Literature: Writings having excellence of form or expression and expressing ideas of permanent or universal interest. The body of written works produced in a particular language, country, or age. (Webster, 3d ed)Review Literature as Topic: Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.Databases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Literature, ModernBibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Data Mining: Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Bibliography as Topic: Discussion of lists of works, documents or other publications, usually with some relationship between them, e.g., by a given author, on a given subject, or published in a given place, and differing from a catalog in that its contents are restricted to holdings of a single collection, library, or group of libraries. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.United StatesResearch Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Natural Language Processing: Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Government Publications as Topic: Discussion of documents issued by local, regional, or national governments or by their agencies or subdivisions.Reference Books: Books designed by the arrangement and treatment of their subject matter to be consulted for definite terms of information rather than to be read consecutively. Reference books include DICTIONARIES; ENCYCLOPEDIAS; ATLASES; etc. (From the ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Medical Subject Headings: Controlled vocabulary thesaurus produced by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. It consists of sets of terms naming descriptors in a hierarchical structure that permits searching at various levels of specificity.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Rare Diseases: A large group of diseases which are characterized by a low prevalence in the population. They frequently are associated with problems in diagnosis and treatment.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Meta-Analysis as Topic: A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Lipoma: A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Fibroma: A benign tumor of fibrous or fully developed connective tissue.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Choristoma: A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Incidental Findings: Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Hamartoma: A focal malformation resembling a neoplasm, composed of an overgrowth of mature cells and tissues that normally occur in the affected area.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Radiography, Abdominal: Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Libraries, MedicalSpinal NeoplasmsGuidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.MEDLARS: A computerized biomedical bibliographic storage and retrieval system operated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLARS stands for Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, which was first introduced in 1964 and evolved into an online system in 1971 called MEDLINE (MEDLARS Online). As other online databases were developed, MEDLARS became the name of the entire NLM information system while MEDLINE became the name of the premier database. MEDLARS was used to produce the former printed Cumulated Index Medicus, and the printed monthly Index Medicus, until that publication ceased in December 2004.Great BritainAge Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Rupture, Spontaneous: Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.EuropeNational Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.Iatrogenic Disease: Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Neurilemmoma: A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)BooksData Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Consensus: General agreement or collective opinion; the judgment arrived at by most of those concerned.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Evidence-Based Practice: A way of providing health care that is guided by a thoughtful integration of the best available scientific knowledge with clinical expertise. This approach allows the practitioner to critically assess research data, clinical guidelines, and other information resources in order to correctly identify the clinical problem, apply the most high-quality intervention, and re-evaluate the outcome for future improvement.Mandibular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Decision Trees: A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).Nursing Research: Research carried out by nurses, generally in clinical settings, in the areas of clinical practice, evaluation, nursing education, nursing administration, and methodology.Tongue DiseasesDelivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Abscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.Technology Assessment, Biomedical: Evaluation of biomedical technology in relation to cost, efficacy, utilization, etc., and its future impact on social, ethical, and legal systems.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Ileal Diseases: Pathological development in the ILEUM including the ILEOCECAL VALVE.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Hemangioma: A vascular anomaly due to proliferation of BLOOD VESSELS that forms a tumor-like mass. The common types involve CAPILLARIES and VEINS. It can occur anywhere in the body but is most frequently noticed in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE. (from Stedman, 27th ed, 2000)Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Publication Bias: The influence of study results on the chances of publication and the tendency of investigators, reviewers, and editors to submit or accept manuscripts for publication based on the direction or strength of the study findings. Publication bias has an impact on the interpretation of clinical trials and meta-analyses. Bias can be minimized by insistence by editors on high-quality research, thorough literature reviews, acknowledgement of conflicts of interest, modification of peer review practices, etc.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Maxillary Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the MAXILLA or upper jaw.Abbreviations as Topic: Shortened forms of written words or phrases used for brevity.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Quality-Adjusted Life Years: A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Documentation: Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Intestinal Obstruction: Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.Delphi Technique: An iterative questionnaire designed to measure consensus among individual responses. In the classic Delphi approach, there is no interaction between responder and interviewer.Spinal Cord Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Subject Headings: Terms or expressions which provide the major means of access by subject to the bibliographic unit.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Skin DiseasesInformation Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Spinal DiseasesDecompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and NEOPLASMS. The neoplastic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Empirical Research: The study, based on direct observation, use of statistical records, interviews, or experimental methods, of actual practices or the actual impact of practices or policies.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.BrazilLeiomyosarcoma: A sarcoma containing large spindle cells of smooth muscle. Although it rarely occurs in soft tissue, it is common in the viscera. It is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract and uterus. The median age of patients is 60 years. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1865)Expert Testimony: Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.Abnormalities, MultipleInformation Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials involving one or more test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicines, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trials are characterized as RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Genital Neoplasms, Male: Tumor or cancer of the MALE GENITALIA.Dissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.OsteomyelitisAneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Hemangiosarcoma: A rare malignant neoplasm characterized by rapidly proliferating, extensively infiltrating, anaplastic cells derived from blood vessels and lining irregular blood-filled or lumpy spaces. (Stedman, 25th ed)World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Diffusion of Innovation: The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.Nose Diseases: Disorders of the nose, general or unspecified.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.DislocationsLaparotomy: Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.Markov Chains: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.Adrenal Cortex HormonesCosts and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Benchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.

