Livestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Animal DiseasesPlant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Rift Valley Fever: An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Rift Valley fever virus: A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.Goat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Foot-and-Mouth DiseaseCamels: Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.Ruminants: A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Buffaloes: Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.Ergotism: Poisoning caused by ingesting ergotized grain or by the misdirected or excessive use of ergot as a medicine.Veterinarians: Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.Ceratopogonidae: A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.Drug Residues: Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.Sheep, Domestic: A species of sheep, Ovis aries, descended from Near Eastern wild forms, especially mouflon.Ethnobotany: The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.Tuberculosis, Bovine: An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals.Tsetse Flies: Bloodsucking flies of the genus Glossina, found primarily in equatorial Africa. Several species are intermediate hosts of trypanosomes.Veterinary Drugs: Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Trypanosomiasis: Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.Helminthiasis, Animal: Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Trypanosoma congolense: A species of Trypanosome hemoflagellates that is carried by tsetse flies and causes severe anemia in cattle. These parasites are also found in horses, sheep, goats, and camels.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.Housing, AnimalTrypanosomiasis, Bovine: Infection in cattle caused by various species of trypanosomes.Trypanosoma: A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.Oxytropis: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain SWAINSONINE.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Bluetongue: A reovirus infection, chiefly of sheep, characterized by a swollen blue tongue, catarrhal inflammation of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and often by inflammation of sensitive laminae of the feet and coronet.NebraskaErgot Alkaloids: Alkaloids originally isolated from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea (Hypocreaceae). They include compounds that are structurally related to ergoline (ERGOLINES) and ergotamine (ERGOTAMINES). Many of the ergot alkaloids act as alpha-adrenergic antagonists.Puma: A genus in the family FELIDAE comprising one species, Puma concolor. It is a large, long-tailed, feline of uniform color. The names puma, cougar, and mountain lion are used interchangeably for this species. There are more than 20 subspecies.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Brucellosis: Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Falconiformes: An order of diurnal BIRDS of prey, including EAGLES; HAWKS; buzzards; vultures; and falcons.Raptors: BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean: A severe, often fatal disease in humans caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUS, CRIMEAN-CONGO).Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Animal Identification Systems: Procedures for recognizing individual animals and certain identifiable characteristics pertaining to them; includes computerized methods, ear tags, etc.Mongolia: The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.Sus scrofa: A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.Claviceps: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Clavicipitaceae, order Hypocreales, parasitic on various grasses (POACEAE). The sclerotia contain several toxic alkaloids. Claviceps purpurea on rye causes ergotism.Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Waste Products: Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)ArtiodactylaMilk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Ergotamines: A series of structurally-related alkaloids containing the ergotaman backbone structure.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.DairyingCryptosporidiosis: Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.Acremonium: A mitosporic fungal genus with many reported ascomycetous teleomorphs. Cephalosporin antibiotics are derived from this genus.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Waste Management: Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Kazakhstan
New Mexico Livestock Board: The New Mexico Livestock Board regulates livestock health and livestock identification in New Mexico, in the United States. It was created in 1967 by the merger of the New Mexico Cattle Sanitary Board and the New Mexico Sheep Sanitary Board.Interbreeding of dingoes with other domestic dogs: The interbreeding of dingoes with other domestic dogs is an ongoing process affecting the population of free ranging domestic dogs in Australia. The current population of free ranging domestic dogs in Australia is now probably higher than in the past.College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand: The College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand was founded in 1964. It is a part of AAU, Anand, Gujarat, India.Plum Island Animal Disease Center: Plum Island Animal Disease Center of New York (PIADCNY) is a United States federal research facility dedicated to the study of animal diseases. It is part of the DHS Directorate for Science and Technology.List of poisonous plantsBeef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Manure management: Manure management refers to capture, storage, treatment, and utilization of animal manures in an environmentally sustainable manner. It can be retained in various holding facilities.