Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)GlycogenGlycogen Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 184.108.40.206.Phosphorylases: A class of glucosyltransferases that catalyzes the degradation of storage polysaccharides, such as glucose polymers, by phosphorolysis in animals (GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE) and in plants (STARCH PHOSPHORYLASE).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Glycogen Phosphorylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of GLYCOGEN in animals by releasing glucose-1-phosphate from the terminal alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond. This enzyme exists in two forms: an active phosphorylated form ( PHOSPHORYLASE A) and an inactive un-phosphorylated form (PHOSPHORYLASE B). Both a and b forms of phosphorylase exist as homodimers. In mammals, the major isozymes of glycogen phosphorylase are found in muscle, liver and brain tissue.Glycogen Storage Disease: A group of inherited metabolic disorders involving the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of glycogen. In some patients, prominent liver involvement is presented. In others, more generalized storage of glycogen occurs, sometimes with prominent cardiac involvement.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Glycogen Phosphorylase, Liver Form: An isoenzyme of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE that catalyzes the degradation of GLYCOGEN in liver tissue. Mutation of the gene coding this enzyme on chromosome 14 is the cause of GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE VI.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI: A hepatic GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE in which there is an apparent deficiency of hepatic phosphorylase (GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE, LIVER FORM) activity.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Glycogen Synthase Kinases: A class of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally found as one of the three types of kinases that phosphorylate GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE. Glycogen synthase kinases along with CA(2+)-CALMODULIN DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES and CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES regulate glycogen synthase activity.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.GlucosephosphatesPhosphorylase a: The active form of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE that is derived from the phosphorylation of PHOSPHORYLASE B. Phosphorylase a is deactivated via hydrolysis of phosphoserine by PHOSPHORYLASE PHOSPHATASE to form PHOSPHORYLASE B.Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Uridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.Glycogen-Synthase-D Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphorylated, inactive glycogen synthase D to active dephosphoglycogen synthase I. EC 220.127.116.11.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Phosphorylase Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and PHOSPHORYLASE B to ADP and PHOSPHORYLASE A.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Renal Aminoacidurias: A group of inherited kidney disorders characterized by the abnormally elevated levels of AMINO ACIDS in URINE. Genetic mutations of transport proteins result in the defective reabsorption of free amino acids at the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. Renal aminoaciduria are classified by the specific amino acid or acids involved.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 18.104.22.168.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Glycogen Debranching Enzyme System: 1,4-alpha-D-Glucan-1,4-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase/dextrin 6 alpha-D-glucanohydrolase. An enzyme system having both 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (EC 22.214.171.124) and amylo-1,6-glucosidase (EC 126.96.36.199) activities. As a transferase it transfers a segment of a 1,4-alpha-D-glucan to a new 4-position in an acceptor, which may be glucose or another 1,4-alpha-D-glucan. As a glucosidase it catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-D-glucoside linkages at points of branching in chains of 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues. Amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity is deficient in glycogen storage disease type III.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.Glucose-6-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 188.8.131.52.Glycogen Storage Disease Type I: An autosomal recessive disease in which gene expression of glucose-6-phosphatase is absent, resulting in hypoglycemia due to lack of glucose production. Accumulation of glycogen in liver and kidney leads to organomegaly, particularly massive hepatomegaly. Increased concentrations of lactic acid and hyperlipidemia appear in the plasma. Clinical gout often appears in early childhood.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.PyruvatesTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Liver Extracts: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Phosphorylase b: The inactive form of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE that is converted to the active form PHOSPHORYLASE A via phosphorylation by PHOSPHORYLASE KINASE and ATP.Glycogen Storage Disease Type II: An autosomal recessively inherited glycogen storage disease caused by GLUCAN 1,4-ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE deficiency. Large amounts of GLYCOGEN accumulate in the LYSOSOMES of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL); HEART; LIVER; SPINAL CORD; and BRAIN. Three forms have been described: infantile, childhood, and adult. The infantile form is fatal in infancy and presents with hypotonia and a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (CARDIOMYOPATHY, HYPERTROPHIC). The childhood form usually presents in the second year of life with proximal weakness and respiratory symptoms. The adult form consists of a slowly progressive proximal myopathy. (From Muscle Nerve 1995;3:S61-9; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp73-4)Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (GTP): An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the conversion of GTP and oxaloacetate to GDP, phosphoenolpyruvate, and carbon dioxide. This reaction is part of gluconeogenesis in the liver. The enzyme occurs in both the mitochondria and cytosol of mammalian liver. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 184.108.40.206.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Glycogen Phosphorylase, Muscle Form: An isoenzyme of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE that catalyzes the degradation of GLYCOGEN in muscle. Mutation of the gene coding this enzyme is the cause of McArdle disease (GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE V).Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Liver Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Glycogen Storage Disease Type III: An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to deficient expression of amylo-1,6-glucosidase (one part of the glycogen debranching enzyme system). The clinical course of the disease is similar to that of glycogen storage disease type I, but milder. Massive hepatomegaly, which is present in young children, diminishes and occasionally disappears with age. Levels of glycogen with short outer branches are elevated in muscle, liver, and erythrocytes. Six subgroups have been identified, with subgroups Type IIIa and Type IIIb being the most prevalent.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.TriglyceridesHomeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)1,4-alpha-Glucan Branching Enzyme: In glycogen or amylopectin synthesis, the enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a segment of a 1,4-alpha-glucan chain to a primary hydroxy group in a similar glucan chain. EC 220.127.116.11.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV: An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to a deficiency in expression of glycogen branching enzyme 1 (alpha-1,4-glucan-6-alpha-glucosyltransferase), resulting in an accumulation of abnormal GLYCOGEN with long outer branches. Clinical features are MUSCLE HYPOTONIA and CIRRHOSIS. Death from liver disease usually occurs before age 2.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Lithium Chloride: A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Glycogenolysis: The release of GLUCOSE from GLYCOGEN by GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE (phosphorolysis). The released glucose-1-phosphate is then converted to GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE by PHOSPHOGLUCOMUTASE before entering GLYCOLYSIS. Glycogenolysis is stimulated by GLUCAGON or EPINEPHRINE via the activation of PHOSPHORYLASE KINASE.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 18.104.22.168.Glycogen Storage Disease Type V: Glycogenosis due to muscle phosphorylase deficiency. Characterized by painful cramps following sustained exercise.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Liver, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activities of the liver. They often consist of a hybrid between both biological and artificial materials.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Glycogen Phosphorylase, Brain Form: An isoenzyme of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE that catalyzes the degradation of GLYCOGEN in brain tissue.End Stage Liver Disease: Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.alpha-Glucosidases: Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.Protein Phosphatase 1: A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
ATC code H04: ==H04A Glycogenolytic hormones==Glycogen synthase: ; ; rendered using PyMOL.GDP-D-glucose phosphorylase: GDP-D-glucose phosphorylase () is an enzyme with system name GDP:alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate guanylyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionLiver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIGlycogen synthase kinase: Glycogen synthase kinase is an enzyme.American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases: The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) is the leading organization of scientists and health care professionals committed to preventing and curing liver disease. AASLD was founded in 1950 by a small group of leading liver specialists (including Hans Popper, Leon Schiff, Fred Hoffbauer, Cecil Watson, Jesse Bollman, and Sheila Sherlock, to name a few) to bring together those who had contributed to the field of hepatology.Henri G. Hers: Henri-Géry Hers (1923–2008) was a Belgian physiologist and biochemist, and a professor at the Universite Catholique de Louvain. He was notable for his work on carbohydrate metabolism and genetic disorders associated with it.Glucose transporterBlood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.Jean Emond: Jean C. Emond is the current Thomas S.Metastatic liver disease: A liver metastasis is a malignant tumor in the liver that has spread from another organ affected by cancer. The liver is a common site for metastatic disease because of its rich, dual blood supply (the liver receives blood via the hepatic artery and portal vein).Glucogenic amino acid: A glucogenic amino acid is an amino acid that can be converted into glucose through gluconeogenesis. This is in contrast to the ketogenic amino acids, which are converted into ketone bodies.Mir-652 microRNA precursor family: In molecular biology mir-652 microRNA is a short RNA molecule. MicroRNAs function to regulate the expression levels of other genes by several mechanisms, with expression levels of miRNAs and