*  Re: Ancient Chinese History

Arts][Books][Cooking][Entertainment][Games][Genealogy][Gifts][Health][History][Literature][Kids][Music]. [News][Religion][ ... Arts][Books][Cooking][Entertainment][Games][Genealogy][Gifts][Health][History][Literature][Kids][Music]. [News][Religion][ ...

*  Harry Hoxsey's Cancer Cure Helped Thousands Beat the Dreaded Disease | HubPages

Books, Literature, and Writing. Business and Employment. Education and Science. Entertainment and Media. ...

*  Charles Jansen 'The Metapolitics of Harry Potter' | Counter-Currents Publishing

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*  Answers - The Most Trusted Place for Answering Life's Questions

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*  8W Literature

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*  SciFiNoir Literature

In a addition to traditional science fiction literature, members are also free to discuss horror, paranormal, sci fi erotica, ... SciFiNoir Literature is the group for you. We will help to keep you up-to-date on what's going on in this great genre, the ... SciFiNoir Literature is a community of people of color with a deep appreciation for science fiction Literature. ... Key words: Black, African, Latino, Hispanic, Asian, Indian, Native, literature, books ...

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*  New Literature

"New Literature", Computer, vol. 10, no. , pp. 108, June 1977, doi:10.1109/C-M.1977.217755 ...

*  New Literature

"New Literature", Computer, vol. 9, no. , pp. 64, October 1976, doi:10.1109/C-M.1976.218415 ...

*  '24' (2001) -...

Literature for. '24' (2001) More at IMDbPro » Essays. '24: The Ultimate Viewer's Guide'. In: 'Entertainment Weekly' (USA), ... box office/businessrelease datesfilming locationstechnical specsliterature listingsNewsDesk Promotional. taglines trailers and ...

*  'Dragnet' (2003) -...

Literature for. 'Dragnet' (2003) More at IMDbPro » Printed Media Reviews. Fretts, Bruce. ''Freaky Friday' (B+)'. In: ' ... box office/businessrelease datesfilming locationstechnical specsliterature listingsNewsDesk Promotional. taglines trailers and ...

*  Studies in literature

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literature: A body of written works. The name has traditionally been applied to those imaginative works of poetry and prose ... Arabic literature, Celtic literature, Latin literature, French literature, Japanese literature, and biblical literature). ... Literature and its audience. Folk and elite literatures. In preliterate societies oral literature was widely shared; it ... Oceanic literature; Western literature; Central Asian arts; South Asian arts; and Southeast Asian arts. Some literatures are ...

*  Literature and Persons - chinmayamn

Literature and Persons POORNACHANDRA TEJASVI. Poornachandra Tejasvi born on 8 September 1938(1938-09-08) in Kuppalli, Shimoga ... district, Karnataka was one of the brilliant writers in Kannada literature field. He has written many books which are best sold ...

