Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.End Stage Liver Disease: Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Hepatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Fatty Liver, Alcoholic: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. The fatty changes in the alcoholic fatty liver may be reversible, depending on the amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES accumulated.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Liver Extracts: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Hepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Cholestasis, Intrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Liver Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Liver, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activities of the liver. They often consist of a hybrid between both biological and artificial materials.Cholangitis, Sclerosing: Chronic inflammatory disease of the BILIARY TRACT. It is characterized by fibrosis and hardening of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ductal systems leading to bile duct strictures, CHOLESTASIS, and eventual BILIARY CIRRHOSIS.Kupffer Cells: Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.Hypertension, Portal: Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Ascites: Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Hepatic Stellate Cells: Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.Drug-Induced Liver Injury, Chronic: Liver disease lasting six months or more, caused by an adverse drug effect. The adverse effect may result from a direct toxic effect of a drug or metabolite, or an idiosyncratic response to a drug or metabolite.Hepatomegaly: Enlargement of the liver.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Hepatopulmonary Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by the clinical triad of advanced chronic liver disease, pulmonary vascular dilatations, and reduced arterial oxygenation (HYPOXEMIA) in the absence of intrinsic cardiopulmonary disease. This syndrome is common in the patients with LIVER CIRRHOSIS or portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Hepatic Insufficiency: Conditions in which the LIVER functions fall below the normal ranges. Severe hepatic insufficiency may cause LIVER FAILURE or DEATH. Treatment may include LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.Hepatitis, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Protoporphyria, Erythropoietic: An autosomal dominant porphyria that is due to a deficiency of FERROCHELATASE (heme synthetase) in both the LIVER and the BONE MARROW, the last enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. Clinical features include mainly neurological symptoms, rarely cutaneous lesions, and elevated levels of protoporphyrin and COPROPORPHYRINS in the feces.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Biliary Tract Diseases: Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Biliary Atresia: Progressive destruction or the absence of all or part of the extrahepatic BILE DUCTS, resulting in the complete obstruction of BILE flow. Usually, biliary atresia is found in infants and accounts for one third of the neonatal cholestatic JAUNDICE.Elasticity Imaging Techniques: Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.Hemochromatosis: A disorder of iron metabolism characterized by a triad of HEMOSIDEROSIS; LIVER CIRRHOSIS; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is caused by massive iron deposits in parenchymal cells that may develop after a prolonged increase of iron absorption. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed)Hepatolenticular Degeneration: A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. It is caused by defects in the ATP7B gene encoding copper-transporting ATPase 2 (EC 3.6.3.4), also known as the Wilson disease protein. The overload of copper inevitably leads to progressive liver and neurological dysfunction such as LIVER CIRRHOSIS; TREMOR; ATAXIA and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years.Hepatorenal Syndrome: Functional KIDNEY FAILURE in patients with liver disease, usually LIVER CIRRHOSIS or portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL), and in the absence of intrinsic renal disease or kidney abnormality. It is characterized by intense renal vasculature constriction, reduced renal blood flow, OLIGURIA, and sodium retention.Cholagogues and Choleretics: Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Liver Diseases, Parasitic: Liver diseases caused by infections with PARASITES, such as tapeworms (CESTODA) and flukes (TREMATODA).Keratin-18: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-8 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Ursodeoxycholic Acid: An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Esophageal and Gastric Varices: Dilated blood vessels in the ESOPHAGUS or GASTRIC FUNDUS that shunt blood from the portal circulation (PORTAL SYSTEM) to the systemic venous circulation. Often they are observed in individuals with portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic: Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Choline Deficiency: A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.TriglyceridesRats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningCytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Portal System: A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.Hep G2 Cells: A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.Iron Overload: An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hepatitis Antibodies: Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.DNA Virus InfectionsMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Gastroenterology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Silymarin: A mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of the MILK THISTLE, Silybum marianum. It consists primarily of silybin and its isomers, silicristin and silidianin. Silymarin displays antioxidant and membrane stabilizing activity. It protects various tissues and organs against chemical injury, and shows potential as an antihepatoxic agent.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Alcohol Abstinence: Non-consumption of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.GalactosamineThioacetamide: A crystalline compound used as a laboratory reagent in place of HYDROGEN SULFIDE. It is a potent hepatocarcinogen.Hepatitis D, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in conjunction with HEPATITIS B VIRUS and lasting six months or more.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Rats, Inbred F344Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Keratin-8: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-18 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.Siderosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of iron in the mining dust or welding fumes.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Portacaval Shunt, Surgical: Surgical portasystemic shunt between the portal vein and inferior vena cava.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Cholangitis: Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.Prothrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Bacterial Translocation: The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Hyperbilirubinemia: A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of BILIRUBIN in the blood, which may result in JAUNDICE. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of HEME, is normally excreted in the BILE or further catabolized before excretion in the urine.Flaviviridae: A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.Alagille Syndrome: A multisystem disorder that is characterized by aplasia of intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC), and malformations in the cardiovascular system, the eyes, the vertebral column, and the facies. Major clinical features include JAUNDICE, and congenital heart disease with peripheral PULMONARY STENOSIS. Alagille syndrome may result from heterogeneous gene mutations, including mutations in JAG1 on CHROMOSOME 20 (Type 1) and NOTCH2 on CHROMOSOME 1 (Type 2).Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Adenoma, Liver Cell: A benign epithelial tumor of the LIVER.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Blood Coagulation Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.

*  Parasitic liver diseases - Latest research and news | Nature

... reviews and news about Parasitic liver diseases from across all of the Nature journals. ... Parasitic liver diseases. Definition. Parasitic liver diseases are caused by infection with parasites, such as liver flukes ( ... The Asian liver fluke is a parasitic worm that is linked to an increased risk of malignant cancer. Here, the authors sequence ... Asparagine requirement in Plasmodium berghei as a target to prevent malaria transmission and liver infections. Malaria ...
nature.com/subjects/parasitic-liver-diseases

*  Polycystic Liver Disease: Symptoms, Causes, Treatments

Can Polycystic Liver Disease Be Prevented? Polycystic liver disease (PLD or PCLD) is a rare condition that causes cysts -- ... What Causes Polycystic Liver Disease?. The majority of people with polycystic liver disease inherit the condition, but PLD can ... Liver transplant for polycystic liver disease is rarely performed. Less than 100 people a year in the U.S. require a liver ... What Are the Symptoms of Polycystic Liver Disease?. Most of the time, people with polycystic liver disease have no symptoms. ...
webmd.com/digestive-disorders/polycystic-liver-disease-causes-symptoms-treatment?src=rsf_full-4093_pub_none_rltd

