 and 0.10, respectively. Adjustment for age, energy intake, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), plasma cholesterol concentrations and smoking reduced the gender differences, respectively, to the following: alpha-carotene 0.30 and 0.28; beta-carotene, 0.34 and 0.31; beta-cryptoxanthin, 0.45 and 0.36; lycopene, 0.36 and 0.31; and lutein + zeaxanthin, 0.24 and 0.14. Plots of adjusted mean plasma carotenoid concentration by quintile of respective carotenoid intake show apparent greater responsiveness among women, compared with men, to dietary intake of alpha- and beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin, but similar blood-diet relationships for lycopene and lutein + zeaxanthin. Reported daily intake of fruits and vegetables correlated most strongly with plasma beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene among women and with plasma alpha- and beta-carotene among men. With the exception of lutein + zeaxanthin, this dietary questionnaire does provide reasonable rankings of carotenoid status among elderly subjects, with the strongest correlations for beta-cryptoxanthin. Appropriate adjustment of confounders is necessary to clarify these associations among men.  (+info)

(5/19822) Obstructive uropathy and hydronephrosis in male KK-Ay mice: a report of cases.

Uropathy associated with hydronephrosis was observed frequently in our male KK-Ay mouse colony during a long-term study of diabetes. The lesion occurred in 24 of the 31 KK-Ay male mice and accounted for the greatest number of spontaneous deaths among them. It was observed after 4 months of age and involved about hard plugs of altered seminal material resembling the seminal vesicle secretion. The plugs became impacted in the urethral bulb and the bladder. The penile anatomy, with its flexure, pressure on the urethra from the bulbocavernosus muscle, and the characteristic ability of the seminal fluid to easily coagulate to form the vaginal plug may have contributed to the lesion. Correlation between development of the uropathy and diabetes has not been established.  (+info)

(6/19822) Measurement of striatal D2 dopamine receptor density and affinity with [11C]-raclopride in vivo: a test-retest analysis.

Subacute and long-term stability of measurements of D2 dopamine receptor density (Bmax), affinity (Kd) was studied with positron emission tomography in eight healthy male volunteers. [11C]-Raclopride and the transient equilibrium method were used to measure D2 receptor characteristics. The interval between measurements (scan pairs) was 3 to 7 weeks (subacute) for four subjects and 6 to 11 months (long-term) for four subjects. A test-retest analysis of quantitative measurements of D2 receptor Bmax and Kd was compared with that done on binding potential (BP, Bmax/Kd) measures. In addition, the effect of error in defining the transient equilibrium time (tmax) in the parameter estimation procedure was explored with simulations. The subacute test-retest indicates good reproducibility of D2 receptor density, affinity, and BP ratio measurements with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.90, 0.96, and 0.86, respectively. The variability of the measurements after 6 to 11 months was slightly higher than that seen in a subacute testing for Kd and more clearly so for binding potential and Bmax. The absolute variability in Bmax (14.5%) measurements was consistently higher than that of Kd (8.4%) or BP (7.9%) both in subacute and long-term measurements. Simulations indicated that the Bmax and Kd estimation procedure is more sensitive to error in the tmax than that for the BP. The results indicate a good overall stability of the equilibrium method with [11C]raclopride for measuring dopamine D2 receptor binding characteristics in the striatum. The BP approach is more stable than Kd and especially Bmax measurements. Error in defining the tmax in particular in the low specific radioactivity scan may be one source of greater variability in Bmax versus BP. However, a higher intraindividual variability in measurements of the D2 receptor Bmax also may include a component of continuous regulation of this parameter over time. These methodologic aspects should be considered in the design and interpretation of longitudinal studies on D2 dopamine receptor characteristics with [11C]-raclopride.  (+info)

(7/19822) New-onset sustained ventricular tachycardia after cardiac surgery.