respective target mRNAs negatively correlated.Glucagon rescueMicrosome: In cell biology, microsomes are vesicle-like artifacts re-formed from pieces of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when eukaryotic cells are broken-up in the laboratory; microsomes are not present in healthy, living cells.Fatty liverIndian Famine Codes: The Indian Famine Codes, developed by the colonial British in the 1880s, were one of the earliest famine scales. The Famine Codes defined three levels of food insecurity: near-scarcity, scarcity, and famine.Insulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Glucokinase regulatory protein: The glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) also known as glucokinase (hexokinase 4) regulator (GCKR) is a protein produced in hepatocytes (liver cells). GKRP binds and moves glucokinase (GK), thereby controlling both activity and intracellular location of this key enzyme of glucose metabolism.Carbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.Myokine: A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.Bente Klarlund Pedersen , Thorbjörn C.Fructose malabsorptionBurst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Liver biopsyGlycogen debranching enzymeSpontaneous hypoglycemia: The term "spontaneous hypoglycemia" was coined by the physician Seale Harris. (Who stated their source to be Alabama Hall of Fame, 1968)Pylephlebitis: Pylephlebitis (also called pyelophlebitis and infective suppurative thrombosis of the portal vein) is an uncommon thrombophlebitis of the portal vein or any of its branches (ie a portal vein thrombosis) that is caused by infection. It is usually a complication of intraabdominal sepsis, most often following diverticulitis, perforated appendicitis, or peritonitis.Lipotoxicity: Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. The tissues normally affected include the kidneys, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.Glycogen storage diseasePolyhydroxybutyrate: Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), a polymer belonging to the polyesters class that are of interest as bio-derived and biodegradable plastics.Frieder W.Abscisate beta-glucosyltransferase: Abscisate beta-glucosyltransferase (, ABA-glucosyltransferase, ABA-GTase, AOG) is an enzyme with system name UDP-D-glucose:abscisate beta-D-glucosyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionKetogenesisNew Zealand rabbitAnaerobic glycolysis: Anaerobic glycolysis is the transformation of glucose to pyruvate when limited amounts of oxygen (O2) are available. Anaerobic glycolysis is only an effective means of energy production during short, intense exercise, providing energy for a period ranging from 10 seconds to 2 minutes.PRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.Carbon-12: Carbon-12 is the more abundant carbon of the two stable isotopes, amounting to 98.93% of the element carbon; its abundance is due to the triple-alpha process by which it is created in stars.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingHyperglycemiaSteptoean positive carbon isotope excursion: The Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) was a geological event which occurred about 500 million years ago at the end of the Cambrian Period. The SPICE event was a sudden reversal of the anoxia (lack of oxygen) that had steadily spread throughout the oceans during the Cambrian which also affected the atmosphere.Hyperphosphorylation: Hyperphosphorylation occurs when a biochemical with multiple phosphorylation sites is fully saturated. Hyperphosphorylation is one of the signalling mechanisms used by the cell to regulate mitosis.William Canfield: William Canfield is a glycobiologist, chief scientific officer and founder of an Oklahoma City-based biotechnology company, Novazyme, which was acquired by Genzyme in August 2001 and developed, among other things, an enzyme that can stabilize (but not cure) Pompe disease, based on Canfield's ongoing research since 1998.http://staging.Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.King's College Criteria: The King's College Criteria or the King's College Hospital criteria were devised in 1989 to determine if there were any early indices of poor prognosis in patients with acute liver failure. Acute liver failure is defined as the onset of encephalopathy (altered mental status) or coagulopathy (altered bleeding tendencies) within 26 weeks of a patient diagnosed with liver disease.Heptadecanoic acidLiver abscessAdrenalin O.D.FibroTest: FibroTest, known as FibroSure in the US, is a patented biomarker test that uses the results of six blood serum tests to generate a score that is correlated with the degree of liver damage in people with a variety of liver diseases. FibroTest has the same prognostic value as a liver biopsy.Anti-diabetic medication: Drugs used in diabetes treat diabetes mellitus by lowering glucose levels in the blood. With the exceptions of insulin, exenatide, liraglutide and pramlintide, all are administered orally and are thus also called oral hypoglycemic agents or oral antihyperglycemic agents.Glycerol 3-phosphate: -glycerol 1-phosphate-glycerol 3-phosphate-α-glycerophosphate-α-phosphoglycerolTriglycerideSpin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame: Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame is the mechanism by which Mxy, the transverse component of the magnetization vector, exponentially decays towards its equilibrium value of zero, under the influence of a radio frequency (RF) field in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is characterized by the spin–lattice relaxation time constant in the rotating frame, T1ρ.Isozyme: Isozymes (also known as isoenzymes or more generally as Multiple forms of enzymes) are enzymes that differ in amino acid sequence but catalyze the same chemical reaction. These enzymes usually display different kinetic parameters (e.