*  Nutrition in Liver Disease - Posts

Find Nutrition in Liver Disease information, treatments for Nutrition in Liver Disease and Nutrition in Liver Disease symptoms. ... MedHelp's Nutrition in Liver Disease Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Nutrition in Liver ... Posts on Nutrition in Liver Disease. Hep B Nutrition Question - Hepatitis B Community ... condition or disease; or a recommendation for a specific test, doctor, care provider, procedure, treatment plan, product, or ...
medhelp.org/tags/show/40154/Nutrition-in-Liver-Disease?section=subjects&page=2

*  NCEH - Sharing Our Stories - Investigating Liver Disease in Ethiopia

Investigation reveals the cause of the disease is a toxin found in weeds that grow and are harvested with grain crops, then ... For about five years, the team works together to determine the cause of this disease, by conducting surveillance, collecting ... This story explains an epidemiological investigation into the cause of widespread deadly liver disease in Ethiopia, featuring a ... The disease is now called "pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced liver disease (PAILD)" for the toxic PA that causes the illness. More ...
https://cdc.gov/nceh/stories/ethiopia.html

*  Living with Alzheimer's disease - Sun Sentinel

Adriana Trevino, 93, who has Alzheimer's disease, participates in a dance session at the El Rinconcito del Sol Adult Day Care ... Adriana Trevino, 93, who has Alzheimer's disease, participates in a dance session at the El Rinconcito del Sol Adult Day Care ... Specialists at the university's Alzheimer s Disease Research and Clinical Center concluded that Trevino had been overmedicated ... Specialists at the university's Alzheimer s Disease Research and Clinical Center concluded that Trevino had been overmedicated ...
sun-sentinel.com/la-me-alzheimers5-2009jun05-pictures-photogallery.html

*  Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease & NASH | NIDDK

Overview of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) including causes, symptoms, ... Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease & NASH. View or Print All Sections Definition & Facts. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD ... You may be able to prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis fatty liver disease (NASH ... Usually, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) cause few or no symptoms. Certain ...
https://niddk.nih.gov/health-information/liver-disease/nafld-nash

*  Fatty liver: What to know about nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

Learn all about nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. This article looks at the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and outlook ... Spotlight on: Liver Disease / Hepatitis. * Liver fluke: Symptoms and treatment. The liver fluke is a parasite found in the bile ... Symptoms of fatty liver disease. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease usually gives no symptoms. People with NAFLD often carry the ... The liver can get slightly bigger with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Doctors refer to this as hepatomegaly. A bigger liver ...
https://medicalnewstoday.com/articles/312536.php

*  Living With Duke Nukem's Disease - Comments

Living With Duke Nukem's Disease. By David Ponce on 07/13/09 • 2 Comments ... otherwise known as Duke Nukem's disease. Why the name? Sufferers go through life with an involuntary neural compulsion to act ...
ohgizmo.com/2009/07/13/living-with-duke-nukems-disease/

*  Fatty liver disease prevented in mice

In mice, blocking GLUT8 stops fructose from entering the liver and protects against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The liver ... researchers have found a way to prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the most common cause of chronic liver disease ... "Fatty liver disease is a major topic of research right now," said first author Brian J. DeBosch, MD, PhD, clinical fellow in ... Male mice fed a high-fructose diet while deficient in GLUT8 still had evidence of fatty liver disease, but whole-body ...
innovations-report.com/html/reports/life-sciences/fatty-liver-disease-prevented-in-mice.html

*  Nutrition Therapy for Liver Diseases Based on the Status of Nutritional Intake

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a disease caused by excessive dietary intake, which leads to hepatocytic ... S. Solga, A. R. Alkhuraishe, J. M. Clark et al., "Dietary composition and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease," Digestive Diseases ... J. B. Dixon, P. S. Bhathal, N. R. Hughes, and P. E. O'Brien, "Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: improvement in liver ... "Liver X receptor in cooperation with SREBP-1c is a major lipid synthesis regulator in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease," ...
https://hindawi.com/journals/grp/2012/859697/

*  Influence of azathioprine on hepatic reserve in chronic active liver disease. | Gut

The kinetics of hepatic indocyanine green (ICG) uptake have been analysed in 14 patients with chronic active liver disease. The removal of incremental, submaximal ICG doses were compatible with Michaelis-Menten kinetics in approximately 80% of studies in patients allowing the calculation of the maximal rate of removal (Rmax) and the Michaelis constant (Km). Neither of these variables correlated with other laboratory indices of liver function. Although determinations of Rmax before and after a two-weeks trial of azathioprine therapy were not significantly different, in two patients Rmax was markedly reduced by treatment. It is concluded that azathioprine over the short term does not improve the liver's reserve for ICG removal; in fact, in isolated cases this drug may be detrimental.. ...
gut.bmj.com/content/16/3/214

*  A Study to Assess the Effect of Severe Hepatic Impairment on the Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Conivaptan - Full Text View -...

Subject has a condition associated with hepatic disease including; biliary obstruction, or other cause of hepatic impairment not related to parenchymal disorder and/or disease of the liver, fluctuating or rapidly deteriorating hepatic function, biliary liver cirrhosis, history or presence of hepatic encephalopathy greater than Grade 1 within past 3 months or unstable encephalopathy prior to Screening, tense ascites, esophageal/gastric variceal bleeding with past 6 months, server portal hypertension, surgical portal systemic shunt or peritoneal venous shunt, thrombocyte level below 50,000 x 10^9/L and prothrombin time (PT) above 18 ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01370148

*  liver disease | healthPlexus.net

When I started out in medicine, differentiating between the various causes of hepatobiliary disease was extraordinarily difficult. It is not easy now (what in medicine ever is?), but modern imaging techniques have certainly helped us dramatically. As well, new discoveries have made more disorders treatable, which is wonderful news for our patients. However, for clinicians that means learning more about liver disease so that we can effectively manage our patients' conditions. The University of Toronto, my home base, has long been a leader in the study of liver disease. One of my clinical teachers, Victor Feinman, was a leader in the field of liver disease and in particular the study of hepatitis B. One of my contemporaries, Jenny Heathcote, is a world leader in the study of primary biliary cirrhosis. Thus I feel I have a personal tie to this issue's focus on hepatobiliary disease.. At times it seems like almost all of our older patients have gallstones. Which ...
healthplexus.net/keyword/liver-disease

*  Liver disease, patchy red spots - Herbal Active Liver Detox - Aug 10, 2017

Liver disease, patchy red spots - skin spots liver disease - MedHelp. We provides LiverActive Liver Detox formula contains several natural ingredients to help maintain a healthy liver. Listen to your liver and don't ignore the warning signs.
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*  Itching and liver diseases - Herbal Active Liver Detox - May 2, 2017

