Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.End Stage Liver Disease: Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Hepatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Fatty Liver, Alcoholic: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. The fatty changes in the alcoholic fatty liver may be reversible, depending on the amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES accumulated.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Liver Extracts: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Hepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Cholestasis, Intrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Liver Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Liver, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activities of the liver. They often consist of a hybrid between both biological and artificial materials.Cholangitis, Sclerosing: Chronic inflammatory disease of the BILIARY TRACT. It is characterized by fibrosis and hardening of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ductal systems leading to bile duct strictures, CHOLESTASIS, and eventual BILIARY CIRRHOSIS.Kupffer Cells: Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.Hypertension, Portal: Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Ascites: Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Hepatic Stellate Cells: Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.Drug-Induced Liver Injury, Chronic: Liver disease lasting six months or more, caused by an adverse drug effect. The adverse effect may result from a direct toxic effect of a drug or metabolite, or an idiosyncratic response to a drug or metabolite.Hepatomegaly: Enlargement of the liver.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Hepatopulmonary Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by the clinical triad of advanced chronic liver disease, pulmonary vascular dilatations, and reduced arterial oxygenation (HYPOXEMIA) in the absence of intrinsic cardiopulmonary disease. This syndrome is common in the patients with LIVER CIRRHOSIS or portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Hepatic Insufficiency: Conditions in which the LIVER functions fall below the normal ranges. Severe hepatic insufficiency may cause LIVER FAILURE or DEATH. Treatment may include LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.Hepatitis, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Protoporphyria, Erythropoietic: An autosomal dominant porphyria that is due to a deficiency of FERROCHELATASE (heme synthetase) in both the LIVER and the BONE MARROW, the last enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. Clinical features include mainly neurological symptoms, rarely cutaneous lesions, and elevated levels of protoporphyrin and COPROPORPHYRINS in the feces.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Biliary Tract Diseases: Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Biliary Atresia: Progressive destruction or the absence of all or part of the extrahepatic BILE DUCTS, resulting in the complete obstruction of BILE flow. Usually, biliary atresia is found in infants and accounts for one third of the neonatal cholestatic JAUNDICE.Elasticity Imaging Techniques: Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.Hemochromatosis: A disorder of iron metabolism characterized by a triad of HEMOSIDEROSIS; LIVER CIRRHOSIS; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is caused by massive iron deposits in parenchymal cells that may develop after a prolonged increase of iron absorption. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed)Hepatolenticular Degeneration: A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. It is caused by defects in the ATP7B gene encoding copper-transporting ATPase 2 (EC 3.6.3.4), also known as the Wilson disease protein. The overload of copper inevitably leads to progressive liver and neurological dysfunction such as LIVER CIRRHOSIS; TREMOR; ATAXIA and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years.Hepatorenal Syndrome: Functional KIDNEY FAILURE in patients with liver disease, usually LIVER CIRRHOSIS or portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL), and in the absence of intrinsic renal disease or kidney abnormality. It is characterized by intense renal vasculature constriction, reduced renal blood flow, OLIGURIA, and sodium retention.Cholagogues and Choleretics: Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Liver Diseases, Parasitic: Liver diseases caused by infections with PARASITES, such as tapeworms (CESTODA) and flukes (TREMATODA).Keratin-18: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-8 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Ursodeoxycholic Acid: An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Esophageal and Gastric Varices: Dilated blood vessels in the ESOPHAGUS or GASTRIC FUNDUS that shunt blood from the portal circulation (PORTAL SYSTEM) to the systemic venous circulation. Often they are observed in individuals with portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic: Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Choline Deficiency: A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.TriglyceridesRats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningCytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Portal System: A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.Hep G2 Cells: A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.Iron Overload: An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hepatitis Antibodies: Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.DNA Virus InfectionsMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Gastroenterology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Silymarin: A mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of the MILK THISTLE, Silybum marianum. It consists primarily of silybin and its isomers, silicristin and silidianin. Silymarin displays antioxidant and membrane stabilizing activity. It protects various tissues and organs against chemical injury, and shows potential as an antihepatoxic agent.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Alcohol Abstinence: Non-consumption of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.GalactosamineThioacetamide: A crystalline compound used as a laboratory reagent in place of HYDROGEN SULFIDE. It is a potent hepatocarcinogen.Hepatitis D, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in conjunction with HEPATITIS B VIRUS and lasting six months or more.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Rats, Inbred F344Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Keratin-8: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-18 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.Siderosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of iron in the mining dust or welding fumes.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Portacaval Shunt, Surgical: Surgical portasystemic shunt between the portal vein and inferior vena cava.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Cholangitis: Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.Prothrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Bacterial Translocation: The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Hyperbilirubinemia: A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of BILIRUBIN in the blood, which may result in JAUNDICE. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of HEME, is normally excreted in the BILE or further catabolized before excretion in the urine.Flaviviridae: A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.Alagille Syndrome: A multisystem disorder that is characterized by aplasia of intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC), and malformations in the cardiovascular system, the eyes, the vertebral column, and the facies. Major clinical features include JAUNDICE, and congenital heart disease with peripheral PULMONARY STENOSIS. Alagille syndrome may result from heterogeneous gene mutations, including mutations in JAG1 on CHROMOSOME 20 (Type 1) and NOTCH2 on CHROMOSOME 1 (Type 2).Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Adenoma, Liver Cell: A benign epithelial tumor of the LIVER.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Blood Coagulation Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.

*  Parasitic liver diseases - Latest research and news | Nature

... reviews and news about Parasitic liver diseases from across all of the Nature journals. ... Parasitic liver diseases. Definition. Parasitic liver diseases are caused by infection with parasites, such as liver flukes ( ... The Asian liver fluke is a parasitic worm that is linked to an increased risk of malignant cancer. Here, the authors sequence ... Asparagine requirement in Plasmodium berghei as a target to prevent malaria transmission and liver infections. Malaria ...
nature.com/subjects/parasitic-liver-diseases

*  Minimally Invasive Surgery Week

Non Parasitic Hepatic Cysts (NPHC) and Polycystic Liver Disease (PCLD): Laparoscopic Approach. Ten Years of Experience in a ... Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease. Sharona B. Ross, MD LESS Anti-Reflux Surgery. Hepato-Biliary Disease & Cholecystectomy. Kuldip ... The Value of Laparoscopic Liver Resections for Benign and Malignant Lesions. A Single Center Experience, Harry F. Dorn, MD ... The Use of Bedside Laparoscopy in the Diagnosis and Management of Surgical Diseases in Children and Adults Without Requirements ...
laparoscopy.blogs.com/ee06/category-2/

*  HIV-HBV Co-Infection and Liver Disease - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Immune System Diseases. Digestive System Diseases. Parasitic Diseases. Hepadnaviridae Infections. DNA Virus Infections. ... Liver Diseases. Coinfection. Hepatitis B. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases ... HIV-HBV Co-Infection and Liver Disease. The recruitment status of this study is unknown. The completion date has passed and the ... Liver diseases associated with HBV are affected by the antiviral drugs used for HIV infection (toxic side effects), the current ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00637429?order=392