BACKGROUND: The de novo occurrence of sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) after CABG has been described, but the incidence, mortality rate, long-term follow-up, and mechanism are not well defined. METHODS AND RESULTS: This prospective study enrolled consecutive patients undergoing CABG at a single institution. Patients were followed up for the development of sustained VT, and a detailed analysis of clinical, angiographic, and surgical variables associated with the occurrence of VT was performed. A total of 382 patients participated, and 12 patients (3.1%) experienced >/=1 episode of sustained VT 4.1+/-4.8 days after CABG. In 11 of 12 patients, no postoperative complication explained the VT; 1 patient had a perioperative myocardial infarction. The in-hospital mortality rate was 25%. Patients with VT were more likely to have prior myocardial infarction (92% versus 50%, P<0.01), severe congestive heart failure (56% versus 21%, P<0.01), and ejection fraction <0.40 (70% versus 29%, P<0.01). When all 3 factors were present, the risk of VT was 30%, a 14-fold increase. Patients with VT had more noncollateralized totally occluded vessels on angiogram (1.4+/-0.97 versus 0.54+/-0.7, P<0.01), a bypass graft across a noncollateralized occluded vessel (1.50+/-1.0 versus 0.42+/-0.62, P<0.01), and a bypass graft across a noncollateralized occluded vessel to an infarct zone (1.50+/-1.0 versus 0.17+/-0.38, P<0.01). By multivariate analysis, the number of bypass grafts across a noncollateralized occluded vessel to an infarct zone was the only independent factor predicting VT. CONCLUSIONS: The first presentation of sustained monomorphic VT in the recovery period after CABG is uncommon, but the incidence is high in specific clinical subsets. Placement of a bypass graft across a noncollateralized total occlusion in a vessel supplying an infarct zone was strongly and independently associated with the development of VT.  (+info)

(8/19822) Septicemia in dialysis patients: incidence, risk factors, and prognosis.

BACKGROUND: Infection is second to cardiovascular disease as a cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and septicemia causes a majority of these infectious deaths. To identify patients at high risk and to characterize modifiable risk factors for septicemia, we examined the incidence, risk factors, and prognosis for septicemia in a large, representative group of U.S. dialysis patients. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of incident ESRD patients in the case-mix study of the U.S. Renal Data System with seven years of follow-up from hospitalization and death records. Poisson regression was used to examine independent risk factors for hospital-managed septicemia. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the independent effect of septicemia on all-cause mortality and on death from septicemia. Separate analyses were performed for patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD). RESULTS: Over seven years of follow-up, 11.7% of 4005 HD patients and 9.4% of 913 PD patients had at least one episode of septicemia. Older age and diabetes were independent risk factors for septicemia in all patients. Among HD patients, low serum albumin, temporary vascular access, and dialyzer reuse were also associated with increased risk. Among PD patients, white race and having no health insurance at dialysis initiation were also risk factors. Patients with septicemia had twice the risk of death from any cause and a fivefold to ninefold increased risk of death from septicemia. CONCLUSIONS: Septicemia, which carries a marked increased risk of death, occurs frequently in patients on PD as well as HD. Early referral to a nephrologist, improving nutrition, and avoiding temporary vascular access may decrease the incidence of septicemia. Further study of how race, insurance status, and dialyzer reuse can contribute to the risk of septicemia among ESRD patients is indicated.  (+info)


  • The present paper therefore aimed to provide a review of the main evidence to date from longitudinal studies concerning the associations of infant feeding practices, patterns of childhood growth and nutritional status exhibited in adult life. (biomedsearch.com)


  • The Lung HIV goal is to facilitate the data and specimen collection efforts of eight individual HIV and pulmonary studies that operate under the direction of the NHLBI. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The Lung HIV study will build on existing studies to facilitate the start-up of new projects to further the understanding of the relationship between pulmonary disease and HIV infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)

Prospective Studies

  • Prospective studies enable appropriate investigation and evaluation of the determinants of childhood development. (biomedsearch.com)


  • DESIGN: Secondary multiple regression analysis of a subset of variables from a larger longitudinal study that examined adolescent mothers and infants. (biomedsearch.com)


  • This paper examines whether there is cross-national similarity in the longitudinal relationship between early age alcohol use and adolescent alcohol problems. (biomedsearch.com)


  • The compression of morbidity debate in aging: an empirical test using the gerontological and geriatric population studies in Göteborg, Sweden (H70). (biomedsearch.com)


  • A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation. (omicsonline.org)
  • Students (N = 1,945) participating in the International Youth Development Study, a longitudinal panel survey study, responded to questions on alcohol use and influencing factors, and were followed annually over a 3-year period from 2002 to 2004 (98% retention rate). (biomedsearch.com)


  • The method of classifying comorbidity provides a simple, readily applicable and valid method of estimating risk of death from comorbid disease for use in longitudinal studies. (omicsonline.org)


  • Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. (clinicaltrials.gov)


  • Longitudinal examination of homebound older adults who experience heightened food insufficiency: effect of diabetes status and implications for service provision. (biomedsearch.com)