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Angora goat: The Angora goat () is a breed of domestic goat that is named after Ankara, Turkey, historically known as Angora. Angora goats produce the lustrous fibre known as mohair.Musbury Valley: The Musbury Valley is a small valley in the east Pennines, west of Helmshore and Haslingden in Rossendale, Lancashire. The valley is very picturesque and includes a variety of landscapes, mostly sheep pasture and moors but there are some patches of beautiful woodland here and there.Corriedale: Corriedale sheep are a dual purpose breed, meaning they are used both in the production of wool and meat. The Corriedale is the oldest of all the crossbred breeds, a Merino-Lincoln cross developed almost simultaneously in Australia and New ZealandStock Types, The Land, North Richmond, c.C. J. Peters: Clarence James Peters, Jr, M.D.Indian Veterinary Research InstituteFoot-and-mouth disease: (ILDS B08.820)Cama (animal): *CamelusRuminant: Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions. The process typically requires the fermented ingesta (known as cud) to be regurgitated and chewed again.Meramec Conservation AreaSubtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.Buffalo burger: Buffalo burgers are hamburgers made with meat from the American bison (Bison bison), or water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in the United Kingdom.Harry Spira: Harold R. "Harry" Spira, BVSc MRCVS MACVSc HDA was an Australian veterinarian, geneticist and dog fancier who was instrumental in the development of dog breeding programs which used artificial insemination and frozen semen.Culicoides imicola: Culicoides imicola is a midge which transmits the bluetongue virus. Other suspected BTV vectors are Culicoides (Culicoides) pulicaris and species in the Culicoides (Avaritia) obsoletus complex.Drugwipe test: The DrugWipe is a test used to wipe surfaces for traces of drug residue. It may also be used for sweat or saliva tests of individuals.HD 12139Mycobacterium bovis: ATCC 19210Haematozoa: Haematozoa or Hematozoa is a general term that includes blood parasites, mainly protozoans. Well known examples include the malaria and trypanosoma parasites, but a large number of species are known to infect birds and are transmitted by arthropod vectors.List of veterinary drugs: A list of drugs used in veterinary medicine.Plant breedingTrypanosoma evansi: Trypanosoma evansi is a protozoan trypanosome in the genus Trypanosoma that causes one form of surra in animals. It has been proposed that T.TrypanosomiasisSurfbirdDactylogyrus: Dactylogyrus is a genus of the Dactylogyridae family. They are commonly known as gill flukesBritish Poultry Standard: [Poultry Standard.png|thumb|right|The front cover of the 6th Edition of the British Poultry Standards.Israel and animal welfare: Israel's protection of animal welfare rests upon the Animal Welfare Law, 1994 which is composed of an Animal Protection Law and an Animal Experimentation Law. The law was originally introduced by Abraham Poraz in 1993 and passed by the Knesset on January 11, 1994.Dry matter: The dry matter (or otherwise known as dry weight) is a measurement of the mass of something when completely dried.Trypanosoma congolense: Trypanosoma congolense is a species of trypanosomes and is the major pathogen responsible for the disease nagana in cattle and other animals including sheep, pigs, goats, horses and camels, as well as laboratory mice. It is the most common cause of nagana in east Africa, but is also a major cause of nagana in west Africa.Deer farm: A deer farm is a fenced piece of land suitable for grazing that is populated with deer such as elk, moose, and even reindeer raised for the purpose of hunting tourism or as livestock. This practice is very different from the way such Arctic communities like the Laplanders migrate in open country with their herds of reindeer.Foot-and-mouth disease virus: The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the pathogen that causes foot-and-mouth disease. It is a picornavirus, the prototypical member of the Aphthovirus genus.Gestation crate: A gestation crate, also known as a sow stall, is a metal enclosure used in intensive pig farming, in which a female breeding pig (sow) may be kept during pregnancy and for most of her adult life.Wilson G.Boran cattleTrypanosoma equiperdum: Τrypanosoma equiperdum is a protozoan parasite that causes Dourine or covering sickness in horses and other animals in the family equidae. Genetic analyses have revealed T.Oxytropis lambertii: Oxytropis lambertii is a species of flowering plant in the legume family known by several common names, including purple locoweed, woolly locoweed, and Lambert crazyweed.Colt Crag Reservoir: Colt Crag Reservoir is a relatively shallow reservoir in Northumberland, England adjacent to the A68 road, and north of Corbridge. The A68 road at this point runs along the course of Dere Street, a Roman road.Bluetongue disease: Bluetongue disease is a-contagious, insect-borne, viral disease of ruminants, mainly sheep and more frequently cattle, goats, buffalo, deer, dromedaries, and antelope. It is caused by the Bluetongue virus (BTV).University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Dentistry: The University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Dentistry is located on the East Campus of the University of Nebraska at Lincoln. The College offers degrees in Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) and Registered Dental Hygienist (RDH).ErgocristineHarold H. Malkmes Wildlife Education and Ecology Center: The Harold H. Malkmes Wildlife Education and Ecology Center is a park, zoo, and ecology site in Holtsville, New York and operated by the Town of Brookhaven, and located on the site of a former landfill.