Literature: Writings having excellence of form or expression and expressing ideas of permanent or universal interest. The body of written works produced in a particular language, country, or age. (Webster, 3d ed)Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Review Literature as Topic: Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.History, Modern 1601-: The period of history from 1601 of the common era to the present.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Literature, ModernHistory, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Databases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Paleodontology: The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.AfricaInformation Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Anatomy, Comparative: The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.EuropeSkull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Data Mining: Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.United StatesReproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Cultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Human Migration: Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Skeleton: The rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for MUSCLES.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Bibliography as Topic: Discussion of lists of works, documents or other publications, usually with some relationship between them, e.g., by a given author, on a given subject, or published in a given place, and differing from a catalog in that its contents are restricted to holdings of a single collection, library, or group of libraries. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Far East: A geographic area of east and southeast Asia encompassing CHINA; HONG KONG; JAPAN; KOREA; MACAO; MONGOLIA; and TAIWAN.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Siberia: A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Radiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Natural Language Processing: Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Medicine, Chinese Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Government Publications as Topic: Discussion of documents issued by local, regional, or national governments or by their agencies or subdivisions.Reference Books: Books designed by the arrangement and treatment of their subject matter to be consulted for definite terms of information rather than to be read consecutively. Reference books include DICTIONARIES; ENCYCLOPEDIAS; ATLASES; etc. (From the ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Medical Subject Headings: Controlled vocabulary thesaurus produced by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. It consists of sets of terms naming descriptors in a hierarchical structure that permits searching at various levels of specificity.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Rare Diseases: A large group of diseases which are characterized by a low prevalence in the population. They frequently are associated with problems in diagnosis and treatment.Genealogy and HeraldryPaleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.RomaniaBayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Great BritainAnthropology, Cultural: It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.Engraving and EngravingsExtinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Dentition: The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Meta-Analysis as Topic: A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Tool Use Behavior: Modifying, carrying, or manipulating an item external to itself by an animal, before using it to effect a change on the environment or itself (from Beck, Animal Tool Behavior, 1980).Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Manuscripts, MedicalIncidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.Radiography, Abdominal: Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.Medicine, Ayurvedic: The traditional Hindu system of medicine which is based on customs, beliefs, and practices of the Hindu culture. Ayurveda means "the science of Life": veda - science, ayur - life.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Paleography: The study of ancient inscriptions and modes of writing. It includes the deciphering of manuscripts and other forms to determine their date, provenance, etc. (Webster's 1st ed)Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Gorilla gorilla: This single species of Gorilla, which is a member of the HOMINIDAE family, is the largest and most powerful of the PRIMATES. It is distributed in isolated scattered populations throughout forests of equatorial Africa.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Philosophy, MedicalCombined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Lipoma: A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.History of MedicineProteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Pathology: A specialty concerned with the nature and cause of disease as expressed by changes in cellular or tissue structure and function caused by the disease process.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Libraries, MedicalGuidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Time: The dimension of the physical universe which, at a given place, orders the sequence of events. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)IndiaRecurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Biogenesis: The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.GermanyAustralia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Mummies: Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Contraceptive Agents: Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Fibroma: A benign tumor of fibrous or fully developed connective tissue.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.