Itching and liver diseases - Liver Disease and Itching of Hands and Feet? - Ask.com. We provides LiverActive Liver Detox formula contains several natural ingredients to help maintain a healthy liver. Listen to your liver and don't ignore the warning signs.
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*  New metrics for the Lancet Standing Commission on Liver Disease in the UK | News | Clinical

Friday, 16 December 2016 12:41 The format for this third report of the Lancet Commission follows the same pattern as in 2015 in concentrating on the main recommendations, all of which are evidence based and have been most carefully considered in terms of their ability to reduce the current burden of liver disease in the UK and its financial cost. The working groups set up around the recommendations have concentrated this year on producing a set of the main metrics, which will enable further charting of disease prevalence and consequences on an annual basis.. ...
bsg.org.uk/clinical/news/new-metrics-for-the-lancet-standing-commission-on-liver-disease-in-the-uk.html

*  Cannine enlarged liver - Herbal Active Liver Detox - Aug 10, 2017

Cannine enlarged liver - Natural Remedies for Cats and Dogs with Liver Disease. We provides LiverActive Liver Detox formula contains several natural ingredients to help maintain a healthy liver. Listen to your liver and don't ignore the warning signs.
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*  Sore back, enlarged liver - Herbal Active Liver Detox - Apr 23, 2017

Sore back, enlarged liver - Liver disease: Early signs you may be missing : The Journal of.... We provides LiverActive Liver Detox formula contains several natural ingredients to help maintain a healthy liver. Listen to your liver and don't ignore the warning signs.
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*  Chronic liver disease cure on the horizon | Zee News

Scientists have made an important breakthrough that could eventually lead to the development of new treatments for chronic liver illnesses.
zeenews.india.com/news/health/diseases-and-conditions/chronic-liver-disease-cure-on-the-horizon_15906.html

*  Delayed herbal cream for prejecalation - Herbal Active Liver Detox - Mar 31, 2017

Delayed herbal cream for prejecalation - Allergy / liver, herbal detox - Sleep Aid Melatrol - Dec 10, 2014. We provides LiverActive Liver Detox formula contains several natural ingredients to help maintain a healthy liver. Listen to your liver and don't ignore the warning signs.
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*  Type 1 diabetes 2014 - Herbal Active Liver Detox - Jun 4, 2017

Type 1 diabetes 2014 - Things I Want You To Know About Type 1 Diabetes | Black .... We provides LiverActive Liver Detox formula contains several natural ingredients to help maintain a healthy liver. Listen to your liver and don't ignore the warning signs.
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*  Cream for almuranas - Herbal Active Liver Detox - Jun 11, 2017

Cream for almuranas - Ano ang pwedeng gamot sa almoranas? - Kalusugan.ph. We provides LiverActive Liver Detox formula contains several natural ingredients to help maintain a healthy liver. Listen to your liver and don't ignore the warning signs.
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*  10/13 1:30-2:20 PM TREATMENT OF LIVER DISEASE - PDF

10/13 Tuesday 1:30-2:20 PM TREATMENT OF LIVER DISEASE David C. Twedt, DVM, Diplomate ACVIM Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO The discussion below is directed at therapy for
docplayer.net/1210430-10-13-1-30-2-20-pm-treatment-of-liver-disease.html

*  How to Protect Your Liver: 13 Steps (with Pictures) - wikiHow

How to Protect Your Liver. The liver is the largest organ inside the human body, and one of the most important. Not only is it responsible for filtering all sorts of harmful toxins out of your blood, it also helps you digest your food and...
wikihow.com/Protect-Your-Liver