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Brucellosis vaccinePaddock: A paddock has two primary meanings in different parts of the English-speaking world. In Canada, the USA and UK, a paddock is a small enclosure used to keep horses.Griffon: Griffon is a type of dog, a collection of breeds of originally hunting dogs. There are three lines of the griffon type recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI): the griffon vendéens, the wirehaired pointers, and the smousje (Belgian companion dogs or Dutch Smoushond).Prairie Wildlife Rehabilitation CentreEcosystemWhite meat: White meat or light meat refers to the lighter-colored meat of poultry as contrasted with dark meat. In a more general sense, white meat may also refer to any lighter-colored meat, as contrasted with red meats like beef and some types of game.United States Animal Identification Plan: United States Animal Identification Plan (USAIP) — Officials from approximately 70 animal industry organizations and government agencies have been working since early 2002 on a plan for a national system to identify that might follow food animals from birth to slaughter. The primary purpose is to trace animals back from slaughter through all premises within 48 hours of an animal disease outbreak, in order to determine the disease’s origin and to contain it quickly.Outer Mongolia: Outer Mongolia (Mongolian: [Gadagadu Monggol] in Mongolian script, and [Gadaad Mongol] in Mongolian Cyrillic; )Huhbator Borjigin. 2004.Ergot: Ergot (pron. ) or ergot fungi refers to a group of fungi of the genus Claviceps.Simon Carpenter: Dr. Simon Carpenter, Head of the Entomology and Modelling Group in the Vector-borne Diseases Programme at the UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council Institute for Animal Health’s Pirbright Laboratory in Woking, Surrey, is an entomologist who was awarded the first Rooker Prize in 2009 in recognition of his research on biting midges that transmit bluetongue virus (BTV), the causative agent of bluetongue disease, an important orbivirus disease of ruminants.Forced molting: Induced molting (or forced molting) is the practice by the commercial egg industry of artificially provoking a complete flock of hens to molt simultaneously. This is usually achieved by withdrawal of feed for 7-14 days.Pacific ElectricCarbonization: Carbonization (or carbonisation) is the term for the conversion of an organic substance into carbon or a carbon-containing residue through pyrolysis or destructive distillation. It is often used in organic chemistry with reference to the generation of coal gas and coal tar from raw coal.Organic fertilizer: Organic fertilizers are fertilizers derived from animal matter, human excreta or vegetable matter. (e.Polarized light pollution: Polarization is a property of light waves that describes the orientation of their oscillations. Polarized light pollutionGábor Horváth, György Kriska, Péter Malik, Bruce Robertson.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Hippopotamus antiquus: Hippopotamus antiquus, sometimes called the European Hippopotamus, was a species of hippopotamus that ranged across Europe, becoming extinct some time before the last ice age at the end of the Pleistocene epoch. H.Powdered milk: Powdered milk or dried milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer shelf life than liquid milk and does not need to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Addis Ababa Fistula HospitalSupercow (dairy): Supercow (or super cow) is a term used in the dairy industry to denote lines or individual animals that have superior milk production: that is, which produce more milk per day, or in some cases produce more fat per gallon of milk. Biology of the super cow.CryptosporidiosisList of sorghum diseases: This article is a list of diseases of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).Nitrogen trichlorideHuman mortality from H5N1: Human mortality from H5N1 or the human fatality ratio from H5N1 or the case-fatality rate of H5N1 refer to the ratio of the number of confirmed human deaths resulting from confirmed cases of transmission and infection of H5N1 to the number of those confirmed cases. For example, if there are 100 confirmed cases of humans infected with H5N1 and 10 die, then there is a 10% human fatality ratio (or mortality rate).Index of waste management articles: Articles related to waste management include:Seroprevalence: Seroprevalence is the number of persons in a population who test positive for a specific disease based on serology (blood serum) specimens; often presented as a percent of the total specimens tested or as a proportion per 100,000 persons tested. As positively identifying the occurrence of disease is usually based upon the presence of antibodies for that disease (especially with viral infections such as Herpes Simplex and HIV), this number is not significant if the specificity of the antibody is low.Medicinal plants of the American West: Many plants that grow in the American West have use in traditional and herbal medicine.India–Kazakhstan relations: Indian–Kazakhstani relations are foreign relations between India and Kazakhstan. Diplomatic relations have increased in significance in the 21st century after initially remaining passive in the 1990s.