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*  Journal of Modern Literature - Wikipedia
The Journal of Modern Literature is a quarterly peer-reviewed literary journal covering studies of literature in any language ...
*  Museum of Modern Literature - Wikipedia
The Museum of Modern Literature (Literaturmuseum der Moderne) or LiMo is part of the German Literature Archive (Deutsches ... It displays and archives 20th-century literature. Notable original manuscripts include The Trial by Franz Kafka and Berlin ...
*  History of modern literature - Wikipedia
Mexican literature Australia See Australian literature, New Zealand literature Asian literature African literature Literature ... European literature French literature of the 19th century Americas Argentine literature, Literature of Canada, Category: ... The history of literature in the Modern period in Europe begins with the Age of Enlightenment and the conclusion of the Baroque ... The first modern Arabic compilation of The Book of One Thousand and One Nights was published in Cairo. In the mid-19th century ...
*  Modern literature in Irish - Wikipedia
IRISH PAGES Vol 5 No 2, The Irish Issue ISBN 0-9544257-7-4 A general survey of literature in Irish. It includes the modern ... Both magazines have had as contributors some of the most notable figures in modern Irish-language literature, and continue to ... modern literature in Irish owes much to the Gaelic Revival, a cultural movement which began in the late nineteenth century. ... Ó Grianna's most important contribution to modern literature in the language might be the fact that he persuaded his brother ...
*  Museum of Korean Modern Literature - Wikipedia
The Museum of Korean Modern Literature is a literature museum in Jangchung-dong, Jung-gu, Seoul, South Korea. There are ...
*  List of Latin translations of modern literature - Wikipedia
Bibliography of modern Latin and Greek literature Latinitas recens vivaque Saravipontana Trachtenberg, Jeffrey A. "How Do You ... A number of Latin translations of modern literature have been made to bolster interest in the language. The perceived dryness ... List of modern literature translated into dead languages Francis William Newman, Rebilius Cruso: Robinson Crusoe, in Latin; A ... of classical literature is sometimes a major obstacle for achieving fluency in reading Latin, as it discourages students from ...
*  Architecture and Modern Literature - David Spurr - Google Books
Architecture and Modern Literature will serve as a foundational introduction to the emerging interdisciplinary study of ... in which modern forms of 'meaning' in architecture and literature are related to the discourses of being, dwelling, and ... In addressing this subject, it also examines the larger questions of the relation between literature and architecture and the ... architecture and literature. David Spurr addresses a broad range of material, including literary, critical, and philosophical ...
*  French Early Modern Literature Link Page
French Early Modern Literature. Hot links created by David A. Gatwood from a list by Bob Peckham (TennesseeBob). Cultural ...
*  List of modern literature translated into dead languages - Wikipedia
This is a list of translations of modern literature into dead languages. There is a separate list of such translations into ... List of Latin translations of modern literature Alle Titel des Verlags Edition Tintenfaß Bloomsbury: Harry Potter and the ...
*  CMLT C255 1121 Modern Literature & The Other Arts
Comparative Literature , Modern Literature & The Other Arts. C255 , 1121 , Sarah Mote. *Satisfies COAS AHLA and Cultural ... No prerequisites and no previous experience in literature or other arts is required. ...
*  Figures in Modern Literature - John Boynton Priestley - Google Books
Literature.html?id=clhCAAAAIAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareFigures in Modern Literature. ... SQUIRE Jacobs kind labour least literary literature living Lynd lyric magnificent manner Mare Mare's matter mind mood nature ... 0 Reviews ... J. Lane, The Bodley Head Limited, 1924 - English literature - 215 pages. ...
*  Early Modern Literature in History | Cedric C. Brown | Springer
Performing Childhood in the Early Modern Theatre Lamb, E. (2009) This book investigates how the Children of Paul's (1599-1606) ... This study takes a look at a controversial question: what do the acts and shows of grief performed in early modern drama tell ... Performances of Mourning in Shakespearean Theatre and Early Modern Culture Döring, T. (2006) ...
*  Literature in modern Scotland - Wikipedia