American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases: The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) is the leading organization of scientists and health care professionals committed to preventing and curing liver disease. AASLD was founded in 1950 by a small group of leading liver specialists (including Hans Popper, Leon Schiff, Fred Hoffbauer, Cecil Watson, Jesse Bollman, and Sheila Sherlock, to name a few) to bring together those who had contributed to the field of hepatology.FibroTest: FibroTest, known as FibroSure in the US, is a patented biomarker test that uses the results of six blood serum tests to generate a score that is correlated with the degree of liver damage in people with a variety of liver diseases. FibroTest has the same prognostic value as a liver biopsy.Mir-652 microRNA precursor family: In molecular biology mir-652 microRNA is a short RNA molecule. MicroRNAs function to regulate the expression levels of other genes by several mechanisms, with expression levels of miRNAs and respective target mRNAs negatively correlated.Fatty liverLiver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIJean Emond: Jean C. Emond is the current Thomas S.Metastatic liver disease: A liver metastasis is a malignant tumor in the liver that has spread from another organ affected by cancer. The liver is a common site for metastatic disease because of its rich, dual blood supply (the liver receives blood via the hepatic artery and portal vein).United Kingdom Model for End-Stage Liver Disease: The United Kingdom Model for End-Stage Liver Disease or UKELD is a medical scoring system used to predict the prognosis of patients with chronic liver disease. It is used in the United Kingdom to help determine the need for liver transplantation.Liver biopsyMicrosome: In cell biology, microsomes are vesicle-like artifacts re-formed from pieces of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when eukaryotic cells are broken-up in the laboratory; microsomes are not present in healthy, living cells.Alcoholic hepatitisAlanine transaminase: Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a transaminase enzyme (). It is also called alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) and was formerly called serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) or serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT).Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinomaKing's College Criteria: The King's College Criteria or the King's College Hospital criteria were devised in 1989 to determine if there were any early indices of poor prognosis in patients with acute liver failure. Acute liver failure is defined as the onset of encephalopathy (altered mental status) or coagulopathy (altered bleeding tendencies) within 26 weeks of a patient diagnosed with liver disease.Non-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.Autoimmune hepatitisList of people with hepatitis C: The infectious disease hepatitis C is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which affects the liver and is transmitted by blood-to-blood contact, or by exposure to another person's infected blood. The infection is often asymptomatic, but chronic infection can cause inflammation of the liver (chronic hepatitis).Hepatic encephalopathyHepatitis B immune globulinBilirubinCholestasisTransaminaseLiver abscessCholangiocyte: Cholangiocytes are the epithelial cells of the bile duct. They are cuboidal epithelium in the small interlobular bile ducts, but become columnar and mucus secreting in larger bile ducts approaching the porta hepatis and the extrahepatic ducts.Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiencyCanine hepacivirus: Canine hepacivirus is a single strand RNA virus of the genus Hepacivirus.Kapoor A, Simmonds P, Gerold G, Qaisar N, Jain K, Henriquez JA, Firth C, Hirschberg DL, Rice CM, Shields S, Lipkin WI (2011) Characterization of a canine homolog of hepatitis C virus.Artificial extracorporeal liver support: Artificial extracorporeal liver support is a term that is used to describe measures that are used to carry out liver function and are outside the body. The Molecular Adsorbent Recirculation System (MARS) is an example of artificial extracorporeal liver support.Secondary sclerosing cholangitis: Secondary sclerosing cholangitis abbreviated as (SSC) is a disease that is morphologically similar to primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) but that originates from a known pathological process. Its clinical and cholangiographic features may mimic PSC, yet its natural history may be more favorable if recognition is prompt and appropriate therapy is introduced.Kupffer cell: Kupffer cells, also known as Browicz-Kupffer cells and stellate macrophages, are specialized macrophages located in the liver lining the walls of the sinusoids that form part of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) (or mononuclear phagocyte system).Portal hypertensionLiver function tests: LFT}}Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingBrain biopsySilicon tetrachlorideNitazoxanideEthanol fuel: Ethanol fuel is ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It is most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.HepatosplenomegalyBiomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Hepatopulmonary syndrome: In medicine, hepatopulmonary syndrome is a syndrome of shortness of breath and hypoxemia (low oxygen levels in the blood of the arteries) caused by vasodilation (broadening of the blood vessels) in the lungs of patients with liver disease. Dyspnea and hypoxemia are worse in the upright position (which is called platypnea and orthodeoxia, respectively).Hepatitis B virus precore mutant: A precore mutant is a variety of hepatitis B virus that does not produce hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg). These mutants are important because infections caused by these viruses are difficult to treat, and can cause infections of prolonged duration and with a higher risk of liver cirrhosis.BexaroteneMedian mandibular cyst: A median mandibular cyst is a type of cyst that occurs in the midline of the mandible, thought to be created by proliferation and cystic degeneration of resting epithelial tissue that is left trapped within the substance of the bone during embryologic fusion of the two halves of the mandible, along the plane of fusion later termed the symphysis menti. A ture median mandibular cyst would therefore be classified as a non-odontogenic, fissural cyst.Organ procurement organization: In the United States, an organ procurement organization (OPO) is a non-profit organization that is responsible for the evaluation and procurement of deceased-donor organs for organ transplantation. There are 58 such organizations in the United States, each responsible for organ procurement in a specific region, and each a member of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network, a federally mandated network created by and overseen by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS).Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.ATC code H04: ==H04A Glycogenolytic hormones==Pylephlebitis: Pylephlebitis (also called pyelophlebitis and infective suppurative thrombosis of the portal vein) is an uncommon thrombophlebitis of the portal vein or any of its branches (ie a portal vein thrombosis) that is caused by infection. It is usually a complication of intraabdominal sepsis, most often following diverticulitis, perforated appendicitis, or peritonitis.Extensible Provisioning Protocol: The Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP) is a flexible protocol designed for allocating objects within registries over the Internet. The motivation for the creation of EPP was to create a robust and flexible protocol that could provide communication between domain name registries and domain name registrars.Tumor progression: Tumor progression is the third and last phase in tumor development. This phase is characterised by increased growth speed and invasiveness of the tumor cells.Lipotoxicity: Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. The tissues normally affected include the kidneys, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Biliary atresiaJuvenile hemochromatosisOpalski cells: Opalski cells is large (up to 35 μm in diameter) altered glial cell, originated from degenerating astrocytes, with small, eccentric, pyknotic, densely staining nuclei (single or multiple) displaced to the periphery, and fine granular cytoplasm, found in the cortical and subcortical regions (basal ganglia and thalamus) of the brains of people with Wilson disease and acquired hepatolenticular degeneration. Opalski cells was described by Adam Opalski, Polish neurologist and neuropathologist.AscitesResearch Society on Alcoholism: The Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) is a learned society of over 1600 active members based in Austin, Texas. Its objective is to advance research on alcoholism and the physiological and cognitive effects of alcohol.ExbivirumabBile acid malabsorptionPhosphoserine transaminase: Phosphoserine transaminase (, PSAT, phosphoserine aminotransferase, 3-phosphoserine aminotransferase, hydroxypyruvic phosphate-glutamic transaminase, L-phosphoserine aminotransferase, phosphohydroxypyruvate transaminase, phosphohydroxypyruvic-glutamic transaminase, 3-O-phospho-L-serine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, SerC, PdxC, 3PHP transaminase) is an enzyme with system name O-phospho-L-serine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionAlpha-fetoprotein: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, α-fetoprotein; also sometimes called alpha-1-fetoprotein, alpha-fetoglobulin, or alpha fetal protein) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AFP gene. The AFP gene is located on the q arm of chromosome 4 (4q25).Gastric varices

(1/4731) Structural and functional changes in acute liver injury.

Carbon tetrachloride produces liver cell injury in a variety of animal species. The first structurally recognizable changes occur in the endoplasmic reticulum, with alteration in ribosome-membrane interactions. Later there is an increase in intracellular fat, and the formation of tangled nets of the ergastoplasm. At no time are there changes in mitochondria or single membrane limited bodies in cells with intact plasmalemma, although a relative increase in cell sap may appear. In dead cells (those with plasmalemma discontinuties) crystalline deposits of calcium phosphatase may be noted. Functional changes are related to the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. An early decrease in protein synthesis takes place; an accumulation of neutral lipid is related to this change. Later alterations in the ergastoplasmic functions (e.g., mixed function oxidation) occurs. Carbon tetrachloride is not the active agent; rather, a product of its metabolism, probably the CC1, free radical, is. The mechanisms of injury include macromolecular adduction and peroxide propagation. A third possibility includes a cascade effect with the production of secondary and tertiary products, also toxic in nature, with the ability to produce more widespread damage to intracellular structures.  (+info)

(2/4731) Various forms of chemically induced liver injury and their detection by diagnostic procedures.

A large number of chemical agents, administered for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes, can produce various types of hepatic injury by several mechanisms. Some agents are intrinsically hepatotoxic, and others produce hepatic injury only in the rare, uniquely susceptible individual. Idiosyncrasy of the host is the mechanism for most types of drug-induced hepatic injury. It may reflect allergy to the drug or a metabolic aberation of the host permitting the accumulation of hepatotoxic metabolites. The syndromes of hepatic disease produced by drugs have been classified hepatocellular, hepatocanalicular, mixed and canalicular. Measurement of serum enzyme activities has provided a powerful tool for studies of hepatotoxicity. Their measurement requires awareness of relative specificity, knowledge of the mechanisms involved, and knowledge of the relationship between known hepatotoxic states and elevated enzyme activities.  (+info)

(3/4731) Quantitative aspects in the assessment of liver injury.