*  Clinical Utility of Common Serum Rheumatologic Tests - American Family Physician

ESR values tend to correlate with disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis and may be useful for monitoring therapeutic ... Anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies correlate with lupus nephritis; the titer often corresponds with disease activity in ... liver disease, tuberculosis, syphilis, viral infections (especially mumps, rubella and influenza), parasitic diseases ... liver disease, tuberculosis, syphilis, viral infections (especially mumps, rubella and influenza), parasitic diseases ...
aafp.org/afp/2002/0315/p1073.html

*  Colic in Cats | eHow UK

Colic can also be caused by a bacterial, viral or parasitic infection; liver failure, kidney disease, ulcers, inflammatory ... bowel or other disease.. Warning Signs. Colic in cats can become life-threatening. (sleeping cat image by KtD from Fotolia.com) ...
ehow.co.uk/facts_6956388_colic-cats.html

*  Liver cysts: A cause of abdominal pain? - Mayo Clinic

... liver cysts can cause pain and discomfort in the upper abdomen. ... Simple cysts and polycystic liver disease. In: Blumgart's ... Polycystic liver disease, an inherited disorder. *Echinococcus infection, a parasitic infection. *Liver cancer ... Simple liver cysts - fluid-filled cavities in the liver - usually cause no signs or symptoms and need no treatment. However, ... The cause of simple liver cysts isn't known, but they may be the result of a malformation present at birth. Rarely, liver cysts ...
https://mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/liver-problems/expert-answers/liver-cysts/faq-20058440

*  Echinococcosis Differential Diagnoses

Vuitton D. Alveolar echinococcosis of the liver: a parasitic disease in search of a treatment. Hepatology. 1990 Sep. 12(3 Pt 1 ... Primary disease recurrence after liver transplantation for alveolar echinococcosis: long-term evaluation in 15 patients. ... Recurrence of alveolar echinococcosis in the liver graft after liver transplantation. Hepatology. 1992 Jul. 16(1):279-80. [ ... Epidemiology and control of hydatid disease. Thompson RCA, Lymbery AJ, eds. Echinococcus and Hydatid Disease. Wallingford, ...
https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/214349-differential

*  Echinococcosis, Hepatic | CTD

Liver Diseases, Parasitic ← Echinococcosis, Hepatic 3.. Diseases ← Digestive System DiseasesLiver DiseasesLiver Diseases ... DiseasesParasitic Diseases ← Helminthiasis ← Cestode Infections ← Echinococcosis ← Echinococcosis, Hepatic 2.. Diseases ← ... Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic tapeworms of the genus ECHINOCOCCUS, such as Echinococcus granulosus or ... associated diseases · associated exposure references Home , Site Map , FAQ , Contact Us , Cite Us , Legal Notices , Downloads ...
ctdbase.org/detail.go?type=disease&acc=MESH:D004444

*  Wetness scores reveal Scottish and Welsh liver fluke threat - Farmers Weekly

Continued high rainfall data could lead to a high risk of liver fluke disease later this year," said Prof Taylor. ... "Warm, wet weather leads to a build-up of infective worm larvae and an increased risk of parasitic gastroenteritis. ... Vaccinate lambs against clositrdial diseases as migrating flukes can predispose lambs to black's disease (infectious necrotic ... Managing liver fluke in the autumn. *Keep sheep and cattle off wet fields from late August onwards ...
fwi.co.uk/livestock/wetness-scores-reveal-scottish-and-welsh-liver-fluke-threat.htm

*  What are the symptoms of cancer of the spleen? | Reference.com

The spleen is usually the size of a fist, but cancer is one disease that potentially makes it... ... Cirrhosis, other liver conditions, blood diseases, issues with the lymph system and inflammatory diseases also can cause a ... Viral, parasitic and bacterial infections such as mononucleosis and endocarditis are also common causes of enlargement in the ... but cancer is one disease that potentially makes it swell many times the normal size. ...
https://reference.com/health/symptoms-cancer-spleen-50b1ae5ce3f31f01

*  Albenza New FDA Drug Approval | CenterWatch

Treatment for parasitic infections caused by worms. New approved drug details including side effects, uses and general ... Albenza has been approved for the treatment of two parasitic infections caused by worms:. *Hydatid cyst disease of the liver, ... The most frequently reported side effects by hydatid disease subjects included abnormal liver function, abdominal pain, nausea ... For hydatid disease, the recommended dose for Albenza is 400 mg twice daily with meals for three cycles (each cycle consists of ...
centerwatch.com/drug-information/fda-approved-drugs/drug/126/albenza-albendazole

*  The World Factbook

vectorborne diseases acquired through the bite of an infected arthropod:. Malaria - caused by single-cell parasitic protozoa ... Hepatitis A - viral disease that interferes with the functioning of the liver; spread through consumption of food or water ... Major infectious diseases. This entry lists major infectious diseases likely to be encountered in countries where the risk of ... Hepatitis E - water-borne viral disease that interferes with the functioning of the liver; most commonly spread through fecal ...
https://cia.gov/Library/publications/the-world-factbook/docs/notesanddefs.html?fieldkey=2129&term=Unemployment rate

*  Pathogen Safety Data Sheets: Infectious Substances - Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica - Canada.ca

... sheep liver fluke disease.. CHARACTERISTICS: F. hepatica is a parasitic flatworm of the Fasciolidae family. Hermaphroditic ... PATHOGENICITY/TOXICITY: F. hepatica induces pathology in the liver and biliary tracts Footnote 3, where it can survive up to 10 ... The first hepatic stage is acute and invasive while flukes are in the liver parenchyma and can last for 2 to 4 months. This ... SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Infected specimens including faeces, liver tissues, and the bile tract which can contain mature flukes and ...
https://canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/fasciola-hepatica.html

*  Sudan Major infectious diseases - Demographics

Facts and statistics about the Major infectious diseases of Sudan. Updated as of 2017. ... vectorborne diseases acquired through the bite of an infected arthropod:. Malaria - caused by single-cell parasitic protozoa ... Hepatitis A - viral disease that interferes with the functioning of the liver; spread through consumption of food or water ... vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever. water contact disease: schistosomiasis. respiratory disease ...
indexmundi.com/sudan/major_infectious_diseases.html

*  Suriname Major infectious diseases - Demographics

Facts and statistics about the Major infectious diseases of Suriname. Updated as of 2017. ... vectorborne diseases acquired through the bite of an infected arthropod:. Malaria - caused by single-cell parasitic protozoa ... Hepatitis A - viral disease that interferes with the functioning of the liver; spread through consumption of food or water ... Hepatitis E - water-borne viral disease that interferes with the functioning of the liver; most commonly spread through fecal ...
indexmundi.com/suriname/major_infectious_diseases.html

*  METHODS FOR IDENTIFYING INHIBITORS OF MANNAN-BINDING LECTIN ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASE (MASP) PROTEINS AND USES THEREOF -...