Literature in modern Scotland is literature written in Scotland, or by Scottish writers, since the beginning of the twentieth ... The Edinburgh History of Scottish Literature: Modern transformations: new identities (from 1918) (Edinburgh: Edinburgh ... The Edinburgh History of Scottish Literature: Modern transformations: new identities (from 1918) (Edinburgh: Edinburgh ... It includes literature written in English, Scottish Gaelic and Scots in forms including poetry, novels, drama and the short ...
*  Rochester poems context | Renaissance and early modern literature | Cambridge University Press
The reputation of John Wilmot, second Earl of Rochester, as a rake has imparted an air of dilettantism to his poetry. By contrast, Rochester: The Poems in Context emphasizes his sharp, restless intellect, a more powerful driving force in his poems than the sensual appetites stressed by previous critics. Marianne Thormählen uncovers his familiarity with, and sly allusions to, events and leading characters in Restoration politics; his awareness of trends in science, theology and philosophy; his acute representations of contemporary mores; and his commitment to high standards in literary craftsmanship. A more complex picture of Rochester emerges: that of a serious artist tackling major issues during a particularly turbulent period in English history. Alongside its literary analyses, the book offers insights into late seventeenth-century culture: religious discord, the position of women scholars and poets, military matters, statecraft and foreign affairs under Charles II, and developments in ...
*  Modern Greek literature - Wikipedia
Modern Greek literature refers to literature written in common Modern Greek, emerging from the late Byzantine era in the 11th ... Greek literature Cretan literature First Athenian School Heptanese School (literature) New Athenian School List of Greek ... Modern Greek literature is usually (but not exclusively) written in polytonic orthography, though the monotonic orthography was ... Modern Greek literature is represented by many writers, poets and novelists. Major representatives are Angelos Sikelianos, ...
*  Modern Kannada literature - Wikipedia
"Modern Kannada Literature". In George K.M. Modern Indian Literature:An Anthology - Vol 1. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 81-7201-324-8. ... Modern Kannada literature refers to the body of literature written in the Kannada language, a language spoken mainly in the ... "Father of modern Kannada literature", gave the call for writing originals in modern Kannada, emancipating the language from ... The impetus to modern literature came from a Western-style education and the Christian missionaries who relied on the local ...
*  Teaching Associate in Early Modern Literature - University of Sheffield -
Teaching Associate in Early Modern Literature. University of Sheffield - Faculty of Arts and Humanities - School of English. ...
*  Modern Arabic literature - Wikipedia
After the war, modern Arabic literature changed dramatically. Topics such as modernity and social change, and people's ... It was the natural and organic atmosphere for the development of modern Arabic literature. In the final thirty years of the ... Starkey, Paul (2006). Modern Arabic Literature. UK: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 23, 25, 42, 46, 68. Ghirbal, Mohammed (1965 ... Although the Pen's translation did not directly affect the development of modern literature (unlike the translations of al- ...
*  Modern Hebrew Literature - Google Books
Literature.html?id=cfgsAQAAIAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareModern Hebrew Literature. ... Institute for the Translation of Hebrew Literature, 1979 - Hebrew literature, Modern. 0 Reviews ... drama Jerusalem Jewish Jews kibbutz language Lea Goldberg light Linda literary lives look Luria lyrical memory Miriam MODERN ... expression eyes Ezer face feeling fiction Gabriel girl Goldman's father Govrin hand Hanoch Hanoch Levin Hebrew Literature hero ...
*  Art, Messianism and Crime: A Study of Antinomianism in Modern Literature and ... - Stoddard Martin - Google Books
Art, Messianism and crime: a study of antinomianism in modern literature and .... Stoddard Martin. Snippet view - 1986. ... Art, Messianism and Crime: A Study of Antinomianism in Modern Literature and Lives. ... Art, Messianism and Crime: A Study of Antinomianism in Modern Literature and Lives. ...
*  Modern Chinese Literature and Culture - Wikipedia
Modern Chinese Literature and Culture, formerly Modern Chinese Literature (1984-1998), is a peer-reviewed academic journal ... Official website MCLC Resource Center ISSN 1520-9857 As of this edit, this article uses content from "Modern Chinese Literature ... a website on modern China cultural studies and affiliated with the journal. The journal publishes occasional special issues. ... The journal publishes on literature of all genres, film and television, popular culture, performance and visual art, print and ...