*  Nomination Database - Literature

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*  Johannine Literature: Academic List

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*  Pippi Longstocking (1969) - Literature

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*  Short Circuit (1986) - Literature

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*  'The Prisoner' (1967) -...

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Harry Kane (illustrator): Harry Kane (Kirchner) (July 2, 1912 - March 1988) was a twentieth century American illustrator and artist who was born Harry Kirchner and was of Russian/Jewish descent. Primarily known for his work on the children's books, "The Three Investigators", he had a career that spanned over 50 years, doing work on paperback covers, advertising art, men's adventure magazines, movie posters and much more.Spanking Shakespeare: Spanking Shakespeare (2007) is the debut novel by Jake Wizner. It is a young adult novel that tells the story of the unfortunately named Shakespeare Shapiro and his struggles in high school, dating and friendship.British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease: The British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers six times a year in the field of Cardiovascular medicine. The journal's editors are Clifford J Bailey (Aston University), Ian Campbell (Victoria Hospital) and Christoph Schindler (Dresden University of Technology).Dense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.List of youth publications: __NOTOC__Bestbets: BestBETS (Best Evidence Topic Reports) is a system designed by emergency physicians at Manchester Royal Infirmary, UK. It was conceived as a way of allowing busy clinicians to solve real clinical problems using published evidence.Gross examinationConference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum: The Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum (formerly Cross-Language Evaluation Forum), or CLEF, is an organization promoting research in multilingual information access (currently focusing on European languages). Its specific functions are to maintain an underlying framework for testing information retrieval systems and to create repositories of data for researchers to use in developing comparable standards.Jonathan AllynJournal of Aging and Health: The Journal of Aging and Health (JAH) is a medical journal covering aging published by SAGE Publications. It covers research on gerontology, including diet/nutrition, prevention, behaviors, health service utilization, longevity, and mortality.HyperintensityInternational Committee on Aeronautical Fatigue and Structural IntegrityProcess mining: Process mining is a process management technique that allows for the analysis of business processes based on event logs. The basic idea is to extract knowledge from event logs recorded by an information system.AIP Conference Proceedings: AIP Conference Proceedings is a serial published by the American Institute of Physics since 1970. It publishes the proceedings from various conferences of physics societies.Christopher Hitchens bibliography: Christopher Hitchens (April 13, 1949 – December 15, 2011) was a prolific English-American author, political journalist and literary critic. His books, essays, and journalistic career spanned more than four decades.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingDragomir R. Radev: Dragomir R. Radev is a University of Michigan computer science professor and Columbia University computer science adjunct professor working on natural language processing and information retrieval.Internet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Funiculaire de Saint-Hilaire du TouvetList of hematologic conditions: There are many conditions of or affecting the human hematologic system — the biological system that includes plasma, platelets, leukocytes, and erythrocytes, the major components of blood and the bone marrow.Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is a statistic used in cost-effectiveness analysis to summarise the cost-effectiveness of a health care intervention. It is defined by the difference in cost between two possible interventions, divided by the difference in their effect.RDCRN Contact Registry: The Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network (RDCRN) Contact Registry is an international patient contact registry sponsored by the National Institutes of Health. This registry collects basic data (i.Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Community-based clinical trial: Community-based clinical trials are clinical trials conducted directly through doctors and clinics rather than academic research facilities. They are designed to be administered through primary care physicians, community health centers and local outpatient facilities.National Clinical Guideline CentreBrain biopsyMac OS X Server 1.0Immersive technologyMalformative syndrome: A malformative syndrome (or malformation syndrome) is a recognizable pattern of congenital anomalies that are known or thought to be causally related (VIIth International Congress on Human Genetics).Lipoma: (ILDS D17.910)PSI Protein Classifier: PSI Protein Classifier is a program generalizing the results of both successive and independent iterations of the PSI-BLAST program. PSI Protein Classifier determines belonging of the found by PSI-BLAST proteins to the known families.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Systematic Protein Investigative Research EnvironmentSemantic translation: Semantic translation is the process of using semantic information to aid in the translation of data in one representation or data model to another representation or data model. Semantic translation takes advantage of semantics that associate meaning with individual data elements in one dictionary to create an equivalent meaning in a second system.The Flash ChroniclesExtracellular: In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell". This space is usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid.Median mandibular cyst: A median mandibular cyst is a type of cyst that occurs in the midline of the mandible, thought to be created by proliferation and cystic degeneration of resting epithelial tissue that is left trapped within the substance of the bone during embryologic fusion of the two halves of the mandible, along the plane of fusion later termed the symphysis menti. A ture median mandibular cyst would therefore be classified as a non-odontogenic, fissural cyst.FibromaAndrew Dickson WhiteEctopic testisIncidentaloma: In medicine, an incidentaloma is a tumor ([found by coincidence (incidentally) without clinical symptom]s or suspicion. Like other types of [[incidental findings, it is found during the course of examination and imaging for other reasons.Non-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Inverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.Footprints (poem): "Footprints", also known as "Footprints in the Sand", is a popular allegorical text written in prose.Bile duct hamartoma: 250px|thumb|right|[[Micrograph of a bile duct hamartoma. Trichrome stain.Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Thumbprint sign: In radiology, the thumbprint sign, or thumbprinting, is a radiologic sign found on a lateral C-spine radiograph that suggests the diagnosis of epiglottitis. The sign is caused by a thickened free edge of the epiglottis, which causes it to appear more radiopaque than normal, resembling the distal thumb.Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence: MICAI (short for Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence) is the name of an annual conference covering all areas of Artificial Intelligence (AI), held in Mexico. The first MICAI conference was held in 2000.Newington Green Unitarian ChurchUniversity of Sydney Library: The University of Sydney Library is the library system of the University of Sydney. According to its publications, it is the largest academic library in the southern hemisphere (circa 2005), with a print collection of over 5.The Searchers discography: A discography of The SearchersNational Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.The Society of Elite Laparoscopic Surgeons: The Society of Elite Laparoscopic Surgeons is a non-profit organization based in Chandler, AZ, existing for the purpose of promoting access to minimally invasive surgery in the United States, and to lobby and promote the transition of the US medical system to adopt minimally invasive hysterectomy as standard of care.Society of Elite Laparoscopic Surgeons The organization is made up of member gynecologic surgeons, and holds annual meetings in various locales.Value of control: The value of control is a quantitative measure of the value of controlling the outcome of an uncertainty variable. Decision analysis provides a means for calculating the value of both perfect and imperfect control.SciDBGA²LENDalian PX protest: The Dalian PX protest (locally called the 8-14 event; ) was a peaceful public protest in People's Square, Dalian, to protest against a paraxylene (PX) chemical factory—Dalian Fujia Dahua Petrochemical (大連福佳大化石油化工)—built in Dalian city. The protest took place in August 14, 2011.Biliary injury: Biliary injury (bile duct injury) is the traumatic damage of the bile ducts. It is most commonly an iatrogenic complication of cholecystectomy — surgical removal of gall bladder, but can also be caused by other operations or by major trauma.Antoni Jan GoetzBlue Peter Book Award: The Blue Peter Book Awards are a set of literary awards for children's books conferred by the BBC television programme Blue Peter. They were inaugurated in 2000 for books published in 1999.