... parasitic), cancer, obstetrical complications, liver disease, severe toxic reaction (e.g., snake bite, insect bite, transfusion ... Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Miller-Fisher syndrome, cerebral trauma and/or hemorrhage, demyelination ... and Takayasu's disease; dilated cardiomyopathy; diabetic angiopathy; Kawasaki's disease (arteritis); and venous gas embolus ( ... inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease; inflammatory gastrointestinal disorders, ...
patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20120225437

*  Cirrhosis | NIDDK

Alcoholic liver disease. Hepatology. 2010;51(1):307-328.. [4] Gyamfi MA, Wan YJ. Pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease: the ... parasitic infections.. *chronic heart failure with liver congestion, a condition in which blood flow out of the liver is slowed ... Inherited diseases that affect the liver. Inherited diseases that interfere with how the liver produces, processes, and stores ... which is also called end-stage liver disease, progresses over months, years, or even decades. With end-stage liver disease, the ...
https://niddk.nih.gov/health-information/liver-disease/cirrhosis

*  Overview of Hepatic Disease in Large Animals - Digestive System - Merck Veterinary Manual

Anemia may be seen in animals with liver dysfunction due to parasitic diseases, chronic copper toxicity (in ruminants), some ... Serum concentrations of liver-specific enzymes are generally higher in acute liver disease than in chronic liver disease. They ... Liver Biopsy:. Percutaneous liver biopsy is the definitive way to diagnose hepatic disease. Histologic evaluation of the liver ... of horses with chronic liver disease and 6% with acute liver disease. Globulin concentrations were increased in 64% of the ...
merckvetmanual.com/en-ca/digestive-system/hepatic-disease-in-large-animals/overview-of-hepatic-disease-in-large-animals

*  Dr. Eric Johnson, MD - Wausau, WI - Gastroenterology & Internal Medicine | Healthgrades.com

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. *Non-Neonatal Jaundice. *Noninfectious Gastroenteritis and Colitis ... I practice all aspects of gastroenterology and hepatology, but have a special interest in pancreatic and biliary diseases. I ...
https://healthgrades.com/providers/eric-johnson-gdbhy

*  The Study of Gut Associated Lymphocytes in HIV and HCV/HIV Co-infected Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Liver Diseases. Digestive System Diseases. Hepatitis, Viral, Human. Virus Diseases. Flaviviridae Infections. RNA Virus ... have a history of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) or suspected IBD. *have a history of autoimmune diseases including ... Parasitic Diseases. ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on September 18, 2017. To Top ... Relative expression levels of LEAP-2 (Liver expressed anti-microbial peptide-2) in the four groups were shown in the table ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01335230?view=record

*  Two Different Treatments 24 vs 48 Weeks Chronic Hepatitis C Genotypes 2 and/or 3 in co-Infected HIV-HCV - Full Text View -...

Liver Diseases. Digestive System Diseases. Hepatitis, Viral, Human. Virus Diseases. Enterovirus Infections. Picornaviridae ... Parasitic Diseases. Interferons. Ribavirin. Interferon-alpha. Peginterferon alfa-2a. Antineoplastic Agents. Antiviral Agents. ... History or other evidence of bleeding from esophageal varices or other conditions consistent with decompensated liver disease ... History or other evidence of a medical condition associated with chronic liver disease other than HCV ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00611819?order=177

*  Praziquantel - Kaufen Sie Praziquantel günstig Online bei Generic4All

A parasitic eye infection (ocular cysticercosis). *Liver diseases or an enlarged spleen ... Natural way to get rid of infections caused by schistosoma worms and liver flukes *Also treats parasitic infections caused by ... Sometimes they could also be caused by the parasitic infection itself or by the dying parasites. If any of these side effects ... The recommended dosage of Generic Biltricide (Praziquantel) for the treatment of liver fluke is 25mg per kg of bodyweight, ...
generic4all.ru/praziquantel,307,1,0,0,0.html

*  Diseases - Runnels County TXGenWeb

... fever due to a liver disorder, See typhus. Biliousness - Jaundice associated with liver disease; A complex of symptoms ... The causative agent may be chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasitic worms. There are two specific varieties: (1) ... Acute - (adj.) disease of sudden onset, severe, not chronic. Addison's disease - A disease characterized by severe weakness, ... Lues disease - Syphilis. Lues venera - Venereal disease; sexually transmitted disease (STD). Lumbago - Back pain. Lung fever - ...
https://sites.google.com/site/runnelscountytxgenweb/general-research-links/diseases

*  A Study Of Maraviroc In HIV Co-Infected Subjects With Hepatitis C And/Or Hepatitis B - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Liver Diseases. Digestive System Diseases. Hepatitis, Viral, Human. Virus Diseases. Enterovirus Infections. Picornaviridae ... Parasitic Diseases. Maraviroc. Anti-Retroviral Agents. CCR5 Receptor Antagonists. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological ... To describe liver enzyme elevations in patients who are coinfected with HIV and either Hepatitis C (HCV) and/or Hepatitis B ( ... Through a probe, a low frequency vibration of low amplitude is transmitted to the liver. The velocity of the wave that is ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01327547?order=38

*  Statement on international travellers who intend to visit friends and relatives - Canada.ca

... and certain vaccine-preventable diseases, parasitic and sexually transmitted infections. Disease-specific risk factors and ... If the traveller is at risk for liver disease (for example: hepatitis C or excess alcohol use and has an increased probability ... Parasitic infections. *3.8- to 6.8-fold increased risk of intestinal parasitic infection in VFRs compared to non-VFRsReference ... Table of disease-specific risk and recommendations for VFRs. Disease. Magnitude of. increased risk. Reason for. increased risk ...
https://canada.ca/en/public-health/services/travel-health/about-catmat/statement-international-travellers-visit.html