Harry Kane (illustrator): Harry Kane (Kirchner) (July 2, 1912 - March 1988) was a twentieth century American illustrator and artist who was born Harry Kirchner and was of Russian/Jewish descent. Primarily known for his work on the children's books, "The Three Investigators", he had a career that spanned over 50 years, doing work on paperback covers, advertising art, men's adventure magazines, movie posters and much more.Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossil: Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs) are microscopic acritarchs, usually over 100 μm in diameter, which are common in sediments of the Ediacaran period, . They largely disappear from the Ediacaran fossil record before , roughly coeval with the origin of the Ediacara biota.Timeline of historic inventionsNippleus Erectus: Nippleus Erectus was a drummer of GWAR (played by former White Cross member Rob Mosby), who did all the drumming for Hell-O. He is also credited for the drums on Scumdogs of the Universe, though it was Jizmak Da Gusha who played them.Caninia (genus)Sade LiveNewington Green Unitarian ChurchDiscoverer 23Computational archaeology: Computational archaeology describes computer-based analytical methods for the study of long-term human behaviour and behavioural evolution. As with other sub-disciplines that have prefixed 'computational' to their name (e.Parchment repair: The repair and mending of parchment has taken place for thousands of years. Methods from the earliest hand stitching of tears to today's use of modern equipment to mend and fill parchment show the importance that has been placed on its preservation and conservation.Negroid: Negroid (also known as Congoid) is a term that is used by forensic and physical anthropologists to refer to individuals and populations that share certain morphological and skeletal traits that are frequent among most populations in Sub-Saharan Africa. The term is commonly associated with notions of racial typology, which are disputed by many anthropologists.The Flash ChroniclesEnlightenment Intensive: An Enlightenment Intensive is a group retreat designed to enable a spiritual enlightenment experience within a relatively short time. Devised by Americans Charles (1929–2007) and Ava Berner in the 1960s,http://www.Spanking Shakespeare: Spanking Shakespeare (2007) is the debut novel by Jake Wizner. It is a young adult novel that tells the story of the unfortunately named Shakespeare Shapiro and his struggles in high school, dating and friendship.Jonathan AllynIppolito de' MediciGreenpoint Renaissance Enterprise Corporation: The Greenpoint Renaissance Enterprise Corporation (GREC) is a consortium of neighborhood organizations in North Brooklyn that serves to facilitate and advocate the activities for city initiatives, as well as coordinate community involvement in the neighborhood of the former Greenpoint Hospital Complex.Lang, Frank.Medical Anthropology Quarterly: Medical Anthropology Quarterly (MAQ) is an international peer-reviewed academic journal published for the Society for Medical Anthropology by the American Anthropological Association. It publishes research and theory about human health and disease from all areas of medical anthropology.Dense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease: The British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers six times a year in the field of Cardiovascular medicine. The journal's editors are Clifford J Bailey (Aston University), Ian Campbell (Victoria Hospital) and Christoph Schindler (Dresden University of Technology).Bestbets: BestBETS (Best Evidence Topic Reports) is a system designed by emergency physicians at Manchester Royal Infirmary, UK. It was conceived as a way of allowing busy clinicians to solve real clinical problems using published evidence.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingMIM Pan-African Malaria Conference 2009Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum: The Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum (formerly Cross-Language Evaluation Forum), or CLEF, is an organization promoting research in multilingual information access (currently focusing on European languages). Its specific functions are to maintain an underlying framework for testing information retrieval systems and to create repositories of data for researchers to use in developing comparable standards.International Committee on Aeronautical Fatigue and Structural IntegrityDactyly: In biology, dactyly is the arrangement of [(finger]s and [[toes) on the hands, feet, or sometimes wings of a tetrapod animal. It comes from the Greek word δακτυλος = "finger".Gross examinationList of youth publications: __NOTOC__HyperintensityMolecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.GA²LENCranial vault: The cranial vault is the space in the skull within the neurocranium, occupied by the brain. In humans, the size and shape of the brain, may be affected by the size of the vault as shown in craniometry, but studies relating it to intelligence have found no conclusive evidence.Process mining: Process mining is a process management technique that allows for the analysis of business processes based on event logs. The basic idea is to extract knowledge from event logs recorded by an information system.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.AIP Conference Proceedings: AIP Conference Proceedings is a serial published by the American Institute of Physics since 1970. It publishes the proceedings from various conferences of physics societies.