Liver function data are usually difficult to use in their original form when one wishes to compare the hepatotoxic properties of several chemical substances. However, procedures are available for the conversion of liver function data into quantal responses. These permit the elaboration of dose-response lines for the substances in question, the calculation of median effective doses and the statistical analysis of differences in liver-damaging potency. These same procedures can be utilized for estimating the relative hazard involved if one compares the liver-damaging potency to the median effective dose for some other pharmacologie parameter. Alterations in hepatic triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and the activities of various hepatic enzymes can also be quantitiated in a dose-related manner. This permits the selection of equitoxic doses required for certain comparative studies and the selection of doses in chemical interaction studies. The quantitative problems involved in low-frequency adverse reactions and the difficulty these present in the detection of liver injury in laboratory animals are discussed.  (+info)

(4/4731) Assessment of hepatotoxic potential.

Philosophic concepts and pragmatic approaches toward improved understanding of the effect of drugs in the hepatocyte are reviewed. No set pattern of studies is advocated but rather observations are encouraged within the framework of studies that provide for varied exposure of the hepatocyte. Clinical usage should be imitated to provide earliest possible indications of toxicity in man. The need for definitive characterization through utilization of appropriate methodology derived from cross-fertilization of related disciplines is stressed. Both minimal and maximal dose effects should be established. Selected use of electron microscopy has become essential for characterizing responses of the liver to injury. The advantages of the toluidine blue-stained Epon "thick" sections are emphasized. Such observations are used to implement the utility of serial biopsies from the beagle dog prior to and during long-term study of potential hepatic injury. Examples of the critical effects of drug concentration within the hepatocyte are presented.  (+info)

(5/4731) Complement fixing hepatitis B core antigen immune complexes in the liver of patients with HBs antigen positive chronic disease.

One hundred and fifty-two biopsies from serologically HBsAg positive and negative patients with liver disease were studied in immunofluorescence: for the presence of the surface (HBs) and the core (HBc) antigenic determinants foeterminants of the hepatitis B virus, of immunoglobulins and complement (C) deposits, and for the capacity to fix human C. Circumstantial evidence is presented suggesting that HBc immune-complexes are a relevant feature in the establishment and progression of chronic HBSAg liver disease. C fixation by liver cells was shown in all HBC positive patients with chronic hepatitis; an active form was present in every case, except two with a persistent hepatitis, an inverse ratio of HBc to C binding fluorescence being noted between active chronic hepatitis and cirrhotic patients. HBc without C fixation was observed in only three patients in the incubation phase of infectious hepatitis. IgG deposits were often found in HBc containing, C fixing nuclei. No C binding or IgG deposits were observed in acute self-limited type B hepatitis, in serologically positive patients with normal liver or minimal histological lesions, with and without HBs cytoplasmic fluorescence in their biopsy, or in serologically negative individuals.  (+info)

(6/4731) Study of an epidemic of venoocclusive disease in India.

Twenty-five cases of rapidly developing ascites occurring in an epidemic form were observed in a tribal district in Central India during August 1972-May 1973. Eleven of the patients died. Six patients were brought to hospital and studied for periods of two to 17 months. Necropsy was performed on one patient who died. The clinical features suggested an outflow tract obstruction such as a Budd-Chiari-like syndrome or venoocclusive disease. Radiographic and haemodynamic studies demonstrated a combination of post and perisinusoidal blocks. Liver dysfunction was indicated by the presence of a marked bromsulphthalein retention and mild to moderate hypoalbuminaemia. Histological examination of the liver biopsies showed changes that ranged from centrizonal haemorrhagic necrosis to an extensive centrilobular fibrosis associated with central vein occlusion. The disease was apparently caused by a food toxin, and the possible nature of this is discussed.  (+info)

(7/4731) Risk of major liver resection in patients with underlying chronic liver disease: a reappraisal.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the relation of patient age, status of liver parenchyma, presence of markers of active hepatitis, and blood loss to subsequent death and complications in patients undergoing a similar major hepatectomy for the same disease using a standardized technique. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Major liver resection carries a high risk of postoperative liver failure in patients with chronic liver disease. However, this underlying liver disease may comprise a wide range of pathologic changes that have, in the past, not been well defined. METHODS: The nontumorous liver of 55 patients undergoing a right hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma was classified according to a semiquantitative grading of fibrosis. The authors analyzed the influence of this pathologic feature and of other preoperative variables on the risk of postoperative death and complications. RESULTS: Serum bilirubin and prothrombin time increased on postoperative day 1, and their speed of recovery was influenced by the severity of fibrosis. Incidence of death from liver failure was 32% in patients with grade 4 fibrosis (cirrhosis) and 0% in patients with grade 0 to 3 fibrosis. The preoperative serum aspartate transaminase (ASAT) level ranged from 68 to 207 IU/l in patients with cirrhosis who died, compared with 20 to 62 in patients with cirrhosis who survived. CONCLUSION: A major liver resection such as a right hepatectomy may be safely performed in patients with underlying liver disease, provided no additional risk factors are present. Patients with a preoperative increase in ASAT should undergo a liver biopsy to rule out the presence of grade 4 fibrosis, which should contraindicate this resection.  (+info)

(8/4731) Predicting bone loss following orthotopic liver transplantation.

BACKGROUND: Hepatic osteodystrophy occurs in the majority of patients with advanced chronic liver disease with the abnormalities in bone metabolism accelerating following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). AIMS: To examine changes in bone mineral density (BMD) following OLT and to investigate factors that lead to bone loss. METHODS: Twelve patients had BMD (at both the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN)) and biochemical markers measured preoperatively and for 24 months following OLT. RESULTS: BMD was low in 75% of patients prior to OLT and decreased significantly from baseline at the LS at three months and the FN at six months. BMD began to increase thereafter at both sites, approaching baseline values at the LS by 12 months. Bone formation markers, osteocalcin and procollagen type I carboxy propeptide, decreased immediately post-OLT, with a concomitant increase seen in the resorption markers pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline. This resulted in a negative uncoupling index early post-OLT, that rebounded to positive values after six months. There was a significant correlation between the change in the uncoupling index between six and three months which preceded the increase in BMD at 12 months. The decrease in BMD recorded early post-OLT correlated with vitamin D levels at three months. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that increased resorption and inadequate formation are the major contributors to additional bone loss following OLT. Non-invasive biochemical markers precede later changes in BMD in this patient group following OLT and may have a role in investigating and planning intervention strategies to prevent bone loss in future studies.  (+info)



nonalcoholic fatty l


  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition in which fat builds up in your liver. (nih.gov)
  • Usually, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) cause few or no symptoms. (nih.gov)
  • Doctors use your medical history, a physical exam, and tests to diagnose nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). (nih.gov)
  • Doctors recommend weight loss to treat nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). (nih.gov)
  • You may be able to prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis fatty liver disease (NASH) by eating a healthy diet and maintaining a healthy weight. (nih.gov)
  • Fatty liver is shorthand for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is seen in people whatever their level drinking, including people who do not drink any alcohol. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has a range of conditions and can develop through stages. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease can become more severe as it advances through stages. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Exactly how and why nonalcoholic fatty liver disease develops is not clear. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease usually gives no symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Sometimes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is discovered when testing is done for some other medical reason. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Studying mice, researchers have found a way to prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. (innovations-report.com)
  • In mice, blocking GLUT8 stops fructose from entering the liver and protects against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. (innovations-report.com)
  • In people, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease often accompanies obesity, elevated blood sugar, high blood pressure and other markers of metabolic syndrome. (innovations-report.com)
  • The dietary intake of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is generally characterized by high levels of carbohydrate, fat, and/or cholesterol, and these dietary patterns influence hepatic lipid metabolism in the patients. (hindawi.com)