American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases: The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) is the leading organization of scientists and health care professionals committed to preventing and curing liver disease. AASLD was founded in 1950 by a small group of leading liver specialists (including Hans Popper, Leon Schiff, Fred Hoffbauer, Cecil Watson, Jesse Bollman, and Sheila Sherlock, to name a few) to bring together those who had contributed to the field of hepatology.FibroTest: FibroTest, known as FibroSure in the US, is a patented biomarker test that uses the results of six blood serum tests to generate a score that is correlated with the degree of liver damage in people with a variety of liver diseases. FibroTest has the same prognostic value as a liver biopsy.Mir-652 microRNA precursor family: In molecular biology mir-652 microRNA is a short RNA molecule. MicroRNAs function to regulate the expression levels of other genes by several mechanisms, with expression levels of miRNAs and respective target mRNAs negatively correlated.Fatty liverLiver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIJean Emond: Jean C. Emond is the current Thomas S.Metastatic liver disease: A liver metastasis is a malignant tumor in the liver that has spread from another organ affected by cancer. The liver is a common site for metastatic disease because of its rich, dual blood supply (the liver receives blood via the hepatic artery and portal vein).United Kingdom Model for End-Stage Liver Disease: The United Kingdom Model for End-Stage Liver Disease or UKELD is a medical scoring system used to predict the prognosis of patients with chronic liver disease. It is used in the United Kingdom to help determine the need for liver transplantation.Liver biopsyMicrosome: In cell biology, microsomes are vesicle-like artifacts re-formed from pieces of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when eukaryotic cells are broken-up in the laboratory; microsomes are not present in healthy, living cells.Alcoholic hepatitisAlanine transaminase: Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a transaminase enzyme (). It is also called alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) and was formerly called serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) or serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT).Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinomaKing's College Criteria: The King's College Criteria or the King's College Hospital criteria were devised in 1989 to determine if there were any early indices of poor prognosis in patients with acute liver failure. Acute liver failure is defined as the onset of encephalopathy (altered mental status) or coagulopathy (altered bleeding tendencies) within 26 weeks of a patient diagnosed with liver disease.Non-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.Autoimmune hepatitisList of people with hepatitis C: The infectious disease hepatitis C is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which affects the liver and is transmitted by blood-to-blood contact, or by exposure to another person's infected blood. The infection is often asymptomatic, but chronic infection can cause inflammation of the liver (chronic hepatitis).Hepatic encephalopathyHepatitis B immune globulinBilirubinCholestasisTransaminaseLiver abscessCholangiocyte: Cholangiocytes are the epithelial cells of the bile duct. They are cuboidal epithelium in the small interlobular bile ducts, but become columnar and mucus secreting in larger bile ducts approaching the porta hepatis and the extrahepatic ducts.Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiencyCanine hepacivirus: Canine hepacivirus is a single strand RNA virus of the genus Hepacivirus.Kapoor A, Simmonds P, Gerold G, Qaisar N, Jain K, Henriquez JA, Firth C, Hirschberg DL, Rice CM, Shields S, Lipkin WI (2011) Characterization of a canine homolog of hepatitis C virus.Artificial extracorporeal liver support: Artificial extracorporeal liver support is a term that is used to describe measures that are used to carry out liver function and are outside the body. The Molecular Adsorbent Recirculation System (MARS) is an example of artificial extracorporeal liver support.Secondary sclerosing cholangitis: Secondary sclerosing cholangitis abbreviated as (SSC) is a disease that is morphologically similar to primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) but that originates from a known pathological process. Its clinical and cholangiographic features may mimic PSC, yet its natural history may be more favorable if recognition is prompt and appropriate therapy is introduced.Kupffer cell: Kupffer cells, also known as Browicz-Kupffer cells and stellate macrophages, are specialized macrophages located in the liver lining the walls of the sinusoids that form part of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) (or mononuclear phagocyte system).Portal hypertensionLiver function tests: LFT}}Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingBrain biopsySilicon tetrachlorideNitazoxanideEthanol fuel: Ethanol fuel is ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It is most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.HepatosplenomegalyBiomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Hepatopulmonary syndrome: In medicine, hepatopulmonary syndrome is a syndrome of shortness of breath and hypoxemia (low oxygen levels in the blood of the arteries) caused by vasodilation (broadening of the blood vessels) in the lungs of patients with liver disease. Dyspnea and hypoxemia are worse in the upright position (which is called platypnea and orthodeoxia, respectively).Hepatitis B virus precore mutant: A precore mutant is a variety of hepatitis B virus that does not produce hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg). These mutants are important because infections caused by these viruses are difficult to treat, and can cause infections of prolonged duration and with a higher risk of liver cirrhosis.BexaroteneMedian mandibular cyst: A median mandibular cyst is a type of cyst that occurs in the midline of the mandible, thought to be created by proliferation and cystic degeneration of resting epithelial tissue that is left trapped within the substance of the bone during embryologic fusion of the two halves of the mandible, along the plane of fusion later termed the symphysis menti. A ture median mandibular cyst would therefore be classified as a non-odontogenic, fissural cyst.Organ procurement organization: In the United States, an organ procurement organization (OPO) is a non-profit organization that is responsible for the evaluation and procurement of deceased-donor organs for organ transplantation. There are 58 such organizations in the United States, each responsible for organ procurement in a specific region, and each a member of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network, a federally mandated network created by and overseen by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS).Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.ATC code H04: ==H04A Glycogenolytic hormones==Pylephlebitis: Pylephlebitis (also called pyelophlebitis and infective suppurative thrombosis of the portal vein) is an uncommon thrombophlebitis of the portal vein or any of its branches (ie a portal vein thrombosis) that is caused by infection. It is usually a complication of intraabdominal sepsis, most often following diverticulitis, perforated appendicitis, or peritonitis.Extensible Provisioning Protocol: The Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP) is a flexible protocol designed for allocating objects within registries over the Internet. The motivation for the creation of EPP was to create a robust and flexible protocol that could provide communication between domain name registries and domain name registrars.Tumor progression: Tumor progression is the third and last phase in tumor development. This phase is characterised by increased growth speed and invasiveness of the tumor cells.Lipotoxicity: Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. The tissues normally affected include the kidneys, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Biliary atresiaJuvenile hemochromatosisOpalski cells: Opalski cells is large (up to 35 μm in diameter) altered glial cell, originated from degenerating astrocytes, with small, eccentric, pyknotic, densely staining nuclei (single or multiple) displaced to the periphery, and fine granular cytoplasm, found in the cortical and subcortical regions (basal ganglia and thalamus) of the brains of people with Wilson disease and acquired hepatolenticular degeneration. Opalski cells was described by Adam Opalski, Polish neurologist and neuropathologist.AscitesResearch Society on Alcoholism: The Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) is a learned society of over 1600 active members based in Austin, Texas. Its objective is to advance research on alcoholism and the physiological and cognitive effects of alcohol.ExbivirumabBile acid malabsorptionPhosphoserine transaminase: Phosphoserine transaminase (, PSAT, phosphoserine aminotransferase, 3-phosphoserine aminotransferase, hydroxypyruvic phosphate-glutamic transaminase, L-phosphoserine aminotransferase, phosphohydroxypyruvate transaminase, phosphohydroxypyruvic-glutamic transaminase, 3-O-phospho-L-serine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, SerC, PdxC, 3PHP transaminase) is an enzyme with system name O-phospho-L-serine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionAlpha-fetoprotein: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, α-fetoprotein; also sometimes called alpha-1-fetoprotein, alpha-fetoglobulin, or alpha fetal protein) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AFP gene. The AFP gene is located on the q arm of chromosome 4 (4q25).Gastric varices

(1/229) Tolerization of mice to Schistosoma mansoni egg antigens causes elevated type 1 and diminished type 2 cytokine responses and increased mortality in acute infection.