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Mac OS X Server 1.0Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)Genetic variation: right|thumbJournal of Aging and Health: The Journal of Aging and Health (JAH) is a medical journal covering aging published by SAGE Publications. It covers research on gerontology, including diet/nutrition, prevention, behaviors, health service utilization, longevity, and mortality.Internet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.Proto-Greek language: The Proto-Greek language is the assumed last common ancestor of all known varieties of Greek, including Mycenaean, the classical Greek dialects (Attic-Ionic, Aeolic, Doric and Arcado-Cypriot), and ultimately Koine, Byzantine and modern Greek. The unity of Proto-Greek would have ended as Hellenic migrants, speaking the predecessor of the Mycenaean language, entered the Greek peninsula sometime in the Neolithic era or the Bronze Age.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Panmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.Makonde language: millionPSI Protein Classifier: PSI Protein Classifier is a program generalizing the results of both successive and independent iterations of the PSI-BLAST program. PSI Protein Classifier determines belonging of the found by PSI-BLAST proteins to the known families.List of countries that regulate the immigration of felons: This is a list of countries that regulate the immigration of felons.Medical sign: A medical sign is an objective indication of some medical fact or characteristic that may be detected by a physician during a physical examination of a patient. For example, whereas paresthesia is a symptom (only the person experiencing it can directly observe their own tingling feeling), erythema is a sign (anyone can confirm that the skin is redder than usual).Type XXVII collagen: Type XXVII collagen is the protein predicted to be encoded by COL27A1. It was first described by Dr.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Christopher Hitchens bibliography: Christopher Hitchens (April 13, 1949 – December 15, 2011) was a prolific English-American author, political journalist and literary critic. His books, essays, and journalistic career spanned more than four decades.Human tooth: The human teeth function in mechanically breaking down items of food by cutting and crushing them in preparation for swallowing and digestion. There are four different types of teeth, namely incisors, canines, molars and premolars.Far East Movement discography: The discography of Far East Movement, an American electronic pop rap group, consists of four studio albums, four extended plays, four mixtapes, eighteen singles (including three as featured artists) and thirty-three music videos. The group formed in 2003 in Los Angeles and released their first mixtape, Audio-Bio, in 2005, with their first studio album Folk Music following in 2006.Immersive technologyInterval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Dorjee KhanduIncremental cost-effectiveness ratio: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is a statistic used in cost-effectiveness analysis to summarise the cost-effectiveness of a health care intervention. It is defined by the difference in cost between two possible interventions, divided by the difference in their effect.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Miss Asia Pacific 2005Systematic Protein Investigative Research EnvironmentAndrew Dickson WhiteIndigenous peoples of SiberiaCommunity-based clinical trial: Community-based clinical trials are clinical trials conducted directly through doctors and clinics rather than academic research facilities. They are designed to be administered through primary care physicians, community health centers and local outpatient facilities.RhodolithInverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.Dragomir R. Radev: Dragomir R. Radev is a University of Michigan computer science professor and Columbia University computer science adjunct professor working on natural language processing and information retrieval.List of traditional Chinese medicines: In traditional Chinese medicine, there are roughly 13,000 medicinals used in China and over 100,000 medicinal prescriptions recorded in the ancient literature.Certain progress of clinical research on Chinese integrative medicine, Keji Chen, Bei Yu, Chinese Medical Journal, 1999, 112 (10), p.National Birth Control League: The National Birth Control League was a United States organization founded in the early 20th century to promoted the education and use of birth control.The Chimps of Fauna Sanctuary: The Chimps of Fauna Sanctuary: A Canadian Story of Resilience and Recovery is a non-fiction book, written by Canadian writer Andrew Westoll, first published in May 2011 by Harper Collins. In the book, the author chronicles the time he spent volunteering at the Fauna Sanctuary, an animal refuge in Quebec for chimpanzees that had been used for biomedical research.Extracellular: In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell". This space is usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid.Coles PhillipsOntario Genomics Institute: The Ontario Genomics Institute (OGI) is a not-for-profit organization that manages cutting-edge genomics research projects and platforms.The Ontario Genomics Institute OGI also helps scientists find paths to the marketplace for their discoveries and the products to which they lead, and it works through diverse outreach and educational activities to raise awareness and facilitate informed public dialogue about genomics and its social impacts.