NAFLD


  • Also shortened to NAFLD, it is called "nonalcoholic" to separate it from a similar liver disease caused by too much alcohol. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although the fatty liver disease caused by alcohol has the same effect on the liver as NAFLD, it is considered separately. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Simple NAFLD is fat building up in the liver, which is called steatosis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Until now little was known about the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children. (medindia.net)
  • Utilizing rigorous standardization methods that narrowed the study population to represent children in the community, and adjusted for age, gender, race and ethnicity, the team estimated that NAFLD is present in 9.6% of the children and adolescents living in San Diego County. (medindia.net)
  • NAFLD is defined by an accumulation of fat in the liver cells. (medindia.net)
  • In order to study the prevalence of the disease Schwimmer said an autopsy study design was the only means the group had to assess NAFLD in the general population. (medindia.net)
  • Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine, with a cohort of clinical collaborators from across the United States, have demonstrated the impact of low and high birth weights in developing Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), a chronic disease that often leads to a need for organ transplantation. (eurekalert.org)
  • The children had a diagnosis of NAFLD as confirmed by liver biopsy. (eurekalert.org)
  • According to the American Liver Foundation, NAFLD is a spectrum of diseases that begins with excess fat deposits in the liver. (eurekalert.org)

protected from fatty


  • The researchers also saw differences between male and female mice in the degree to which they were protected from fatty livers and in whole-body metabolism. (innovations-report.com)
  • Mice with no CHOP were partially protected from fatty liver. (medindia.net)

cirrhosis of th


  • The conclusions are significant because the disease can lead to cirrhosis of the liver, end-stage liver disease requiring a liver transplant, and liver cancer. (medindia.net)
  • While fatty liver itself does not necessarily cause illness, it is associated with serious conditions like diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cirrhosis of the liver and liver failure. (medindia.net)

Biopsy


  • Tests may include blood tests, imaging tests, and sometimes liver biopsy. (nih.gov)
  • Schwimmer stated that fatty liver disease is usually diagnosed through biopsy tissue samples and that presented the first obstacle of determining the rate of the disease in a pediatric population. (medindia.net)
  • A liver biopsy will be performed to collect liver tissue samples. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The study presented here is a biopsy-based study that follows up on these results with the objectives of defining the etiology of liver disease and describing the mechanisms of HIV-accelerated liver fibrosis in this setting. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • and/or those who have a clinical or medical indication for a liver biopsy. (clinicaltrials.gov)

symptoms


  • But most people with polycystic liver disease do not have symptoms and live a normal life. (webmd.com)
  • What Are the Symptoms of Polycystic Liver Disease? (webmd.com)
  • Most of the time, people with polycystic liver disease have no symptoms. (webmd.com)
  • Because symptoms do not always occur, the majority of people learn they have PLD during a routine medical exam or diagnosis of kidney disease related to polycystic kidney disease. (webmd.com)
  • People were ill, even dying, from an illness that demonstrated symptoms commonly seen in liver disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Possible symptoms of nonalcohoic fatty liver disease include tiredness and discomfort high up in the belly. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Various nutritional problems as well as clinical symptoms lie in liver cirrhosis (LC), the end stage of chronic hepatitis, complications of influence and prognosis. (hindawi.com)
  • The hospice mission is to serve those in the end stages of liver disease, to relieve pain, control symptoms, improve quality of life and reduce anxiety for patients and their families. (vitas.com)

obesity


  • What is clear is that obesity raises the risk of fatty liver considerably. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Fatty liver has become more recognized, and overweight and obesity are rising problems. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) have decreased dietary energy and protein intake, while the number of LC patients with overeating and obesity is increasing, indicating that the nutritional state of LC patients has a broad spectrum. (hindawi.com)
  • Obesity: Overweight and obese children accounted for 81% of all cases of fatty liver. (medindia.net)
  • The next step is to investigate whether real physiological stresses like chronic alcohol consumption, obesity and viral infection also lead to fatty liver disease through protein folding problems in the ER," said Rutkowski. (medindia.net)
  • Children who are born with low birth weight or high birth weight may merit closer attention to their metabolic health to help prevent obesity, liver disease, and diabetes. (eurekalert.org)

fibrosis


  • Weight loss can reduce fat in the liver, inflammation, and fibrosis. (nih.gov)
  • As the disease progresses, fibrosis increases, which may become cirrhosis, a permanent form of scarring that can lead to liver failure and need for transplantation. (eurekalert.org)

hepatitis


  • However, HIV-related liver disease in Uganda and other African nations may involve other diseases that are not common in the West, and may not involve hepatitis B or C. Researchers want to study HIV-related liver disease in Uganda to learn more about the differences between Western and African trends of this disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • With improved survival following the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), liver disease has become a leading cause of death among HIV-infected persons in Western cohorts, primarily affecting those co-infected with hepatitis B or C viruses (HBV, HCV). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • However, children with high-birth weight were more likely to develop the hepatitis form of fatty liver disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • Liver diseases associated with HBV are affected by the antiviral drugs used for HIV infection (toxic side effects), the current immune function in the patient, by improvements in the immune system brought about by control of the HIV infection, and by the development of resistance to the antiviral agents used for both the hepatitis B and the HIV infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The aim of the study is to investigate chronic hepatitis B and its impact on the progression of liver disease in HIV-infected persons receiving HAART. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This will be achieved by 6 monthly assessment with medical history, physical examination, bloods for markers of liver disease and hepatitis B activity and completion of questionnaires to measure adherence and alcohol use. (clinicaltrials.gov)

steatohepatitis


  • The team found that in 23% of those children with fatty liver, the liver injury was severe enough to produce steatohepatitis, an inflammation caused by fat buildup in the liver. (medindia.net)
  • Over time steatohepatitis can cause progressive liver damage and has important implications for the long term health of children and young adults. (medindia.net)