(1/48) Automated extraction of information on protein-protein interactions from the biological literature.

MOTIVATION: To understand biological process, we must clarify how proteins interact with each other. However, since information about protein-protein interactions still exists primarily in the scientific literature, it is not accessible in a computer-readable format. Efficient processing of large amounts of interactions therefore needs an intelligent information extraction method. Our aim is to develop an efficient method for extracting information on protein-protein interaction from scientific literature. RESULTS: We present a method for extracting information on protein-protein interactions from the scientific literature. This method, which employs only a protein name dictionary, surface clues on word patterns and simple part-of-speech rules, achieved high recall and precision rates for yeast (recall = 86.8% and precision = 94.3%) and Escherichia coli (recall = 82.5% and precision = 93.5%). The result of extraction suggests that our method should be applicable to any species for which a protein name dictionary is constructed. AVAILABILITY: The program is available on request from the authors.  (+info)

(2/48) Effects of the American College of Rheumatology systemic sclerosis trial guidelines on the nature of systemic sclerosis patients entering a clinical trial.

OBJECTIVES: To compare the systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients entered into the d-penicillamine trial with SSc patients entered into previous controlled SSc trials. It was hypothesized that the d-penicillamine trial patients, who conformed to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) guidelines for clinical trials in SSc were different from patients entered into previous trials. METHODS: Patients entering a double-blind, randomized trial of low- vs high-dose d-penicillamine were described carefully and completely. Their characteristics were then compared with previously published data on SSc and its treatment. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-four patients had early [mean duration 9.5 (s.d. 4.2) months], diffuse [skin score 21 (8)] disease. Organ involvement in the patients was as follows: pulmonary 54%, cardiac 20%, joints 38%, muscular 20%. Thirty-three per cent had mild proteinuria and 13% were hypertensive when first seen. Compared with patients in most previous studies, these SSc patients had earlier disease and uniformly had diffuse disease. They had less muscular involvement, less dyspnoea, less abnormal pulmonary function and less cardiac and less renal involvement than patients in earlier studies. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the new ACR guidelines for SSc trials may change the nature of patient populations entering future studies.  (+info)

(3/48) Evidence-based dentistry: Part V. Critical appraisal of the dental literature: papers about therapy.

Evidence-based dentistry involves defining a question focused on a patient-related problem and searching for reliable evidence to provide an answer. Once potential evidence has been found, it is necessary to determine whether the information is credible and whether it is useful in your practice by using the techniques of critical appraisal. In this paper, the fifth in a 6-part series on evidence-based dentistry, a framework is described which provides a series of questions to help the reader assess both the validity and applicability of an article related to questions of therapy or prevention.  (+info)

(4/48) Comparing like with like: some historical milestones in the evolution of methods to create unbiased comparison groups in therapeutic experiments.

Histories of clinical trials have recorded and analysed the development of quantification in therapeutic evaluation, the emergence of probabilistic thinking, the application of statistical methods and theory, and the sociology, ethics and politics of clinical trials; but it is surprising that they only rarely identify as a distinct theme the development of efforts to control biases. An exception is Kaptchuk's recent account of the history of blinding and placebos for reducing observer biases. In this complementary paper I introduce and discuss some milestones between 1662 and 1948 in the development of methods to control selection biases when assembling therapeutic comparison groups, to ensure, as far as possible, that 'like is compared with like'. In the paper I note (i) that treatment allocation based on strict alternation abolishes selection bias as effectively as treatment allocation based on strict random allocation; (ii) that use of schedules based on random numbers is more likely to prevent foreknowledge of allocation schedules, and thus the risk of introducing selection bias at the point of recruitment to trials; (iii) that a concern to conceal allocation schedules was the rationale for using schedules based on random numbers in the Medical Research Council trials of vaccination for whooping cough and streptomycin for pulmonary tuberculosis; and (iv) that the introduction of allocation concealment more than half a century ago remains the most recent substantive milestone in the history of efforts to control selection biases in therapeutic experiments.  (+info)

(5/48) Comparing syntactic complexity in medical and non-medical corpora.

With the growing use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques as solutions in Medical Informatics, the need to quickly and efficiently create the knowledge structures used by these systems has grown concurrently. Automatic discovery of a lexicon for use by an NLP system through machine learning will require information about the syntax of medical language. Understanding the syntactic differences between medical and non-medical corpora may allow more efficient acquisition of a lexicon. Three experiments designed to quantify the syntactic differences in medical and non-medical corpora were conducted. The results show that the syntax of medical language shows less variation than non-medical language and is likely simpler. The differences were great enough to question the applicability of general language tools on medical language. These differences may reduce the difficulty of some free text machine learning problems by capitalizing on the simpler nature of narrative medical syntax.  (+info)

(6/48) Handheld computing in medicine.