(1/49) Marcel Proust (1871-1922): reassessment of his asthma and other maladies.

Marcel Proust endured severe allergies and bronchial asthma from early childhood. Those who suffer from the frightening and recurrent pangs of asthma often become dependent on their parents particularly mother; Proust was no exception. In his time asthma was poorly understood by physicians who considered the illness to be a type of hysteria. Decades later, we now understand that the severe, poorly controlled, suffocating episodes of asthma were responsible for the complex persona that Marcel Proust had assumed.  (+info)

(2/49) The Chinese Nail Murders: forensic medicine in Imperial China.

Robert van Gulik was a respected Dutch sinologist and author who first translated a collection of traditional Chinese detective stories into English and then created additional fictional stories based on the same characters and setting in the Tang dynasty. One of these stories, The Chinese Nail Murders, draws on van Gulik's professional interest in law and his knowledge of early Chinese works on forensic medicine. This novel develops a common theme in Chinese detective fiction, murder by a nail wound to the head. The difficulty in detection of this mode of violence posed a particular problem for the examining magistrate because postmortem examination was mostly limited to external observations. This essay compares the development of Chinese and Western forensic medicine in the context of the nail murder motif.  (+info)

(3/49) By their teeth shall ye know them.

These extracts from the literary archive focus on the role of teeth as a facial feature. Their contribution to favourable and unfavourable facial appearance by their presence or absence, their use as a guide to character and as a means of identification are illustrated.  (+info)

(4/49) Nobel Prize winners for literature as palliative for scientific English.

Plagiarism causes a serious concern in scientific literature. I distinguish two types of plagiarism. What is routinely highlighted and discussed is the reprehensible type of stealing another author's ideas and words. This type I categorize as "heterotrophic" plagiarism. A more prevalent and less-discussed type of plagiarism is the verbatim use of same sentences repetitively by authors in their publications. This I categorize as "autotrophic" plagiarism. Though harmless per se, autotrophic plagiarism is equally taxing on the readers. The occurrence of autotrophic plagiarism is mainly caused by the lack of proficiency in the current lingua franca of science, ie, English. The writings of 22 Nobel literature laureates who wrote in English, especially their travelogues, essays, and letters to the press can be used for benefit of improving one's own vocabulary and writing skills and style. I suggest the writings of three literati--Bernard Shaw, Bertrand Russell, and Ernest Hemingway--as palliatives for autotrophic plagiarism in scientific publishing.  (+info)

(5/49) Once upon a time...

In this, the first of two articles discussing literature for and about children, we will be considering how writing for the young has changed, reflecting different and evolving perspectives on childhood. In the second article we will be asking whether literature can be used creatively and usefully in the training of doctors. The suggestion for the topic arose from a session we organised for paediatricians in the Communication and Management module of the MSc in Child Health at Leeds University.  (+info)

(6/49) Shakespeare's chancre: did the bard have syphilis?

Shakespeare's obsessive interest in syphilis, his clinically exact knowledge of its manifestations, the final poems of the sonnets, and contemporary gossip all suggest that he was infected with "the infinite malady." The psychological impact of venereal disease may explain the misogyny and revulsion from sex so prominent in the writings of Shakespeare's tragic period. This article examines the possibility that Shakespeare received successful treatment for syphilis and advances the following new hypothesis: Shakespeare's late-life decrease in artistic production, tremor, social withdrawal, and alopecia were due to mercury poisoning from syphilis treatment. He may also have had anasarca due to mercury-related membranous nephropathy. This medical misadventure may have prematurely ended the career of the greatest writer in the English language.  (+info)

(7/49) 'He found me very well; for me, I was still feeling sick': the strange worlds of physicians and patients in the 18th and 21st centuries.

It is commonplace today to deplore the dissatisfaction of patients with the physician-patient relationship. Furthermore, historical investigation shows that this problem is not really new. We investigated an important source of patients' views in the 18th century, namely the letters of patients received by the famous Swiss physician, Samuel Tissot, and noted remarkably similar feelings of frustration. Yet the medical paradigms of today and of Tissot's times are considerably different. We propose that the persisting problems in the physician-patient relationship are due to a basic dissonance between the patient's ordinary modes of perception and the systematic way of perceiving reality characteristic of the physician. In addition, they reflect the unavoidable chasm between the ultimately private and singular nature of the illness experience, and the general and anonymous stance of medical theory. This chasm is therefore a permanent feature of the patient-physician relationship, predating the advent of scientific medicine, even if the latter reinforced it. In line with the current medical humanities movement, we believe that the engagement of physicians and medical students with literature and the arts helps them explore, and to some extent overcome, the existential divide between the patient's experiential self knowledge and the systematic, impersonal knowledge that plays a central role in medicine. We suggest a few examples of contemporary fiction that may be relevant and useful in this respect.  (+info)

(8/49) Paths to and from poverty in late 19th century novels.