(1/714) Effects of vanadium complexes with organic ligands on glucose metabolism: a comparison study in diabetic rats.
1. Vanadium compounds can mimic actions of insulin through alternative signalling pathways. The effects of three organic vanadium compounds were studied in non-ketotic, streptozotocin-diabetic rats: vanadyl acetylacetonate (VAc), vanadyl 3-ethylacetylacetonate (VEt), and bis(maltolato)oxovanadium (VM). A simple inorganic vanadium salt, vanadyl sulphate (VS) was also studied. 2. Oral administration of the three organic vanadium compounds (125 mg vanadium element 1(-1) in drinking fluids) for up to 3 months induced a faster and larger fall in glycemia (VAc being the most potent) than VS. Glucosuria and tolerance to a glucose load were improved accordingly. 3. Activities and mRNA levels of key glycolytic enzymes (glucokinase and L-type pyruvate kinase) which are suppressed in the diabetic liver, were restored by vanadium treatment. The organic forms showed greater efficacy than VS, especially VAc. 4. VAc rats exhibited the highest levels of plasma or tissue vanadium, most likely due to a greater intestinal absorption. However, VAc retained its potency when given as a single i.p. injection to diabetic rats. Moreover, there was no relationship between plasma or tissue vanadium levels and any parameters of glucose homeostasis and hepatic glucose metabolism. Thus, these data suggest that differences in potency between compounds are due to differences in their insulin-like properties. 5. There was no marked toxicity observed on hepatic or renal function. However, diarrhoea occurred in 50% of rats chronically treated with VS, but not in those receiving the organic compounds. 6. In conclusion, organic vanadium compounds, in particular VAc, correct the hyperglycemia and impaired hepatic glycolysis of diabetic rats more safely and potently than VS. This is not simply due to improved intestinal absorption, indicating more potent insulin-like properties. (+info)
(2/714) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor improves blood glucose control and alleviates fasting hyperglycemia in C57BLKS-Lepr(db)/lepr(db) mice.
Systemic administration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) decreases nonfasted blood glucose in obese, non-insulin-dependent diabetic C57BLKS-Lepr(db)/lepr(db) (db/db) mice, with a concomitant decrease in body weight. By measuring percent HbA1c in BDNF-treated and pair-fed animals, we show that the effects of BDNF on nonfasted blood glucose levels are not caused by decreased food intake but reflect a significant improvement in blood glucose control. Furthermore, once established, this effect can persist for weeks after cessation of BDNF treatment. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed to examine the effects of BDNF on blood glucose control in the fasted state and after an oral glucose challenge. BDNF treatment normalized fasting blood glucose from initially hyperglycemic levels and also showed evidence for beneficial, although less marked, effects on the ability to remove exogenous glucose from blood. One means to lower fasting blood glucose is to reduce the glucose output of peripheral tissues that normally play a part in the maintenance of fasting hyperglycemia. Because the liver is the major endogenous source of glucose in blood during fasting, and because hepatic weight and glucose output are increased in type 2 diabetes, we evaluated the effects of BDNF on liver tissue. BDNF reduced the hepatomegaly present in db/db mice, in association with reduced liver glycogen and reduced liver enzyme activity in serum, supporting the possible involvement of liver tissue in the mechanism of action for BDNF. (+info)
(3/714) Resistance to hepatic action of vasopressin in genetically obese (ob/ob) mice.