The granuloma that surrounds the Schistosoma mansoni egg is the cause of pathology in murine schistosomiasis, and its formation is driven by egg Ag-stimulated type 1 and type 2 cytokines. To determine the role of egg-driven immune responses during schistosome infection we rendered CBA/Ca mice unresponsive to schistosome eggs by combined cyclophosphamide treatment and thymectomy. In the early acute stages of schistosome infection, egg-tolerized mice suffered high mortalities. Granuloma size and deposition of collagen in the liver were significantly reduced in egg-tolerized mice. Similarly, limited granuloma responses were detected in the intestines of these mice, and this was associated with a >90% reduction in egg excretion. Histologically, egg-tolerized mice had exacerbated hepatocyte damage, with extensive microvesicular steatosis. Elevated plasma transaminase levels confirmed the damage to hepatocytes. Infected egg-tolerized mice had impaired proliferation responses to egg Ag but intact responses to worm Ag. Tolerized mice had diminished Ab responses to egg Ag and had a type 1 cytokine isotype pattern to worm Ag, with elevated IgG2a and diminished IgG1 and IgE. Egg-tolerized mice failed to down-regulate type 1 cytokines that are normally elicited during early schistosome infection. Hepatic granuloma cells from egg-tolerized mice were also type 1 cytokine dominated, with elevated frequencies of Tc1/Th1 and reduced Tc2/Th2 cells. This study demonstrates that mice tolerized to schistosome eggs have elevated type 1 cytokine responses with diminished type 2 responses and reduced anti-egg Ab during schistosome infection, and these effects are detrimental to the host.  (+info)

(2/229) Extramedullar B lymphopoiesis in liver schistosomal granulomas: presence of the early stages and inhibition of the full B cell differentiation.

Inflammatory granulomatous reactions in liver elicited by schistosomal infection have been shown to function as active extramedullar myelopoietic sites, producing potentially all the myeloid lineages. We have now addressed the question of the extramedullar B lymphopoiesis in these sites. We have shown the presence of early B cell precursors (pro-B cells) in the granulomas by immunophenotyping. Their total number in the liver was equivalent to the pro-B cells in the bone marrow of one femur. In agreement with their phenotype, the RT-PCR analysis showed that these cells expressed RAG-1 and lambda5 genes. However, the conversion of the pro-B to pre-B cells was not observed and no clonogenic B cell precursors could be detected in semi-solid cultures stimulated by IL-7. The granulomatous stroma was shown to produce IL-7 and express c-kit, and was able to sustain the full B lymphopoiesis in vitro. Conversely, the granuloma supernatant was shown to inhibit actively the development of B lymphocytes. We conclude that the granuloma environment elicits homing and proliferation of totipotent hematopoietic precursors, and that it is permissive for early commitment to the B cell lineage, but the full extramedullar production of B cell is abrogated by soluble factors produced inside the granulomas.  (+info)

(3/229) Schistosome-infected IL-4 receptor knockout (KO) mice, in contrast to IL-4 KO mice, fail to develop granulomatous pathology while maintaining the same lymphokine expression profile.

Th2 lymphocytes have been postulated to play a major role in the immunopathology induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection. Nevertheless, infected IL-4 knockout (KO) and wild-type (wt) mice develop egg granulomas comparable in size. To further investigate the function of the Th2 response in egg pathology we studied IL-4Ralpha-deficient mice, which are nonresponsive to both IL-4 and IL-13. In striking contrast to IL-4 KO animals, infected IL-4Ralpha KO mice developed only minimal hepatic granulomas and fibrosis despite the presence of CD3+ T cells in the residual egg lesions. Moreover, liver lymphokine mRNA levels in these animals and IL-4 KO mice were equivalent. In addition, infected IL-4Ralpha-deficient, IL-4-deficient, and wt animals developed similar egg Ag-specific IgG Ab titers, arguing that CD4-dependent Th activity is intact in KO mice. As expected, IFN-gamma secretion was strongly up-regulated in mesenteric lymph node cultures from both groups of deficient animals, a change reflected in increased serum IgG2a and IgG2b Ab levels. Surprisingly, Th2 cytokine production in infected IL-4Ralpha KO mice was not abolished but was only reduced and resembled that previously documented in IL-4 KO animals. This residual Th2 response is likely to explain the ability of IL-4 KO mice to generate egg granulomas, which cannot be formed in IL-4Ralpha-deficient animals because of their lack of responsiveness to the same cytokine ligands. Taken together, these findings argue that tissue pathology in schistosomiasis requires, in addition to egg-specific CD4+ lymphocytes, a previously unrecognized IL-4Ralpha+ non-T cell effector population.  (+info)

(4/229) Intranasal administration of a Schistosoma mansoni glutathione S-transferase-cholera toxoid conjugate vaccine evokes antiparasitic and antipathological immunity in mice.

Mucosal administration of Ags linked to cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) can induce both strong mucosal secretory IgA immune responses and peripheral T cell hyporeactivity. In this study, intranasal (i.n. ) administration of CTB-conjugated Schistosoma mansoni 28-kDa GST (CTB-Sm28GST) was found to protect infected animals from schistosomiasis, especially from immunopathological complications associated with chronic inflammation. Worm burden and liver egg counts were reduced in infected animals treated with the CTB-Sm28GST conjugate as compared with mice infected only, or with mice treated with a control (CTB-OVA) conjugate. However, a more striking and consistent effect was that granuloma formations in liver and lungs of mice treated with CTB-Sm28GST were markedly suppressed. Such treatment was associated with reduced systemic delayed-type hypersensitivity and lymphocyte proliferative responses to Sm28GST. Production of IFN-gamma, IL-3, and IL-5 by liver cells was also markedly reduced after i.n. treatment of CTB-Sm28GST, whereas IL-4 production was not impaired. Intranasal treatment of infected mice with CTB-Sm28GST increased IgG1-, IgG2a-, IgA-, and IgE-Ab-forming cell responses in liver in comparison with treatment with CTB-OVA, or free Sm28GST. Most importantly, mucosal treatment with CTB-Sm28GST significantly reduced animal mortality when administered to chronically infected mice. Our results suggest that it may be possible to design a therapeutic vaccine against schistosomiasis that both limits infection and suppresses parasite-induced pathology.  (+info)

(5/229) Toxoplasma gondii and Schistosoma mansoni synergize to promote hepatocyte dysfunction associated with high levels of plasma TNF-alpha and early death in C57BL/6 mice.

To address the question of how the murine host responds to a prototypic type 1 cytokine inducer while concurrently undergoing a helminth-induced type 2 cytokine response, C57BL/6 strain animals with patent schistosomiasis mansoni were orally infected with the cystogenic Toxoplasma gondii strain ME49. Schistosoma mansoni infection resulted in a significantly higher mortality rate when mice were subsequently orally infected with ME49, and these animals displayed a defective IFN-gamma and NO response relative to animals infected with T. gondii alone. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha and aspartate transaminase in double-infected mice were greatly elevated relative to mice infected with either parasite alone. Consistent with the latter observation, these animals exhibited severe liver pathology, with regions of coagulative necrosis and hepatocyte vacuolization unapparent in mice carrying either infection alone. Interestingly, mean egg granuloma size was approximately 50% of that in mice with S. mansoni infection alone. The exacerbated liver pathology in coinfected mice did not appear to be a result of uncontrolled tachyzoite replication, because both parasite-specific RT-PCR analysis and immunohistochemical staining demonstrated a low number of tachyzoites in the liver. We hypothesize that mortality in these animals results from the high level of systemic TNF-alpha, which mediates a severe liver pathology culminating in death of the animal.  (+info)

(6/229) Severe hepatic fibrosis in Schistosoma mansoni infection is controlled by a major locus that is closely linked to the interferon-gamma receptor gene.