Late 19th century novels provide graphic descriptions of working and living conditions and their impact on population health, in particular the detrimental effects of hunger, poor housing, environmental conditions, hazardous work and poor pay, smoking and alcohol and crime, but also the transformative possibilities of social and political action. The popularity of these novels helped raise the collective conscience of citizens and illuminated the direction for 20th century welfare reforms. Yet many of these problems remain and the pathways to and from poverty are still recognisable today. Although novels are now less central in conveying social information, re-reading these novels enables us to understand how social and economic circumstances were understood at the time and what led to social and political change.  (+info)

  • literary
  • Miguel de Cervantes's Don Quixote de la Mancha has been called "the first novel" by many literary scholars (or the first of the modern European novels). (
  • The Journal of Modern Literature is a quarterly peer-reviewed literary journal covering studies of literature in any language produced after 1900. (
  • In the classical literary cultures outside of Europe, the Modern period begins later, in Ottoman Turkey with the Tanzimat reforms (1820s), in Qajar Persia under Nasser al-Din Shah (1830s), in India with the end of the Mughal era and the establishment of the British Raj (1850s), in Japan with the Meiji restoration (1860s), and in China with the New Culture Movement (1910s). (
  • Although Irish has been used as a literary language for more than 1,500 years (see Irish literature), and in a form intelligible to contemporary speakers since at least the sixteenth century, modern literature in Irish owes much to the Gaelic Revival, a cultural movement which began in the late nineteenth century. (
  • - Architecture and Modern Literature explores the representation and interpretation of architectural space in modern literature from the early nineteenth century to the present, with the aim of showing how literary production and architectural construction are related as cultural forms in the historical. (
  • David Spurr addresses a broad range of material, including literary, critical, and philosophical works in English, French, and German, and proposes a new historical and theoretical overview of this area, in which modern forms of "meaning" in architecture and literature are related to the discourses of being, dwelling, and homelessness. (
  • In the last forty years, eight modern Kannada authors have been awarded the Jnanpith award, a prestigious private literary award in India. (
  • All of these missionaries helped in the establishment of Arabic journalism, which was the main force (second to the revival of traditional Arabic literature and the translation movement) in initiating the new literary movement. (
  • Topic: Chinese Writing and Rhetoric This course is designed for advanced students of Chinese to develop the facility to speak and write effectively for both formal and informal exchanges through extensive readings and analysis of modern social, political, as well as literary texts. (
  • These works would be classified by Chinese literary critics as being dangdai (contemporary) and xiandai (modern). (
  • Tatiana Fisac of the Autonomous University of Madrid argued that the book uses the Taiwanese authors of 1949-1976 "as the truly significant contributors to the Chinese literary canon during that time" and ""alternative worlds" to the asphyxiating political atmosphere for creative writing that prevailed during the Maoist era on the mainland, when the subordination of literature to official politics was enforced. (
  • notable
  • William Shakespeare is the most notable of the early modern playwrighters, but numerous others made important contributions, including Pierre Corneille, Molière, Jean Racine, Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Lope de Vega and Christopher Marlowe. (
  • The other major representative of the Cretan literature was Georgios Chortatzis and his most notable work was Erofili. (
  • presentations
  • Class activity will mainly consist of discussions of issues that concern modern Chinese intellectuals, presentations of materials prepared by students, and the examination of appropriate expressions. (
  • History
  • In the beginning the revivalists preferred the style used in Early Modern (Classical) Irish, notably by Geoffrey Keating (Seathrún Céitinn) in Foras Feasa ar Éirinn (History of Ireland), a much-read 17th century work. (
  • Modern Okinawa has been forged by a history of conquest and occupation by mainland Japan and the United States. (
  • Chinese
  • Chinese literature of the Qing dynasty remains mostly unaffected by European influence, and effects of modernization that would lead up to the New Culture Movement became apparent only from the Late Qing period in the 1890s. (