Handheld computers have become a valuable and popular tool in various fields of medicine. A systematic review of articles was undertaken to summarize the current literature regarding the use of handheld devices in medicine. A variety of articles were identified, and relevant information for various medical fields was summarized. The literature search covered general information about handheld devices, the use of these devices to access medical literature, electronic pharmacopoeias, patient tracking, medical education, research, business management, e-prescribing, patient confidentiality, and costs as well as specialty-specific uses for personal digital assistants (PDAs). The authors concluded that only a small number of articles provide evidence-based information about the use of PDAs in medicine. The majority of articles provide descriptive information, which is nevertheless of value. This article aims to increase the awareness among physicians about the potential roles for handheld computers in medicine and to encourage the further evaluation of their use.  (+info)

(7/48) Can Mary Shelley's Frankenstein be read as an early research ethics text?

The current popular view of the novel Frankenstein is that it describes the horrors consequent upon scientific experimentation; the pursuit of science leading inevitably to tragedy. In reality the importance of the book is far from this. Although the evil and tragedy resulting from one medical experiment are its theme, a critical and fair reading finds a more balanced view that includes science's potential to improve the human condition and reasons why such an experiment went awry. The author argues that Frankenstein is an early and balanced text on the ethics of research upon human subjects and that it provides insights that are as valid today as when the novel was written. As a narrative it provides a gripping story that merits careful analysis by those involved in medical research and its ethical review, and it is more enjoyable than many current textbooks! To support this thesis, the author will place the book in historical, scientific context, analyse it for lessons relevant to those involved in research ethics today, and then draw conclusions.  (+info)

(8/48) Textpresso: an ontology-based information retrieval and extraction system for biological literature.

We have developed Textpresso, a new text-mining system for scientific literature whose capabilities go far beyond those of a simple keyword search engine. Textpresso's two major elements are a collection of the full text of scientific articles split into individual sentences, and the implementation of categories of terms for which a database of articles and individual sentences can be searched. The categories are classes of biological concepts (e.g., gene, allele, cell or cell group, phenotype, etc.) and classes that relate two objects (e.g., association, regulation, etc.) or describe one (e.g., biological process, etc.). Together they form a catalog of types of objects and concepts called an ontology. After this ontology is populated with terms, the whole corpus of articles and abstracts is marked up to identify terms of these categories. The current ontology comprises 33 categories of terms. A search engine enables the user to search for one or a combination of these tags and/or keywords within a sentence or document, and as the ontology allows word meaning to be queried, it is possible to formulate semantic queries. Full text access increases recall of biological data types from 45% to 95%. Extraction of particular biological facts, such as gene-gene interactions, can be accelerated significantly by ontologies, with Textpresso automatically performing nearly as well as expert curators to identify sentences; in searches for two uniquely named genes and an interaction term, the ontology confers a 3-fold increase of search efficiency. Textpresso currently focuses on Caenorhabditis elegans literature, with 3,800 full text articles and 16,000 abstracts. The lexicon of the ontology contains 14,500 entries, each of which includes all versions of a specific word or phrase, and it includes all categories of the Gene Ontology database. Textpresso is a useful curation tool, as well as search engine for researchers, and can readily be extended to other organism-specific corpora of text. Textpresso can be accessed at or via WormBase at  (+info)

geographic and political boundaries

  • French literature , the body of written works in the French language produced within the geographic and political boundaries of France . (
  • Swedish literature , the body of writings produced in the Swedish language within Sweden's modern-day geographic and political boundaries. (


  • The 11th edition of Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary considers literature to be "writings having excellence of form or expression and expressing ideas of permanent or universal interest. (
  • Those writings that are primarily informative-technical, scholarly, journalistic-would be excluded from the rank of literature by most, though not all, critics. (
  • Norwegian literature , the body of writings by the Norwegian people. (
  • Writings produced in Finland in the Swedish language (Finland-Swedish literature) are discussed under Finnish literature , as are the works of Finnish exiles who lived in Sweden. (
  • Persian literature , body of writings in New Persian (also called Modern Persian), the form of the Persian language written since the 9th century with a slightly extended form of the Arabic alphabet and with many Arabic loanwords. (


  • In the first half of the 17th century, Swedish literature remained limited in scope and quantity. (


  • In its evolution Norwegian literature was closely intertwined with Icelandic literature and with Danish literature. (
  • The literatures of Sweden and Finland are closely linked. (