Lethal disease due to hepatic periportal fibrosis occurs in 2%-10% of subjects infected by Schistosoma mansoni in endemic regions such as Sudan. It is unknown why few infected individuals present with severe disease, and inherited factors may play a role in fibrosis development. Schistosoma mansoni infection levels have been shown to be controlled by a locus that maps to chromosome 5q31-q33. To investigate the genetic control of severe hepatic fibrosis (assessed by ultrasound examination) causing portal hypertension, a segregation analysis was performed in 65 Sudanese pedigrees from the same village. Results provide evidence for a codominant major gene, with.16 as the estimated allele A frequency predisposing to advanced periportal fibrosis. For AA males, AA females, and Aa males a 50% penetrance is reached after, respectively, 9, 14, and 19 years of residency in the area, whereas for other subjects the penetrance remains <.02 after 20 years of exposure. Linkage analysis performed in four candidate regions shows that this major locus maps to chromosome 6q22-q23 and that it is closely linked (multipoint LOD score 3.12) to the IFN-gammaR1 gene encoding the receptor of the strongly antifibrogenic cytokine interferon-gamma. These results show that infection levels and advanced hepatic fibrosis in human schistosomiasis are controlled by distinct loci; they suggest that polymorphisms within the IFN-gammaR1 gene could determine severe hepatic disease due to S. mansoni infection and that the IFN-gammaR1 gene is a strong candidate for the control of abnormal fibrosis observed in other diseases.  (+info)

(7/229) Chronic Japanese schistosomiasis and hepatocellular carcinoma: ten years of follow-up in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan.

In a preliminary study carried out in the study area we found that 19.1% (173/907) of patients with chronic liver disease and 51% (35/68) of hepatocellular carcinoma cases were infected with Japanese schistosomiasis. Analysis of data from 571 autopsies revealed a similarly high incidence of schistosomiasis among cases of hepatoma and other liver diseases. A prospective case-control study conducted over 10 years showed that hepatoma developed in 5.4% (26/484) of chronic schistosomiasis cases and in 7.5% (23/307) of patients with chronic liver disease (hepatitis, cirrhosis, etc). The difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.228). A high incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody (HCVAb) was found in the schistosomiasis group (36.5%; 95% CI = 44.9-28.1%) and in the chronic liver disease group (56.0%), 39% of whom had chronic hepatitis (P = 0.028). Various factors that might have contributed to the development of hepatoma and schistosomiasis were investigated, but no evidence of a significant correlation between schistosomiasis and hepatoma was found. The high incidence of HCVAb was considered to have been responsible for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic schistosomiasis patients. The role of HBV infection in the development of hepatoma in schistosomiasis patients was not confirmed after an assay for HCVAb was included in the study.  (+info)

(8/229) Susceptibility to periportal (Symmers) fibrosis in human schistosoma mansoni infections: evidence that intensity and duration of infection, gender, and inherited factors are critical in disease progression.

Lethal disease in Schistosoma mansoni infections is mostly due to portal hypertension caused by hepatic periportal fibrosis. To evaluate the factors that may determine severe disease, livers and spleens were examined by ultrasound in a Sudanese population living in a village where S. mansoni is endemic. Early (FI), moderate (FII), or advanced (FIII) fibrosis was observed in 58%, 9%, and 3% of the population, respectively. Although FI affected 50%-70% of the children and adolescents, FII prevalence was low in subjects +info)



infection


  • Parasitic liver diseases are caused by infection with parasites, such as liver flukes (trematoda) and tapeworms (cestoda). (nature.com)
  • HIV infection impacts on the natural progression of HBV infection, increasing levels of HBV replication and the risk of liver-associated mortality. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Liver diseases associated with HBV are affected by the antiviral drugs used for HIV infection (toxic side effects), the current immune function in the patient, by improvements in the immune system brought about by control of the HIV infection, and by the development of resistance to the antiviral agents used for both the hepatitis B and the HIV infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • He added the entire digenetic - liver fluke living on mud snail and in sheep or cattle - lifecycle takes about 17-18 weeks and that farmers can see eggs in faeces about 10-12 weeks after infection. (fwi.co.uk)
  • In both diseases, infection with the larva is accidental and transmission from human-to-human does not normally occur. (centerwatch.com)
  • Consumption of uncooked vegetation (commonly watercress) or raw parasitized liver of cattle or sheep containing metacercariae can lead to F. hepatica infection Footnote 14 . (canada.ca)
  • Chronic hepatitis C. Hepatitis C is due to a viral infection that causes inflammation, or swelling, and damage to the liver. (nih.gov)
  • For symptomatic intestinal infection and extraintestinal disease, treatment with metronidazole or tinidazole should be followed by treatment with iodoquinol or paromomycin. (omicsonline.org)

viral


  • Viral, parasitic and bacterial infections such as mononucleosis and endocarditis are also common causes of enlargement in the spleen. (reference.com)
  • Higher levels of non-immunity to vaccine-preventable disease and increased prevalence of chronic infections like HIV and viral hepatitis amongst foreign born VFRs should be taken into consideration as part of the pre-travel assessment. (canada.ca)

flukes


  • The first hepatic stage is acute and invasive while flukes are in the liver parenchyma and can last for 2 to 4 months. (canada.ca)
  • This medication is mainly used for the treatment of infections caused by the Schistosoma worms, which enter the body through contaminated water, and the treatment of liver flukes, which you get by eating contaminated fish. (generic4all.ru)

Malaria


  • Typhoid, malaria, hepatitis or elevated temperature and bile emesis /fever due to a liver disorder, See typhus. (google.com)
  • Rates of travel-related illness in travellers visiting friends and relatives (VFRs) tend to be higher for many conditions including tuberculosis, malaria, and certain vaccine-preventable diseases, parasitic and sexually transmitted infections. (canada.ca)

Echinococcus


  • Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic tapeworms of the genus ECHINOCOCCUS, such as Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis. (ctdbase.org)
  • The usually placid course pursued by echinococcus of the liver may be much modified by inflammation and suppuration. (dictionary.com)

fluke


  • The Asian liver fluke is a parasitic worm that is linked to an increased risk of malignant cancer. (nature.com)
  • This is according to the first preliminary fluke forecasts based on rainfall data from last year and the early summer of 2017 by National Animal Disease Information Service. (fwi.co.uk)
  • New "wetness scores" are being calculated this year for 40sq km areas across the UK to complement rainfall and evaporation data used to calculate annual liver fluke forecasts. (fwi.co.uk)
  • Liver fluke risk will be shown as low (green), medium (amber) or high (red). (fwi.co.uk)
  • Continued high rainfall data could lead to a high risk of liver fluke disease later this year," said Prof Taylor. (fwi.co.uk)

Amoebic Liver Abscess


  • Amoebic colitis and amoebic liver abscess are the most common invasive manifestations observed in Australia. (omicsonline.org)
  • Surgical drainage is generally unnecessary in amoebic liver abscess, as cure can be achieved with medical therapy alone. (omicsonline.org)