  • Official website MCLC Resource Center ISSN 1520-9857 As of this edit, this article uses content from "Modern Chinese Literature and Culture", which is licensed in a way that permits reuse under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, but not under the GFDL. (
  • drama
  • Bridie was a prolific playwright and a major figure in developing modern Scottish drama. (
  • The consolidation of modern drama was pioneered by T. P. Kailasam, a towering personality in the field, with his Tollu Gatti ("The Hollow and the Solid", 1918). (
  • novel
  • The form of writing now commonplace across the world-the novel-originated from the early modern period and grew in popularity in the next century. (
  • Before the modern novel became established as a form there first had to be a transitional stage when "novelty" began to appear in the style of the epic poem. (
  • Kempu Narayana's Mudramanjusha ("Seal Casket", 1823) can be considered the first modern novel, anterior to English influence on Kannada. (
  • examines
  • In addressing this subject, it also examines the larger questions of the relation between literature and architecture and the extent to which these two arts define one another in the social and philosophical contexts of modernity. (
  • In contrast to the earlier Indira Bai (1899), this work examines the modern education system from a Gandhian viewpoint. (
  • Scottish
  • The establishment of a printing press in 1507 made it easier to disseminate Scottish literature and was probably aimed at bolstering Scottish national identity. (
  • publishes
  • The journal publishes on literature of all genres, film and television, popular culture, performance and visual art, print and material culture, etc. (
  • Cultural Studies
  • instead, they are published on the website of the MCLC Resource Center, a website on modern China cultural studies and affiliated with the journal. (
  • period
  • In Europe, the Early Modern period lasts roughly from 1550 to 1750, spanning the Baroque period and ending with the Age of Enlightenment and the wars of the French Revolution. (
  • The Early Modern period in Persia corresponds to the rule of the Safavid dynasty. (
  • In Japan, the "Early Modern period" (Edo period) is taken to last down to 1868 (the beginning of Industrialization during the Meiji period). (
  • Plays for entertainment (as opposed to religious enlightenment) returned to Europe's stages in the early modern period. (
  • languages
  • The idea behind the issue had taken form during the 21st International FILLM Congress in Harare, Zimbabwe (1999) and, according to Wells, it was essentially a response to a more widespread crisis among larger academic organizations (in particular those concerned with languages and literature). (
  • As of 17 September 2016, four volumes have been published in FILLM Studies in Languages and Literatures. (
  • Languages and Literatures in a Globalized World. (
  • Author
  • What makes the latter writing historically important is that the epic Ramayana is looked at from a modern sensibility with the author as the narrator and his wife as the listener, the narration being interrupted at various stages with humorous exchanges between the couple, resulting from questions raised by the listener. (
  • language
  • Writers in Irish have since produced some of the most interesting literature to come out of Ireland, supplemented by work produced in the language abroad. (
  • By the end of the nineteenth century, Irish had dwindled from being the dominant language of Ireland to being the first language only of a minority, and little literature was being produced. (
  • Séamus Ó Grianna's most important contribution to modern literature in the language might be the fact that he persuaded his brother Seosamh (who called himself Seosamh Mac Grianna in Irish) to write in Irish. (
  • The impetus to modern literature came from a Western-style education and the Christian missionaries who relied on the local language to propagate the gospel. (
  • By the early modern era Gaelic had been in geographical decline for three centuries and had begun to be a second class language, confined to the Highlands and Islands. (
  • classical
  • The perceived dryness of classical literature is sometimes a major obstacle for achieving fluency in reading Latin, as it discourages students from reading large quantities of text (extensive reading). (
  • writers
  • In addition, the Sahitya Akademi Award, the second-highest award for literature granted by the Government of India, has been conferred upon Kannada writers fifty times. (
  • major
  • John Buchan played a major role in the creation of the modern thriller with The Thirty-Nine Steps and Greenmantle. (
  • Europe
  • Professor Carlo Ossola (Turin 1946) has been a professor at the Collège de France since 1999, occupying the Chair in Modern Literatures of Neo-Latin Europe created for him by the Collège de France. (