  • Most great dramas are considered literature (although the Chinese , possessors of one of the world's greatest dramatic traditions, consider their plays, with few exceptions, to possess no literary merit whatsoever). (


  • Arabic literature , Celtic literature , Latin literature , French literature , Japanese literature , and biblical literature ). (


  • All of the world's classic surveys of history can stand as noble examples of the art of literature, but most historical works and studies today are not written primarily with literary excellence in mind, though they may possess it, as it were, by accident. (


  • Poornachandra Tejasvi born on 8 September 1938 ( 1938-09-08 ) in Kuppalli, Shimoga district, Karnataka was one of the brilliant writers in Kannada literature field. (
  • Writers of Norwegian birth who produced works in Danish are discussed both in this article and under Danish literature . (


  • The political revolution that eventually brought Sweden to the position of a European power had no considerable effect on literature until a century later, but the Reformation wholly dominated Swedish letters in the 1500s. (


  • Some literatures are treated separately by language, by nation, or by special subject (e.g. (
  • Swedish literature proper began in the late Middle Ages when, after a long period of linguistic change, Old Swedish emerged as a separate language. (
  • This student essay consists of approximately 5 pages of analysis of Language and Literature from a Pueblo Indian Perspective. (

body of written works


  • Literature is a form of human expression. (
  • Most theories of literary criticism base themselves on an analysis of poetry , because the aesthetic problems of literature are there presented in their simplest and purest form. (
  • In medieval times, because of the far-reaching and complex system of feudal allegiances (not least the links of France and England), the networks of the monastic orders, the universality of Latin, and the similarities of the languages derived from Latin, there was a continual process of exchange, in form and content, among the literatures of western Europe. (
  • These ballads, though mostly derived from foreign sources and combining the imported ideals of courtly love with native pagan themes and historical events, form the most accessible genre of what can be called Swedish medieval literature. (


  • I don't really read Japanese literature so I have little to compare to, but those are two of my favorite works of modern fiction I've ever read. (


  • Here's a story that isn't dominating the headlines, but deserves a close look: Three African authors are nominated for a relatively new fiction literature prize, and the finalist will walk away with £15,000 and a continental book tour. (


  • Established in Copenhagen in 1772 by a group of resident Norwegians, it looked to French rather than to German and English literature for models. (


  • 2. Why a special list on speculative fiction literature for people of color? (
  • I created this list because the other list became dominated by discussions on speculative fiction TV and Film which downed out the voices of those interested in speculative fiction literature. (
  • Johannine Literature: Academic List is a Restricted Group with 322 members. (


  • SciFiNoir Literature is hosted by Tracey L. Minor and is run without charge for the benefit of fans and contributors from all backgrounds to speculative fiction. (
  • The essay was once written deliberately as a piece of literature: its subject matter was of comparatively minor importance. (



  • they contributed little to the development of literature in Iran. (


  • But not everything expressed in words-even when organized and written down-is counted as literature. (
  • Texts written in other Middle Iranian languages, such as Sogdian and Khotanese Saka, had no more than a marginal influence on the literature of the Islamic period. (


  • SciFiNoir Literature is a community of people from a variety of ethnic backgrounds who have a deep appreciation for any and all literature involving speculative fiction. (


  • To use the word writing when describing literature is itself misleading, for one may speak of "oral literature" or "the literature of preliterate peoples. (
  • However, in some collateral sources (including the Bible) there are indications that epic literature existed in the oral tradition of reciters at court. (


  • SciFiNoir Literature is a Public Group with 689 members. (
  • These guideline were created in response to feedback from SciFiNoir Literature Members. (


  • For general discussions about books please visit /r/books or /r/literature . (


  • Certain forms of writing, however, are universally regarded as belonging to literature as an art. (


  • Now, as in the past, some of the greatest essayists are critics of literature, drama , and the arts. (
  • The roots of Norwegian literature reach back more than 1,000 years into the pagan Norse past. (


  • Also important to early Iranian literature are the remnants of ancient myths preserved in the Avesta, especially in the yasht s, which are texts addressed to Iranian deities. (


  • The literature of the mid-19th century, known as Norway's "national Romanticism," continued to reflect the country's larger aspirations. (