Hepatic


  • Hepatic cyst disease. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Increases in serum hepatic enzymes and total bile acid concentration may indicate hepatic dysfunction, insult, disease, or failure. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Diseases that frequently result in hepatic failure in horses include Theiler disease, Tyzzer disease (foals), pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicosis, hepatic lipidosis, suppurative cholangitis or cholangiohepatitis, cholelithiasis, and chronic active hepatitis. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Although the exact incidence of hepatic disease in camelids (llamas, alpacas) is unknown, it appears to be common in North America. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Hepatic lipidosis (secondary more often than primary) is reportedly the most common liver disease in llamas and alpacas, occurring in both crias and adults. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Chronic disease with extensive loss of hepatic parenchyma and fibrosis, especially with portal bridging, warrants a poor prognosis. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Clinical signs of hepatic disease may not be evident until >60%-80% of the liver parenchyma is nonfunctional or when hepatic dysfunction is secondary to disease in another organ system. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Onset of signs of hepatic encephalopathy and liver failure is often acute regardless of whether the hepatic disease process is acute or chronic. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Icterus, weight loss, or abnormal behavior are common in horses with liver disease and hepatic failure. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • CNS signs are often the initial and predominant sign in horses with acute hepatic failure, whereas weight loss is a prominent sign in most but not all horses with chronic liver disease and failure. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The most prominent sign of hepatocellular disease is a shift of the radioactive colloid that's caused by reduced hepatic blood flow and impaired function of Kupffer's cells. (online-family-doctor.com)
  • The findings, published in the September issue of Hepatology , a journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, indicate that elevated uric acid levels (hyperuricemia) are associated with more severe hepatic ATP depletion in response to fructose intake. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This exploratory study, funded in part by grants from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), also suggests that uric acid levels may serve as a marker for increased fructose consumption and hepatic ATP depletion. (medicalxpress.com)

tapeworms


  • A genus of parasitic tapeworms, the larvae of which, under certain conditions, infect humans, forming large hydatid cysts in the liver or lungs and causing serious or fatal disease. (dictionary.com)
  • Fleas are intermediate hosts for tapeworms, ticks can carry protozoal disease, and mosquitoes carry heartworm larvae that are injected in the dog when the insect takes a blood meal. (canismajor.com)

cysts


  • Liver cysts: A cause of abdominal pain? (mayoclinic.org)
  • Simple liver cysts - fluid-filled cavities in the liver - usually cause no signs or symptoms and need no treatment. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Most liver cysts can be detected on ultrasound or computerized tomography (CT) scans. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The cause of simple liver cysts isn't known, but they may be the result of a malformation present at birth. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Simple cysts and polycystic liver disease. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Most cysts are found in the liver where, after remaining asymptomatic for decades, they finally produce abdominal pain or a mass. (centerwatch.com)
  • Although the indications for this test include the detection of focal disease, such as tumors, cysts, and abscesses, liver-spleen scanning demonstrates focal disease nonspecifically as a cold spot (a defect that fails to take up the colloid) and may fail to detect focal lesions smaller than 3/4' (2 cm) in diameter. (online-family-doctor.com)

larvae


  • Warm, wet weather leads to a build-up of infective worm larvae and an increased risk of parasitic gastroenteritis. (fwi.co.uk)

Cirrhosis


  • Cirrhosis, other liver conditions, blood diseases, issues with the lymph system and inflammatory diseases also can cause a change in size. (reference.com)
  • Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver slowly deteriorates and is unable to function normally due to chronic, or long lasting, injury. (nih.gov)
  • Scarring of the liver, also called fibrosis, may lead to cirrhosis. (nih.gov)
  • In the early stages of cirrhosis, the liver continues to function. (nih.gov)
  • However, as cirrhosis gets worse and scar tissue replaces more healthy tissue, the liver will begin to fail. (nih.gov)
  • Many people with cirrhosis have more than one cause of liver damage. (nih.gov)
  • 2 While chronic hepatitis C and alcohol-related liver disease are the most common causes of cirrhosis, the incidence of cirrhosis caused by nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is rising due to increasing rates of obesity. (nih.gov)
  • Chronic hepatitis C causes damage to the liver that, over years or decades, can lead to cirrhosis. (nih.gov)
  • 3 Drinking more than these amounts leads to fat and inflammation in the liver, which over 10 to 12 years can lead to alcoholic cirrhosis. (nih.gov)

Chronic


  • The aim of the study is to investigate chronic hepatitis B and its impact on the progression of liver disease in HIV-infected persons receiving HAART. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This can result in intermittent right upper quadrant pain, with or without cholangitis or cholestasis, chronic bile duct inflammation, and ectopic infections that may occur in the intestine, liver, and bile duct Footnote 5 . (canada.ca)
  • Chronic liver failure, which is also called end-stage liver disease, progresses over months, years, or even decades. (nih.gov)
  • Clinical signs may vary with the course of the disease (acute or chronic), primary site of injury (hepatocellular, biliary), and specific cause. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • disease of sudden onset, severe, not chronic. (google.com)

lesions


  • Transcriptional profiles of cytokine/chemokine factors of immune cell-homing to the parasitic lesions: a comprehensive one-year course study in the liver of E. multilocularis-infected mice. (medscape.com)
  • 1 Based on the familial recurrence and absence of bone lesions and granulomas, he recognized that this disease, characterized by ubiquitous infiltration by lymphocytes and histiocytes, often engulfed by blood cells, was clearly different from Abt-Letterer-Siwe disease, which had been described only a few years previously and which we now know as the most aggressive, disseminated clinical picture of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. (haematologica.org)

biliary


  • In: Blumgart's Surgery of the Liver, Biliary Tract and Pancreas. (mayoclinic.org)
  • F. hepatica induces pathology in the liver and biliary tracts Footnote 3 , where it can survive up to 10-15 years in the infected host Footnote 1 . (canada.ca)
  • I practice all aspects of gastroenterology and hepatology, but have a special interest in pancreatic and biliary diseases. (healthgrades.com)

Biopsy


  • Although clinical signs and symptoms may aid diagnosis, liver-spleen scanning frequently requires confirmation by ultrasonography, computed tomography, gallium scanning, or biopsy. (online-family-doctor.com)

autoimmune


  • We often find out about diseases only when Sassy or Sierra gets sick, but veterinarians must know something about diseases of every type or must know where to get the information when Pepper tests positive for autoimmune hemolytic anemia or Sport contracts blastomycosis. (canismajor.com)

progresses


  • Although liver-spleen scanning may fail to detect early hepatocellular disease, it shows characteristic, distinct patterns as such disease progresses. (online-family-doctor.com)

schistosomiasis


  • Prevention strategies to avoid parasitic infections such as schistosomiasis and strongyloidiasis should be recommended for VFRs travelling to endemic areas. (canada.ca)

nonalcoholic fatty l


  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). (nih.gov)