1. Fatty acid synthesis, measured in the perfused liver of genetically obese (ob/ob) mice with 3H2O or [14C]actate, did not show the inhibition by [8-arginine]vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) that is observed in livers from normal mice. 2. Hepatic glycogen breakdown in obese mice was stimuulated by vasopressin, but not as extensively as in lean mice. 3. If obese mice received a restricted amount of food, then fatty acid synthesis still did not respond to vasopressin, but glycogen breakdown was fully stimulated. 4. Cholesterol synthesis was not inhibited by vasopressin in livers from obese mice. 5. Vasopressin inhibited fatty acid synthesis in intact lean mice, but not in obese animals. 6. These results suggest that genetic obesity could be due to an inborn error within the mechanisms (other than adenylate cyclase) which mediate responses to extracellular effectors. (+info)
(4/714) Carcass glycogen as a potential source of glucose during short-term starvation.
In small rats deprived of food for 19h (or 43h), 36% (or 39%) of the glycogen that disappeared was lost from the carcass and 64% (or 61%) from liver. Carcass glycogen is potentially a substantial source of glucose during short-term starvation via the Cori cycle. (+info)
(5/714) Kinetics of the interaction of rabbit skeletal muscle phosphorylase kinase with glycogen.
The kinetics of the interaction of rabbit skeletal muscle phosphorylase kinase with glycogen was studied by the turbidimetric method at pH 6.8 and 8.2. Binding of phosphorylase kinase by glycogen occurs only in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+. The initial rate of complex formation is proportional to the enzyme and polysaccharide concentration; this suggests the formation of a complex with 1:1 stoichiometry in the initial step of phosphorylase kinase binding by glycogen. The kinetic data suggest that phosphorylase kinase substrate--glycogen phosphorylase b--favors the binding of phosphorylase kinase with glycogen. This conclusion is supported by direct experiments on the influence of phosphorylase b on the interaction of phosphorylase kinase with glycogen using analytical sedimentation analysis. The kinetic curves of the formation of the complex of phosphorylase kinase with glycogen obtained in the presence of ATP are characterized by a lag period. Preincubation of phosphorylase kinase with ATP in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+ causes the complete disappearance of the lag period. On changing the pH from 6.8 to 8.2, the rate of phosphorylase kinase binding by glycogen is appreciably increased, and complex formation becomes possible even in the absence of Mg2+. A model of phosphorylase kinase and phosphorylase b adsorption on the surface of the glycogen particle explaining the increase in the strength of phosphorylase kinase binding with glycogen in the presence of phosphorylase b is proposed. (+info)
(6/714) Effect of a selective rise in hepatic artery insulin on hepatic glucose production in the conscious dog.