metabolic syndrome


  • Females fed fructose while lacking GLUT8, in contrast, had healthy looking livers but exhibited more evidence of whole-body metabolic syndrome. (innovations-report.com)
  • So the liver is healthier in female rodents, but you could argue that the whole body has worse overall metabolic syndrome," he said. (innovations-report.com)

researchers


  • In this study, researchers showed that blocking or eliminating GLUT8 in mice reduced the amount of fructose entering the organ and appeared to prevent the development of fatty livers. (innovations-report.com)
  • Ethnicity: The researchers found that the Hispanic Americans were at a particularly high risk with an 11.8% rate of fatty liver. (medindia.net)
  • The researchers noted that fatty liver disease is most prevalent among children and adolescents of Hispanic origin adding that the odds of a Hispanic child having fatty liver disease is five times higher than that for a black child. (medindia.net)
  • hence, until now, physicians and researchers did not have real data on how many children suffer from fatty liver. (medindia.net)
  • In a study on mice, researchers at University of Iowa and University of Michigan have found that disrupted protein folding may lead to fatty liver disease, a condition that causes fat to accumulate in the liver. (medindia.net)
  • Following up on the result, the researchers found that mice also developed fatty liver if their ability to fold proteins in the ER was genetically impaired, even when the UPR was functionally intact. (medindia.net)

inflammation


  • If you have NASH, you have inflammation and liver cell damage, along with fat in your liver. (nih.gov)

causes


  • Polycystic liver disease (PLD or PCLD) is a rare condition that causes cysts -- fluid-filled sacs -- to grow throughout the liver . (webmd.com)
  • What Causes Polycystic Liver Disease? (webmd.com)
  • In 2005 a multidisciplinary team began an investigation into the disease and its causes under the principle of the "One Health Approach. (cdc.gov)

clinical


  • Specialists at the university's Alzheimer s Disease Research and Clinical Center concluded that Trevino had been overmedicated with tranquilizers and recommended the Boyle Heights adult day care program to keep her active and stimulated. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Fatty liver disease is a major topic of research right now," said first author Brian J. DeBosch, MD, PhD, clinical fellow in pediatric gastroenterology. (innovations-report.com)
  • The aim is to describe a world standard of guidelines for diagnosis of liver diseases in dogs and cats, using both histological and clinical criteria. (elsevier.com)
  • describes world standardization of guidelines for diagnosis of liver diseases in dogs and cats, using both histological and clinical criteria. (elsevier.com)
  • Only a doctor can make a clinical determination of end-stage liver disease life expectancy. (vitas.com)
  • Information was obtained from more than 530 children under the age of 21 who were enrolled in the Database of the National Institute of Diabetes and Kidney Diseases NASH Clinical Research Network. (eurekalert.org)

metabolism


  • Male mice fed a high-fructose diet while deficient in GLUT8 still had evidence of fatty liver disease, but whole-body metabolism was healthy. (innovations-report.com)
  • The liver is one of the main organs of nutritional metabolism, including protein synthesis, glycogen storage, and detoxification. (hindawi.com)
  • He added: "When we realized that our experiments to investigate protein folding abnormalities were producing fatty liver disease as a consequence, it tied in with previous circumstantial evidence suggesting that ER stress might be involved in the liver's role in fat metabolism. (medindia.net)
  • After further analysis of the mice models, scientists could identify some of the genes that connect prolonged ER stress with faulty fat metabolism in the liver. (medindia.net)

Schwimmer


  • Fatty liver disease is a very common problem that has gone largely unnoticed," said Jeffrey Schwimmer, UCSD Associate Professor of Pediatrics and Director of the Fatty Liver and Weight and Wellness Clinics at Rady Children's Hospital, who led the study. (medindia.net)
  • Schwimmer said the most surprising finding was learning that nearly 20% of the children with fatty liver were in the healthy weight range. (medindia.net)
  • What our research found is that low-birth weight and high-birth weight were both associated with the severity of liver disease, but in different ways," said Jeffrey Schwimmer, MD, professor of pediatrics at UC San Diego School of Medicine and director of the Fatty Liver Clinic at Rady Children's Hospital-San Diego. (eurekalert.org)
  • Schwimmer noted that early research indicated a relationship between low-birth weight and cardiovascular disease and diabetes. (eurekalert.org)

Treatments


  • Therefore, dietary counseling and nutritional intervention can support other medical treatments in some liver diseases. (hindawi.com)

Diabetes


  • The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and other components of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct and support research into many diseases and conditions. (nih.gov)
  • This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. (nih.gov)
  • This means people are also more likely to get diabetes and heart disease . (medicalnewstoday.com)

severe


  • The result suggested that the UPR is able to protect the liver against ER stress to a certain degree, but that fatty liver will result when the stress is too severe. (medindia.net)
  • Children with low-birth weight were more likely to develop severe scarring of the liver. (eurekalert.org)

transplant


  • Not every patient with ESLD wants or is appropriate for a liver transplant. (vitas.com)

Alzheimer's


  • Adriana Trevino, 93, who has Alzheimer's disease, participates in a dance session at the El Rinconcito del Sol Adult Day Care Center in Boyle Heights. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Unfolded or misfolded proteins are a sign of cellular stress and can cause serious problems -- misfolded proteins cause amyloid plaques found in Alzheimer's disease. (medindia.net)

normally


  • No matter the number or size of cysts, polycystic livers continue to function normally and the disease is not considered life threatening. (webmd.com)

alcoholic


  • Simply known as alcoholic liver disease , it has different medical management. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • According to WHO's "Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health", around six percent of global deaths are caused by drinking alcohol, the majority from alcoholic cirrhosis - scarring of the liver as a result of continuous, long-term liver damage. (indianexpress.com)

stages


  • Here, the authors show that this enzyme is functional and that asparagine is crucial for the development of the parasite's sexual stages in mosquitoes and liver stages in mice. (nature.com)

ultrasound


  • Doctors can diagnose polycystic liver disease with imaging studies, such as ultrasound , CT scan , or MRI . (webmd.com)
  • Participants will also have a liver scan to check for liver scarring, and an ultrasound to take images of the liver. (clinicaltrials.gov)

prevalence


  • Age: They found that fatty liver prevalence increased with age, ranging from 0.7% in children 2-4 years of age, up to 17.3% for ages 15-19. (medindia.net)
  • The study was the first to provide a population estimate of the disease prevalence in children and was the first to use tissue analysis to determine the incidence of the disease within a given population, either pediatric or adult. (medindia.net)

progression


  • These functions become damaged to a greater or lesser extent in patients with liver diseases, resulting in various metabolic disorders, and their disturbed nutritional condition is associated with disease progression. (hindawi.com)
  • HIV infection impacts on the natural progression of HBV infection, increasing levels of HBV replication and the risk of liver-associated mortality. (clinicaltrials.gov)

mice


  • Blocking a path that delivers dietary fructose to the liver prevented mice from developing the condition, according to investigators at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. (innovations-report.com)
  • Mice with GLUT8 deficiency also appeared to burn liver fat at a faster rate than control mice. (innovations-report.com)
  • If you take away or block this transporter in mice, they no longer get diet-induced fatty liver disease. (innovations-report.com)
  • Besides, the team found that protein misfolding caused fatty liver in mice with the mutation. (medindia.net)