spleen


  • The spleen is usually the size of a fist, but cancer is one disease that potentially makes it swell many times the normal size. (reference.com)
  • In liver-spleen scanning, a gamma camera records the distribution of radioactivity within the liver and spleen after I.V. injection of a radioactive colloid. (online-family-doctor.com)
  • About 80% to 90% of the injected colloid is taken up by Kupffer's cells in the liver, 5% to 10% by the spleen, and 3% to 5% by bone marrow. (online-family-doctor.com)
  • Explain to the patient that this procedure permits examination of the liver and spleen through scintigraphs or scans taken after I V. injection of a radioactive substance. (online-family-doctor.com)
  • after 10 to 15 minutes, the patient's abdomen is scanned with the patient placed in supine, left and right lateral, left and right anterior oblique, and prone positions to ensure optimal visualization of the liver and spleen. (online-family-doctor.com)
  • The left ailterior oblique position provides the best view of the spleen separate from the left lobe of the liver. (online-family-doctor.com)
  • Liver-spleen scanning is usually contraindicated in children and during pregnancy and lactation. (online-family-doctor.com)
  • Because the liver and spleen contain equal numbers of reticuloendothelial cells, both organs normally appear equally bright on the image. (online-family-doctor.com)
  • However, distribution of radioactive colloid is generally more uniform and homogeneous in the spleen than in the liver. (online-family-doctor.com)
  • The spleen and bone marrow then take up the abnormally large amounts of the colloid unabsorbed by the liver, thus concentrating more radioactivity than the liver, and appear brighter on the scan. (online-family-doctor.com)
  • the most severe form of the disease causes anemia, diarrhea, and liver and spleen damage. (canismajor.com)

progression


  • Although liver disease is especially common in horses and foals, progression to liver failure is not. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The rapidly progression of the disease in HIV-HCV co-infected patients justify the treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)

Concurrent


  • Given the concurrent rise in fructose consumption and metabolic diseases , we need to fully understand the impact of a high-fructose diet on liver function and liver disease. (medicalxpress.com)

mortality


  • For instance Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) contribute substantially to the burden of persistent (more than 1 week) fevers in the Tropics, causing considerable mortality and major disability. (clinicaltrials.gov)

rheumatoid arthritis


  • ESR values tend to correlate with disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis and may be useful for monitoring therapeutic response. (aafp.org)

findings


  • Alveolar echinococcosis: MR findings in the liver. (medscape.com)
  • Our findings suggest that increased dietary fructose intake may impair liver "energy balance. (medicalxpress.com)

NAFLD


  • Energy depletion in the liver may be associated with liver injury in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and in those at risk for developing this metabolic condition. (medicalxpress.com)

infectious


  • This entry lists major infectious diseases likely to be encountered in countries where the risk of such diseases is assessed to be very high as compared to the United States. (indexmundi.com)
  • These infectious diseases represent risks to US government personnel traveling to the specified country for a period of less than three years. (indexmundi.com)
  • The degree of risk is assessed by considering the foreign nature of these infectious diseases, their severity, and the probability of being affected by the diseases present. (indexmundi.com)
  • The Committee to Advise on Tropical Medicine and Travel (CATMAT) provides the Public Health Agency of Canada with ongoing and timely medical, scientific, and public health advice relating to tropical infectious disease and health risks associated with international travel. (canada.ca)

prevalence


  • Sensitivity and specificity are independent of disease prevalence, whereas predictive value is markedly affected by disease prevalence. (aafp.org)
  • Worldwide, the prevalence of hydatid disease is estimated to be about one million people mostly found in herding and animal-raising countries and regions of North West China, parts of Northern and Southern Africa, East Africa, Iraq, the Mediterranean basin, Uruguay, Argentina, and Chile. (centerwatch.com)

Onset


  • It can be tough for the dog owner to recognize when his pet has a disease with few symptoms, especially at the onset, because dogs can t describe pain, complain of a queasy stomach, or mention that they just feel a bit tired or have a scratchy throat. (canismajor.com)
  • The age at disease onset is usually very young, with the median being 3 months, but the range is wide, reaching the third decade. (haematologica.org)

incidence


  • The incidence of hydatid disease in the United States is estimated to be between 100 and 200 new cases diagnosed annually. (centerwatch.com)
  • There are indications that immune system stress is a factor in triggering diseases such as hemolytic anemia, that hip dysplasia can be avoided or modified by controlling puppy diets, and that careful breeding practices can greatly reduce the incidence of inherited maladies. (canismajor.com)

Treatments


  • Better vaccines, new diagnostic tests and treatments, more money for canine disease research, improved surgical techniques and equipment, more specialists, and more veterinary clinics have contributed to recovery from many diseases and to overall canine longevity. (canismajor.com)
  • The impact of other genetic diseases can be eased by careful management, minor surgeries, or inexpensive treatments. (canismajor.com)

systemic


  • the titer often corresponds with disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. (aafp.org)

hydatid


  • The larval migration to the liver via the PORTAL VEIN leads to watery vesicles (HYDATID CYST). (ctdbase.org)
  • For hydatid disease, the recommended dose for Albenza is 400 mg twice daily with meals for three cycles (each cycle consists of 28 days of dosing followed by a 14-day albendazole-free interval). (centerwatch.com)

bacterial disease


  • Brucellosis - bacterial disease, especially of cattle, causing undulant fever in humans. (google.com)

severe


  • However, if injury to the liver is too severe or long lasting, regeneration is incomplete, and the liver creates scar tissue. (nih.gov)
  • Addison's disease - A disease characterized by severe weakness, low blood pressure, and a bronzed coloration of the skin, due to decreased secretion of cortisol from the adrenal gland. (google.com)
  • Dr. Abdelmalek concludes, "High fructose consumption and elevated levels of uric acid are associated with more severe depletion of liver ATP. (medicalxpress.com)

asymptomatic


  • Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic carriage to invasive disease. (omicsonline.org)

acute


  • Unless the dysfunction is acute and hepatocellular regeneration is evident, prognosis for animals with liver failure is usually unfavorable. (merckvetmanual.com)

mosquitoes


  • Here, the authors show that this enzyme is functional and that asparagine is crucial for the development of the parasite's sexual stages in mosquitoes and liver stages in mice. (nature.com)

body's


  • The liver is the body's largest internal organ. (nih.gov)
  • The liver is called the body's metabolic factory because of the important role it plays in metabolism-the way cells change food into energy after food is digested and absorbed into the blood. (nih.gov)

Rarely


  • These diseases are however rarely diagnosed at primary health care (PHC) level. (clinicaltrials.gov)

alveolar


  • Auto-versus allo-transplantation of the liver for end-stage alveolar echinococcosis? (medscape.com)

damage


  • Most people who consume alcohol do not suffer damage to the liver. (nih.gov)
  • The amount of alcohol it takes to damage the liver varies from person to person. (nih.gov)
  • When the fat accompanies inflammation and liver cell damage, the condition is called nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, or NASH, with "steato" meaning fat, and "hepatitis" meaning inflammation of the liver. (nih.gov)

likelihood


  • Predictive value refers to the likelihood of disease or nondisease based on a positive or negative test result. (aafp.org)
  • Health care workers must often rely on syndrome-oriented empirical approaches to treatment and might overestimate or underestimate the likelihood of certain diseases. (clinicaltrials.gov)

genes


  • Diseases caused by recessive genes and diseases caused by interaction of many genes can sometimes be exacerbated or modified by environmental factors. (canismajor.com)