In the present study we compared the hepatic effects of a selective increase in hepatic sinusoidal insulin brought about by insulin infusion into the hepatic artery with those resulting from insulin infusion into the portal vein. A pancreatic clamp was used to control the endocrine pancreas in conscious overnight-fasted dogs. In the control period, insulin was infused via peripheral vein and the portal vein. After the 40-min basal period, there was a 180-min test period during which the peripheral insulin infusion was stopped and an additional 1.2 pmol. kg-1. min-1 of insulin was infused into the hepatic artery (HART, n = 5) or the portal vein (PORT, n = 5, data published previously). In the HART group, the calculated hepatic sinusoidal insulin level increased from 99 +/- 20 (basal) to 165 +/- 21 pmol/l (last 30 min). The calculated hepatic artery insulin concentration rose from 50 +/- 8 (basal) to 289 +/- 19 pmol/l (last 30 min). However, the overall arterial (50 +/- 8 pmol/l) and portal vein insulin levels (118 +/- 24 pmol/l) did not change over the course of the experiment. In the PORT group, the calculated hepatic sinusoidal insulin level increased from 94 +/- 30 (basal) to 156 +/- 33 pmol/l (last 30 min). The portal insulin rose from 108 +/- 42 (basal) to 192 +/- 42 pmol/l (last 30 min), whereas the overall arterial insulin (54 +/- 6 pmol/l) was unaltered during the study. In both groups hepatic sinusoidal glucagon levels remained unchanged, and euglycemia was maintained by peripheral glucose infusion. In the HART group, net hepatic glucose output (NHGO) was suppressed from 9.6 +/- 2.1 micromol. kg-1. min-1 (basal) to 4.6 +/- 1.0 micromol. kg-1. min-1 (15 min) and eventually fell to 3.5 +/- 0.8 micromol. kg-1. min-1 (last 30 min, P < 0.05). In the PORT group, NHGO dropped quickly (P < 0.05) from 10.0 +/- 0.9 (basal) to 7.8 +/- 1.6 (15 min) and eventually reached 3.1 +/- 1.1 micromol. kg-1. min-1 (last 30 min). Thus NHGO decreases in response to a selective increase in hepatic sinusoidal insulin, regardless of whether it comes about because of hyperinsulinemia in the hepatic artery or portal vein. (+info)
(7/714) Effect of oral glutamine on whole body carbohydrate storage during recovery from exhaustive exercise.
The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of glutamine in promoting whole body carbohydrate storage and muscle glycogen resynthesis during recovery from exhaustive exercise. Postabsorptive subjects completed a glycogen-depleting exercise protocol, then consumed 330 ml of one of three drinks, 18.5% (wt/vol) glucose polymer solution, 8 g glutamine in 330 ml glucose polymer solution, or 8 g glutamine in 330 ml placebo, and also received a primed constant infusion of [1-13C]glucose for 2 h. Plasma glutamine concentration was increased after consumption of the glutamine drinks (0.7-1.1 mM, P < 0.05). In the second hour of recovery, whole body nonoxidative glucose disposal was increased by 25% after consumption of glutamine in addition to the glucose polymer (4.48 +/- 0.61 vs. 3.59 +/- 0.18 mmol/kg, P < 0.05). Oral glutamine alone promoted storage of muscle glycogen to an extent similar to oral glucose polymer. Ingestion of glutamine and glucose polymer together promoted the storage of carbohydrate outside of skeletal muscle, the most feasible site being the liver. (+info)
(8/714) Failure of autoresuscitation in weanling mice: significance of cardiac glycogen and heart rate regulation.
"Autoresuscitation" (AR) is the spontaneous recovery from hypoxic apnea by gasping. We examined aspects of heart function in two situations: 1) the maturationally acquired failure of AR that is characteristic of SWR, but not BALB/c, weanling mice and 2) AR failure in BALB/c mice induced by repeated exposures to anoxia. We determined maturational changes in heart and liver glycogen. Unlike liver glycogen levels, heart glycogen levels in SWR mice differed from those in BALB/c mice. They were consistently much lower throughout maturation and reached a nadir during the brief period when SWR weanling mice are vulnerable to AR failure. Also, rate of cardiac glycogen utilization in vulnerable SWR mice was lower than that of same-aged BALB/c mice and was nil during the latter one-half of the gasping stage when heart function is critical for AR success. Therefore, because glycogen utilization reflects cardiac work, heart failure could explain AR failure in SWR weanlings. Additionally, the increase in hypoxic heart rate that occurs with maturation is developmentally delayed in SWR mice, and this may contribute to their AR failure. Cardiac glycogen was not fully depleted in BALB/c mice during repeated anoxic exposures, indicating other reasons for AR failure. We view these findings as a potential model for the age-related peak in incidence of sudden infant death syndrome. (+info)