Adolescents


  • The study, published in the October issue of Pediatrics, found that fatty liver was present in 13% of the children and adolescents whose records were studied. (medindia.net)
  • The team determined it was the most common cause of liver disease in the children and adolescents they studied. (medindia.net)

obese


  • Not everyone who is obese develops fatty liver, and not everyone who has fatty liver is obese. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The overweight and obese children accounted for 81% of the fatty liver cases. (medindia.net)

buildup


  • A threshold level is used to mean there is fatty liver but the buildup is mild enough not to cause any problems. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This level is when there is fat buildup in more than 5 percent of the liver cells without any sign of further liver injury or disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)

prevent


  • The thought is if we can prevent the liver from becoming unhealthy to begin with, maybe we can block the entire process from moving forward. (innovations-report.com)

genetic


  • The majority of people with polycystic liver disease inherit the condition, but PLD can occur randomly with no genetic link. (webmd.com)
  • Pregnancy-related fatty liver is a problem that has genetic factors. (medicalnewstoday.com)

infectious


  • The joint epidemiologic investigation in 2007 ruled out infectious diseases as the cause and suggested that the disease may be related to something in people's diets. (cdc.gov)
  • However, data are sparse on liver disease in HIV-infected populations from Uganda and other African nations, where the etiologies of liver disease are broader and include aflatoxin, schistosomiasis and other infectious and environmental agents. (clinicaltrials.gov)

cells


  • A transporter called GLUT8 (green) is in the outer membrane of liver cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • The research team, led by Kelle H. Moley , MD, the James P. Crane Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, showed that a molecule called GLUT8 carries large amounts of fructose into liver cells. (innovations-report.com)

increases


  • New research has found that moving from moderate to heavy daily drinking - up to one drink a day for women and two drinks a day for men - increases liver cirrhosis risk. (indianexpress.com)

indication


  • Within the next 10 years, it is expected to become the leading cause of liver pathology, liver failure, and indication for liver transplantation in childhood and adolescence in the Western world. (medicalnewstoday.com)

research


  • The NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings through its clearinghouses and education programs to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public. (nih.gov)
  • Most research on HIV-related liver disease has been conducted in North America and Europe. (clinicaltrials.gov)

protein


  • The results suggest that it is not disruption of a specific protein that caused fatty liver, but rather anything that perturbs the ER's ability to fold proteins correctly that is important. (medindia.net)
  • The scientists speculated that if the finding holds true for fatty liver disease in humans, therapies aimed at improving protein folding in the ER, or inhibiting CHOP, could help treat the condition. (medindia.net)
  • Our study does prove that perturbing protein folding can lead to fatty liver. (medindia.net)

infection


  • Parasitic liver diseases are caused by infection with parasites, such as liver flukes (trematoda) and tapeworms (cestoda). (nature.com)

cause


  • Liver disease is a leading cause of death in people who have the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (clinicaltrials.gov)

However


  • However, in some families, everyone died from the disease. (cdc.gov)

occurs


  • Epidemiology is the science that investigates how, where, and when a disease occurs in a specific population. (cdc.gov)

people


  • PLD is most common in people who have polycystic kidney disease (PCKD), with its frequency increasing with age and advanced renal disease. (webmd.com)
  • In this dry, mountainous area, people living in remote homes and villages were coming down with what appeared to be the same unknown disease. (cdc.gov)
  • People who contracted the disease developed swollen, painful abdomens and then lost weight. (cdc.gov)
  • In this area of Ethiopia, people lead very basic lives. (cdc.gov)
  • I like tackling the problems in environmental epidemiology and working in countries with basic lifestyles where I can make a difference in the lives of people who need help. (cdc.gov)
  • Some estimate as many as 1 billion people worldwide have fatty liver disease, though some may not realize it. (innovations-report.com)

long-term


  • Fatty liver has also become the most common form of long-term liver disease in children. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Care for patients wherever they live - home, long term care facility or assisted living community. (vitas.com)

medical


  • In 2002 when the disease was first reported, residents had limited access to medical care. (cdc.gov)

Begins


  • One of these hypotheses is that insulin resistance begins to develop in the liver first. (innovations-report.com)

illness


  • Residents of Tigray were all too familiar with the tropical diseases common in this region, and they recognized this illness was not one of them. (cdc.gov)

risk factors


  • The CDC team helped Ethiopian health agencies conduct another investigation to understand better the risk factors for the disease. (cdc.gov)
  • These exceptions are one of the reasons why the risk factors for the disease are not completely clear. (medicalnewstoday.com)

health


  • Epidemiologists are therefore "disease detectives" who apply science to solving real public health problems. (cdc.gov)
  • This was the situation in Tigray in 2007, when the Ethiopia Ministry of Health and EHNRI asked CDC and other partners to join the multidisciplinary team and help them investigate the outbreak of what was then called "unidentified liver disease (ULD). (cdc.gov)
  • Birth weight involves both maternal and in utero factors, which may have long-lasting consequences for liver health. (eurekalert.org)

continue


  • Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger is proposing to shut down the state s adult day healthcare centers, which provide services to help the elderly continue living at home. (sun-sentinel.com)

study


  • To study HIV-related liver disease in rural Uganda. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The results of the study may pave the way for understanding and perhaps treating fatty liver disease. (medindia.net)
  • The study was presented at The International Liver Congress 2015 in Vienna, Austria. (indianexpress.com)

different


  • Cysts also can grow independently in different parts of the liver. (webmd.com)

known


  • We're about a week late reporting on this heart-wrenching video, but we thought you'd all still be interested in hearing about Gene Simpkins, a man afflicted with a rare condition called "Moto-Neural Demyelination", otherwise known as Duke Nukem's disease. (ohgizmo.com)
  • Scientists have known that fructose is processed in the liver and stored there as fat in the form of triglycerides. (innovations-report.com)

children


  • The group found fatty liver disease in 11.8% of the Hispanics, 10.2% of the Asians, 8.6% of the Caucasian and 1.5% of the African American children. (medindia.net)
  • For example, fatty liver was found in 20% of the Filipino-American children but in only four percent of the Cambodian and Vietnamese children. (medindia.net)