(1/252) Alkalibaculum bacchi gen. nov., sp. nov., a CO-oxidizing, ethanol-producing acetogen isolated from livestock-impacted soil.
(2/252) Knowledge and perception of pulmonary tuberculosis in pastoral communities in the middle and Lower Awash Valley of Afar region, Ethiopia.
(3/252) Bovine tuberculosis: the genetic basis of host susceptibility.
(4/252) Current levels of heavy metal pollution in Africa.
Studies of environmental pollution in Africa indicate that toxic metal pollution has reached unprecedented levels over the past decade. Human exposure to toxic metals has become a major health risk on the continent and is the subject of increasing attention from national and international environmentalists. This paper reviews data from the past decade on environmental pollution in Africa and highlights countries where most heavy metal pollutions have been reported. Characteristics of heavy metal pollution in North, West, East and Southern regions of Africa have been described, as have major sources of pollution in the different regions. This review summarizes the sites where most of the heavy metal pollution has been reported in Africa and, where applicable, presents reported levels of pollution in different environmental compartments in the context of internationally acceptable limits. Contaminations in fish and food animals as well as impacts of heavy metal pollution on humans are also described. (+info)
(5/252) Factors associated with spatial clustering of foot-and-mouth disease in Nepal.
(6/252) BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: fate and transport of bioaerosols associated with livestock operations and manures.
(7/252) Characterization of antibiotic resistance and the emergence of AmpC-producing Salmonella Infantis from pigs.
During the period of 2007-2008, a total of 270 pig fecal samples were collected from a meat processing plant located in southern Japan and examined for Salmonella species. A total of 44 Salmonella isolates were recovered, and antimicrobial resistance was detected in serotypes Typhimurium (n=9), Infantis and Choleraesuis (n=2), and Derby, Miyazaki and Schwarzengrund (n=1). Multidrug resistance was seen in serotypes Typhimurium (n=8) and Infantis (n=2). The most commonly observed resistance phenotypes were against streptomycin, oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole (100%), ampicillin (90%), chloramphenicol (50%), cephalothin (30%) and cefoxitin, ceftazidime and kanamycin (each 20%). Extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella Infantis isolates producing plasmid-mediated, bla(CMY-2) gene were detected. These AmpC-producing isolates showed resistance to ampicillin and cephems (cephalothin, cefoxitin and ceftazidime). Resistance transfer experiments showed that transconjugants and transformants coexpressed resistance phenotypes similar to the donor isolates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report worldwide describing serovar Infantis from pigs capable of producing AmpC beta-lactamase. Then, we detected the pentadrug-resistance phenotype in Salmonella Typhimurium isolates, which yielded class 1 integron amplicons of 1.0 and 1.2 kb. Genetic fingerprinting analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and an assay by polymerase chain reaction confirmed the isolates to be Salmonella Typhimurium DT104. In conclusion, the findings of this survey call for the systematic and comprehensive domestic and international surveillance programs to determine the true rates of occurrence of AmpC-producing Salmonella both in the livestock and public health sectors. (+info)
(8/252) Escherichia coli and enterococci are sensitive and reliable indicators for human, livestock and wildlife faecal pollution in alpine mountainous water resources.